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Georgius

(817 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Laodicea Bishop of  Laodicea (died c. AD 360). The Alexandrine presbyter G., dismissed by his local bishop Alexander in c. 320 because of his radical  Arianism, became bishop of Syrian Laodicea c. 330 following his stay in Antioch. In persistent animosity to  Athanasius, he and Basilius of Ancyra gathered the Trinitarian Church Party of the Homoeousians (slogan: ‘The father resembles the son in essence’ ὅμοιος κατ' οὐσίαν) in 358/9. Also, he played a role in drafting the 4th Sirman Creed (22 May 359)…

Political administration

(4,328 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. General The states of antiquity had no executive PA independent of government and legislature in the sense of the modern separation of powers. The triple division of constitutions, indicated in Aristot. Pol. 1297b 35-1301a 15 ( tría mória, 1297b 37), into a decision-making, legislating organ ( tò bouleuómenon), an executive element ('on the offices': tò perì tàs archás) and judicature ( tò dikázon) owes more to the schematically working mind of the author than to a political concept as such, especially since the fields defined show conside…

Memoriales

(163 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Chancellery officials in the first division of the sacra scrinia, the imperial offices, who are attested in the Roman Empire from the latter part of the 3rd cent. AD. From c. 310, these were led by the magister officiorum and later by the quaestor sacri palatii. It was generally the task of the three scrinia ( memoria, epistolarum and libellorum) to manage communication between the Empire's central administration and the provinces. The memoriales under the magister memoriae, attested in the eastern part of the Empire in particular, were, on the evidence o…

Probus

(1,292 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus Roman emperor AD 276-282 Roman emperor 276-282 AD. Born on 19 August 232 AD in Sirmium; the information about his father in SHA Probus 3,2 and in [Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 37,1 is probably fictitious. P.'s career prior to his elevation to emperor in the East in the summer of 276 (Zos. 1,64) (in SHA Probus he is confused with a dux Tenagino P.) is unknown. During his six-year reign ( cos. I-III 277-279, cos. IV 281, cos. V 282) he fought first on the Rhine against the Alamanni, then against the Franci, Burgundiones an…

Sergius

(1,659 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family. The tribus Sergia was named after it. The family is attested to have attained consulship in the 5th cent. BC (S. [I 5]) but did not achieve lasting importance in the historical period. The attempt of its best-known member, L.S. Catilina, to attain the consulship once more failed with the Catilinarian Conspiracy. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., M. The brother of L.S. Catilina (?) According to Plutarch (Sulla 32,3; Cicero 10,3), the brother of L.S. Catilina, killed by him in 81 and posthumously put on the proscriptions…

Scholae Palatinae

(258 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Mounted guard troops in the service of the Roman emperor from the time of Constantine onwards, according to the Notitia dignitatum five regiments in the West and seven in the East of the empire, each of 500 men, initially mostly of Germanic origin, which on the whole were not part of the imperial army but were subordinate to the magister officiorum and were each commanded by a tribune [2]. However, by the time of the emperor Zeno the SP were used only as parade troops in court ceremonial, and their role as a defensive guard for the emperor had in fact been …

Herodianus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡρωδιανός; Hērōdianós). [German version] [1] Aelius H. Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. AD (Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός; Aílios Hērōdianós), of Alexandria, one of the most important Greek grammarians, lived in the 2nd cent. AD; son of  Apollonius [11] Dyscolus and his worthy student and successor. For a time he lived in Rome and dedicated his main work, the Καθολικὴ προσῳδία ( Katholikḕ prosōidía) to the emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180). He is justifiably not seen as a brilliant but as a careful and precise grammarian, the great heir and systematician of the Alexandr…

Isaurian emperors

(241 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine dynasty from AD 717 to 802 (Leo III, Constantinus [7] V, Leo IV, Irene and Constantinus [8] VI). According to an unreliable source on its origin, its founder Leo III came from Isauria, but in fact, as has long been known, he came from Germanicaea in Syria. Nevertheless, the dynasty has regrettably - because there had been an Isaurian on the imperial throne in the person of emperor Zeno (474-91) - retained its traditional name. The first two representatives of the dynasty…

Macedonian dynasty

(392 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine dynasty AD 867-1056, founded by Basilius [5] I, who hailed from the province ( théma) of Macedonia, after the murder of Michael III ( Amorian dynasty). Basilius was succeeded in 886 by his second son Leo [9] VI (until 912), who was in turn first succeeded by his brother Alexander [20] (until 913), then his son Constantinus [9] VII (913-959; b. 905). Initially, various regents reigned in place of the young Constantine, then, from 920 onwards, his father-in-law Romanus I; only from Janua…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Theophano

(152 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Θεοφανώ; Theophanṓ). [German version] [1] T. Anastaso (Θ. Ἀναστάσω; T. Anastásō). Byzantine empress ( c. 941 until after 976 AD), wife of Romanus [3] II (959-963); the later emperors Basileius [6] II and Constantinus [10] VIII were their children; in 963 she became the wife of Nicephorus [3] II, and in 969 she instigated his assassination. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s. v. T., ODB 3, 2064 f. [German version] [2] Wife of Otto II, c. 1000 AD (also Theophanou, c. 960-991 AD). wife of the Western emperor Otto II from 972 onwards, niece of the Byzantine…

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Spatharios

(65 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σπαθάριος/ Spathários, ‘sword-bearer’). From the 5th to the 12th cent. AD a member of a body of chamberlains (eunuchs) at the Roman-Byzantine Imperial Court, from about the 8th cent. subordinate to a prōtospathários im Senatorenrang of senatorial rank. From the 10th cent. there is also evidence of non-eunuchs as prōtospathárioi. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s. v. Proto-S., ODB 3, 1748; s. v. S., 1935 f.

Urbicius

(110 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Οὐρβίκιος; Ourbíkios). Recorded as an Eastern Roman praepositus sacri cubiculi under Theodosius [3] II from AD 434 and again under Leo [4] I and Zeno. He did encourage the usurper Basiliscus against Zeno in 475, but in 476 contributed to his overthrow. He was close to Verina, the widow of Leo I, and in 481 probably also supported a conspiracy against Illus, who had arrested her. He is last recorded as an advocate of the election of the emperor Anastasius [1] I in 491 and as a sponsor of pious foundations in Edessa [2] and in the Holy Land in 504/5. PLRE 2, 1188-1190. Tinnefeld, Fr…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Liberius

(356 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Roman pope 352-377 Roman pope 352-366. L.'s pontificate was burdened by the difficult dispute over Arianism. Emperor Constantius II banished L. to Beroea in 355, because he would not recant in Milan his support for the condemned bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, who was hostile to Arianism, whereupon Felix had himself appointed and ordained counter-bishop ( Felix [5] II.). The anguish of exile, reflected by the four letters of the spring of 357 recorded by Hilarius of Poitiers led…

Berengarius

(87 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] B.I, born in AD 850/53, margrave of Friaul, grandson of Louis the Pious. Following Charles III's deposition in Tribur by Arnulf of Carinthia, B.I was installed as King of Italy in January of 888 in Pavia, but struggled for years with rivals (Wido and Lambert of Spoleto; Louis of Provence). In 915, he was crowned emperor by the Pope in agreement with Byzantium; in 924 he was murdered in Verona. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1933 R. Hiestand, Byzanz und das Regnum Italicum, 1964

Silentiarii

(109 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σιλεντιάριοι; silentiárioi). Guards at the Imperial Roman courts instituted by Constantine (Constantinus [1]  I) that were named after the ceremonial silence surrounding the emperor. They were subordinate to the imperial chamberlain ( praepositus sacri cubiculi). From AD 437, 30 silentiarii are documented under three decuriones at the court of Constantinople. Their rank within the court hierarchy continued to rise until the 6th cent. after which their importance decreased. The last of the silentiarii are mentioned in sources from as late as the 12th cent. Tinnef…

Superindictio

(70 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] One of several terms (others are e.g. adscriptio, extraordinaria munera) for special taxes levied by imperial decree in the Roman and Byzantine Empires to offset extraordinary expenses, e.g. in times of crisis, either from all or only from rich landowners. As unanticipated burdens, they were universally detested. Taxes Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography J. Karayannopulos, Das Finanzwesen des frühbyzantinischen Staates, 1958, 138-141  N. Oikonomides, s.v. Secondary Taxes, ODB 3, 1863f.

Zoe

(232 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Ζωή; Zōḗ). Empress regnant of Byzantium 21 March - 12 June AD 1042 (born 978), as the daughter of Constantinus [10] VIII (1025-1028) a descendant of the Macedonian dynasty, therefore she also legitimated the emperorship of her three husbands [2; 4]. She was presumably the bride from Byzantium intended for Otto III who did not arrive in Italy until shortly after his death on 24 January 1002. By having her first husband Romanos [4] III, imposed on her by her dying father in 1028, mu…

Sabbatius

(32 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σαββάτιος/ Sabbátios). Father of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, Illyrian, mentioned only in passing in Procop. Arc. 12,18 and Theophanes p. 183,9 de Boor. PLRE 2, 966. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Hypatius

(397 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Student of Libanius, consularis Palaestinae primae 360/1 AD Student of  Libanius, from whom he received letters (Lib. Ep. 137; 157; 158). In AD 360/361 he was consularis Palaestinae primae (Lib. Ep. 156; 159). PLRE 1, 447 (H.us 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius H. Brother of empress Eusebia, consul 359 AD Brother of empress  Eusebia. Together with his brother Fl. Eusebius he was consul in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,1,1). In 363 he was possibly vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 3,5,8). He was sentenced along with his brother in a trial …

Nika revolt

(264 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Revolt against Iustinianus [1] I in Constantinople, AD 13-18. 1. 532, named after the cry of níka (νίκα, ‘be victorious!’) of the rebels in the Hippodrome. The outward reason was the decisive action of the city prefect Eudaemon against rampaging members of the so-called circus parties (‘green’ and ‘blue’, factiones ), the real cause, however, was the strict rule of the emperor, particularly his fiscalism occasioned by expensive war campaigns. The growing unrest among the citizens, further stirred up by oppositi…

Autokrator

(333 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Αὐτοκράτωρ; Autokrátōr). [German version] A. Greek The meaning ‘exercising control over oneself’ expresses the opposite of subjugation to the will of another. The Thebans used this argument to claim that their support of the Persians in 480 was attributable to a ruling   dynasteia , not to the whole city, which acted as its own autocrator (Thuc. 3,62,3-4). Envoys and officials are often described as autokratores when entitled to more power than is usual in these positions. This background is evident, for example, when the Athenians declare the leaders of th…

Constans

(591 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Roman Emperor (Augustus), 337-350 AD Roman Emperor, born c. 320 AD, the youngest son of Constantine [1] and Fausta, elevated to Caesar on 25 December 333 and at about the same time betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of  Ablabius [1]. From 9 September 337 Augustus. At a meeting of the brothers in Pannonia (Julian Or. 1,19a) C. received Italy, Illyricum and Africa (Zon. 13,5). He refused to acknowledge the guardianship of his eldest brother Constantine [2] II [1]. Constan…

Court titles

(3,061 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A. Antecedents in the ancient Orient Court titles (CT) and court ranks in antiquity, used for the description and creation of personal proximity of members of courtly society to the  ruler or to the hierarchical rank classification of the upper class involved in administration, are a consequence of the emergence of territorial monarchies from the time of Alexander [4] the Great and the resulting organization of  courts as centres of political rule. The question of ancient Oriental antec…

Artabasdus

(58 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Artavasděs, AD 742-743). Armenian, brother-in-law of the emperor of Byzantium, Constantine V, who began his rule on 19 June 741. A. revolted against him some time later, supposedly as the defender of image-worship. He was defeated by Constantine in November 743 and overthrown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 1, 192 I. Rochow, Kaiser Konstantin V., 1994.

Photius

(775 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
(Φώτιος/ Phṓtios). [German version] [1] Byzantine high-ranking military officer Stepson of Belisarius, son of his wife Antonina from an earlier marriage, born around AD 520, died AD 578/585. After AD 535, he accompanied Belisarius on campaigns in Italy, and after AD 541 in Persia . In a novelistic passage from the Historia arcana (1,31-35; 2,1-17; 3,2-5; 3,12f.; 3,21-29) Procopius relates that P. was incarcerated by the empress Theodora on Antonina’s orders because P. tried to thwart her affair with Theodosius, an adoptive son of her husband. How…

Praepositus

(216 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A term used during the Roman Imperial Period and in Late Antiquity to refer to leadership functions in a variety of areas of public service [3], in the 4th-6th cents. AD in the expanded form praepositus sacri cubiculi (Greek praipósitos toû eusebestátou koitônos) to refer to the court position of imperial high chamberlain, which was reserved for eunuchs, under whom the chamberlains (see Cubicularius) served. The office of praepositus is first attested under Constantius [2] II for Eusebius [3]. As a confidant of the emperor, the praepositus often played a key role …

Ceremony

(3,932 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Winterling, Aloys (Bielefeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia In contrast with cultic  rituals, the secular ceremonies of Mesopotamia have up to now rarely been the subject of academic research. On the whole, it has to be assumed that individual and communal life in the societies of the Ancient Orient in general and that of the  ruler in particular were dominated by numerous rules, resulting in more or less standardized patterns of behaviour. The reconstruction of such non-cultic ceremonies is largely dependent on secondary refe…

Vindex

(448 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Guarantor in Roman procedural law A vindex, (probably with the same etymology as vindicta ) was a guarantor in Roman procedural law. He played a role in two parts of the trial--in the summoning and in the execution, each time in the context of the manus iniectio (the physical bringing forward of the defendant). According to the Twelve Tables (tab. 1,1; tabulae duodecim ), the latter was permitted when the defendant did not voluntarily follow the order of the plaintiff to appear in front of the court magistrate ( vocatio in ius ). The defendant co…

Sabinianus

(321 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the Carthaginians Was proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the inhabitants of Carthage, but was shortly after defeated by the governor of Mauretania and delivered to Gordianus [3] III by his own followers (Zos. 1,17,1; SHA Gord. 23,4). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 1, 197. [German version] [2] see Vettius Sabinianus See Vettius Sabinianus. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Magister equitum per Orientem, 359-360 AD At a great age m agister equitum per Orientem in AD 359-360 under Constantius [2] II. Ac…

Dux

(741 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] The term dux, which had already appeared in the Republican period with the general meaning of ‘a leader in a military action or of a troop of soldiers’ (cf. e.g. Cic. Dom. 12: seditionis duces), was in the 2nd cent. AD occasionally used in a semi-official way as the title for the commander of a military unit established for a particular purpose and not necessarily subordinate to the governor of a province. Thus Ti. Claudius Candidus was dux exercitus Illyrici in the war waged by Septimius Severus against Pescennius Niger in AD 193-195 (CIL II 4114 = ILS 1140); dux was also u…

Protobestiarios

(28 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτοβεστιάριος/ prōtobestiários, Latin protovestiarius). Overseer of the Byzantine emperor's wardrobe, 5th-15th centuries, eunuch office second to the parakoimṓmenos . ODB 3, 1749. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Euphemia

(163 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] E. Aelia Marciana Wife of the emperor Anthemius, AD 467 elevated to Augusta Only daughter of the emperor Marcianus, married Anthemius [2] in c. AD 453 who was later emperor in the west and had four sons and a daughter with him. In 467 she was elevated to Augusta. Her fate after the execution of her husband in 472 is unknown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 423f. No. 6. P. Grierson, M. Mays, Catalogue of Late Roman Coins, 1992, 260f. [German version] [2] Concubine, later wife of emperor Iustinus I Originally a slave of ‘Barbarian’ origin by the name …

Varangians

(82 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βάραγγοι/ Bárangoi). Scandinavians who from about the early 10th cent. AD arrived in Byzantium by way of the territory of the Kievan Rus (hence also often described as Ῥώς/ Rṓs or Tauroscythae), from the 11th cent. also Anglo-Saxons who served in the Byzantine army (in which they were considered particularly trustworthy), but primarily in the Imperial Guard. Their characteristic weapon was the battle-axe, which earned them the nickname 'axe-bearers' (πελεκυφόροι/ pelekyphóroi). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography S. Franklin, A. Cutler, s. v. Varangia…

Mauricius

(425 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Μαυρίκιος; Mauríkios). Flavius M. Tiberius, East Roman emperor (A.D. 582-602), born in 539 in Arabissus (Cappadocia), died on 27th Nov. 602 in Calchedon. M. replaced the caesar and later emperor Tiberius II in 574 as chief of the guard and was given the command in 577 as magister militum per Orientem to continue the Persian war. After victories near Callinicus in 580 and near Constantina in 581, he was given a triumphal reception in 582 in Constantinople. Tiberius, emperor since 578, affianced him to his daughter Constantina and…

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haer…

Katholikos

(66 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (καθολικός; katholikós). In the early 4th cent. AD the designation of a financial supervisor in an imperial diocese, later used only in the ecclesiastical sense: in the Byzantine world, used of an abbot in charge of several monasteries, in the Christian East used of bishops and above all for ecclesiastical leaders of whole countries (Armenia, Georgia). ODB 2, 1116. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Gloriosus

(52 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (and gloriosissimus). Unofficial epithet of the Roman emperor and of high officials in correspondence and in the intitulatio of laws, having the same meaning as the official inclitus, Greek éndoxos (ἔνδοξος), a result of translating the Greek word back into Latin. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography G. Rösch, Ὄνομα βασιλείας, 1978.

Staurakios

(121 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Byzantine emperor, 9th cent. Byzantine emperor (AD 811), son of Nikephoros [2] I, seriously wounded in the battle against the Bulgarian Khan Krum, in which his father fell. After a short period of recognition as successor to the throne, he was succeeded by Michael [3] I. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. A. Hollingsworth, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1945 f. [German version] [2] Eunuch, 8th cent. AD Eunuch in the rank of a πατρίκιος/ patríkios (Patrikios), from AD 781 λογοθέτης τοῦ δρόμου/ logothétēs toû drómou (Logothetes), victorious over the Slavs in Greece i…

Hetairia

(601 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(ἑταιρία/ hetairía, also ἑταιρεία/ hetaireía). [German version] [1] In Crete a sub-category of citizenry In Crete a sub-category of citizenry, with communal meals ( andreia or syssitia: Aristot. Pol. 1272a 12ff.; Ath. 4,143a-b = Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2) and a common cult of Zeus Hetaireîos (Hsch. s.v. ἑταιρεῖος/ hetaireîos), but neither an association of family members nor part of a phyle, as was the hetairia in Thera or Cyrene (ML 5, l. 16). Acceptance into the hetairia took place after those fit for military service had left the   agélai and it was a prerequisit…

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Scholasticus

(151 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(σχολαστικός/ scholastikós). [German version] [1] Advocate in Late Antiquity In Roman procedural law of Late Antiquity a scholasticus (literally: someone 'schooled') is the advocate of a party, a late successor to the causidicus , with a certain amount of knowledge of formal rhetoric and law. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das römische Zivilprozeßrecht, 21996, 563. [German version] [2] Palace official in Constantinople, from 422 (in Latin sources Scholasticus or Scholasticius), a palace official in Constantinople, first recorded i…

Indictio

(389 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Originally ‘levy, tax’ (Dig. 19,1,13,6; Cod. Just. 1,51,11 and 12,52,3), from the 4th cent. AD also a term in chronology and from the 6th cent. solely used as a term in chronology. In the Imperial period Indictiones temporariae were extraordinary duties on grain. In 287 emperor  Diocletianus introduced an annual tax census that in each case involved a five-year assessment. It was initially called ἐπιγραφή ( epigraphḗ), and after 297 also indictio (ἰνδικτίων, indiktíōn). A 15-year tax cycle was introduced in 314, retroactively effective as of September…

Longinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
Roman cognomen (greek Λογγῖνος; Longînos), derived from longus (‘tall’), in the Republican period in the family of the Cassii (Cassius [I 6-17; II 14-16]), in the Imperial period attested in numerous other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] Cassius Longinus Grammarian, Rhetor and platonic philosopher, c. AD 210-272/3 [German version] A. Life A Greek grammarian, rhetor and Platonic philosopher ( c. AD 210-272/3), who was an outstanding representative of the education and culture of his time and was therefore called a ‘living library and walking u…

Philippicus Bardanes

(113 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλιππικὸς Βαρδάνης/ Philippikòs Bardánēs). Byzantine emperor (November AD 711 -June 713). Of an Armenian family at Constantinople (hence his Armenian name Bardanes), d. at Constantinople in 714/5. While participating in an expedition against Cherson, he was proclaimed emperor there under the Greek name P.B. as a rival to Iustinianus [3] II, who, while attempting to stall him on his way to Constantinople, was killed. As an adherent to Monotheletism, P.B. revoked the rulings of the 680/1 Council of Co…

Verina

(174 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Aelia V., Greek Βηρίνη/ Bērínē). Eastern Roman empress, wife of Leo [4] I, died AD 484. After the death of her husband in 474 she initially favoured rule by the Isaurian Zeno [18], the husband of her daughter Ariadne and the father of her grandson Leo [5] II, but for a time in 475 she supported the rebellion of her brother Basiliscus against Zeno. In 478 she and Epinicus [2] tried to overthrow the powerful magister officiorum Illus; but he anticipated it and banished her to Tarsus. He was able to win her over in 484, however, to suppor…

Epinicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἐπίνικος; Epínikos). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Comic poet; two titles of his plays and two fragments are extant. The dating of his life (late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC) is based on the title of his play, Mnēsiptólemos: it refers to the court historiographer (FGrH 164) of Antiochus III (223-187 BC), a remarkably late example for the mockery of a named character (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν; onomastì kōmōideîn). Fr. 1 sees Mnesiptolemus speaking for himself, parodying the ornate, almost dithyrambic style, in which he describes the banalest of acts performed by his sovereign. Nesselrath…
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