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al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(136 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in Arabia near Bīs̲h̲a [q. v.] and the land of the Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. It is called after Ḥid̲j̲r b. al-Azd. The land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r was very fertile and rich in fields of wheat and barley and had many fruit-trees (apples, peaches, figs, plums and almonds). Among the clans of Ḥid̲j̲r Hamdānī mentions the ʿĀmir (with the subdivision ʿAbd), Aṣābig̲h̲a, Rabīʿa, S̲h̲āhr (with the divisions al-Asmar, Bal-Ḥārit̲h̲, Malik, Naṣr and Nāzila). Among places in the land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r he mentions As̲h̲d…

al-Ḏj̲awf

(239 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Ḏj̲ōf), a district in South Arabia between Nad̲j̲rān and Ḥaḍramawt. According to the information obtained by Niebuhr during his stay in Vaman, it is for the most part ¶ flat and desert; many camels and horses are reared in it and are also exported. The soil is in many places also suitable for agriculture. The inhabitants are warlike Bedouins, who wear iron helmets and cuirasses. The chief place in Ḏj̲awf is Maʾrib, which is governed by its own S̲h̲arīf, while the villages and the desert are governed by an independent S̲h̲aik̲h̲. Al-Ḏj̲awf is first mentioned by Hamdānī in his Ḏj̲azīra. He …

Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab district in the north of Nad̲j̲d towards Syria, on the Wādī Sirḥān, the largest oasis in North Arabia next to Taimā. The most important town in Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān was Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal (the Δουμαίθα of Ptolemy) with the fortress of Mārid. This place which is said to be called after a son of Ishmael is known to us from the history of Muḥammad. When the Prophet was advancing against Tabūk in the year 9 = 630, he sent his general Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, which was then under the rule of the Christian princ…

Ḳalhāt

(294 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(in Marco Polo Calatu, in Portuguese writers Calaiate), a once flourishing seaport in ʿOmān lying northwest of Rās al-Ḥadd. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, who visited the town during his travels in ʿOmān, specially mentions the fine streets and splendid lofty mosque, which afforded a wide view of the sea and the harbour and was built by the pious Bītī (of noble family) Maryam. The inhabitants of the town, who lived by trading in Indian products, and spoke a bad Arabic, were members of the Ibāḍīya sect (see ibāḍīya), but concealed their creed from their rulers, the kings of Hormuz [q. v.] (cf. als…

Farasān

(181 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Farsān), a group of islands in the S. W. of Cape Ḏj̲izān, opposite the harbour of Abū ʿArīs̲h̲ in Tihāma. The largest of these islands are Farasān Kabīr with the harbour of Ḵh̲ōr Farasān and Farasān Ṣag̲h̲īr. Muharrak and Seyed are other places worthy of mention besides Ḵh̲ōr. The inhabitants fish for pearls and catch turtles, which brings them great wealth. Ehrenberg, who discovered the islands, saw many date-groves and fields growing durra and melons, Arab antelopes, numerous gazelles and goats there. Hamdānī was acquainted with these islands. Their inhabitants, who take t…

Ḥod̲j̲aila

(178 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a village in South Arabia, at the foot of Ḥarāz [q. v.] about 1900 feet above the sea level, a border village of the Tihāma. It belongs to the ḳaḍā of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and to the mudīrlik of Mitwaḥ on Ḏj̲ebel Saʿfān (Ḥarāz). It has a market and Turkish barracks. The low cottages ( arwās̲h̲) of the village are built of large unhewn stones without mortar. The people of Ḥod̲j̲aila are of a chestnut brown colour and resemble gipsies; they belong some to the tribe of Ḵh̲awlī, others to the Ziyādinī. Around the village many partridges are found whence its name. Moreover a kind of wild duck called k̲h̲ulal

Ḥanīfa

(898 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Lud̲j̲aim, an important branch of the great North Arabian tribe of Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.], consanguineous to the ʿId̲j̲l. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they were in part heathen, in part Christian. The pagans honoured an idol īn the form of a cake of butter and honey, which they used themselves to consume in time of famine. They led a settled life in Yamāma, where they built the fortified town of Ḥad̲j̲r, which later became the capital. The Wādi ’l-ʿIrḍ and among others the following places belonged to them: al-ʿAwḳa (inhabited by the clan ʿAdī), Fais̲h̲ān …

Hud̲h̲ail

(916 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large Arab tribe, belonging to the North Arabian group. Their genealogy is Hud̲h̲ail b. Mudrika b. al-Yās b. Muḍar. They were a brother tribe of the Ḵh̲uzaina. They inhabited the mountains of Sarāt Hud̲h̲ail, which bear their name, between Mecca and Medīna and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.] and Kināna [q. v.]. In the time of Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Suwāʿ (destroyed by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ in 8 = 630) at Ruhāṭ and, like the Ḳurais̲h̲, Ḵh̲uzāʿa, and other tribes, also Manāt (destr…

G̲h̲alāfiḳa

(167 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ghalefka, Alafaka, the Ditio Sabaeorum of Pliny), at one time a nourishing seaport in Yemen, near Bait al-Faḳīh [q. v., i. 597b et seq.]. It was an important emporium and was known as the harbour of Zebīd. About a century before Niebuhr’s journey in Yemen the harbour of G̲h̲alāfiḳa became inaccessible through coral reefs, whereupon the rich traders of this coast-town moved to Bait al-Faḳīh, which rapidly became a flourishing commercial town. During his stay in Yemen, Niebuhr saw only a few walls, a mosque and several tombstones remaining of this once prosperous town. (J. Schleifer) Biblio…

al-Ḥabaṭ

(165 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name in South Arabia for a sacred area, which is under the protection of a saint, who is usually buried there, and is a place of refuge. No one who seeks asylum on this holy ground may be slain or attacked there. The verb ḥabaṭa in South Arabia means “to hold back” “to restrain”. The most important ḥabaṭ in South Arabia is that of Ḏj̲ebel Kadūr, which lies to the south of the village of Liḥya (Laḥya) on the Wādī Ḥabbān in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. Four saints ( mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the tribe of Bā Marḥūl, to whom Liḥya belongs, are buried there. This habaṭ therefore is also known as Ḥabaṭ al-Ar…

Ḥabbān

(299 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Abban), a town in South Arabia, the capital of the territory of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.], situated in the wādī of the same name. According to Miles it has about 4000 inhabitants, but this figure seems to be too high. The Sulṭān of the Wāḥidī dwells here in the Castle of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir, which is built on a small isolated hill in the midst of the city and surrounded by a wall. The town itself has no walls and only two watchtowers at each end of it. The houses are strongly built like little fortres…

Ḥaima al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īya

(327 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(“Outer-Ḥaima”, in Niebuhr Heime al-Asfal “Lower-Ḥaima”), also called Ḥud̲j̲ra, a district in South Arabia, between Ḥarāz [q. v.] and Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is an izzle (small district) of the ḳaḍā (large district) of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and stretches from Bawʿān (probably Yoān in Niebuhr, 8570 feet above sealevel, with a market) to Bait al-Mahdī. The capital is Mefḥaḳ (Möfḥaḳ in Niebuhr with ḥiṣn). North of Mefḥaḳ at Ḏj̲ebel Manār (8700 feet above sealevel) lies Sūḳ al-Ḵh̲amīs, a spur of the Ḳara al-Waʾl (“deer-antle…

Balī

(761 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Yaman group. Its genealogy is: Balī b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥāfī b. Ḳuḍāʿa. The Bahrā and Ḥaidān are given as consanguineous tribes and the Hanī and Farān as subordinate. Their dwellings were on the Syrian frontier near Taimā between the lands of the Ḏj̲uhaina and the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām. In the time of Ptolemy the T̲h̲amūd (Θαμυδίται) inhabited their land. Of districts belonging to the Balī there are mentioned: al-Ḏj̲azl, al-Ruḥba, al-Suḳyā, Had̲j̲as̲h̲ān(?) Maʿdin Farān (called after the subordinate tribe of Farān) at the mines of the Sulaim…

Hilāl

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Its genealogy is Hilāl b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin…. b. Ḳais ʿAilān. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped at Tabāla the idol Ḵh̲alaṣa, called the Kaʿba of the Yemen, which was also worshipped by the Bad̲j̲īla, Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb and Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. They lived in Nad̲j̲d (on the Yemen border) and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.]. The following places belonged to them, al-ʿAblāʾ, Buraik (with the Ḥarra of the Banū Hilāl), Dūmī, al-Futuḳ, al-Ḳuraiḥā (the two latter were already ruined by Hamdānī’…

Ḥāmī

(183 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a coast-town in Ḥaḍramūt, about 18 miles N. E. of S̲h̲iḥr [q. v.], near Raʾs S̲h̲arma in a very picturesque and fertile district. Like Makalla and S̲h̲iḥr it belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.] and has, as the name shows, thermal wells of the temperature of boiling water. The houses of the little town are low and built of mud; in the centre of the town and on the shore there are two important ḥiṣn. The inhabitants are mainly fishermen; and their number was estimated by Capt. Haines at 500 in 1839. Behind the town lie thick palmgroves and fields with luxurious crops of Indian corn. (J. Schleife…

Bakr

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Wāʾil, a great Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy (omitting one or two unimportant links) is: Bakr b. Wāʾil b. Ḳāsiṭ b. Hinb b. Asad ¶ b. Rabīʿa b. Nizār b. Maʿadd. Allied tribes were amongst others the Tag̲h̲lib and Anz, subordinate tribes the Jas̲h̲kur, Badam, al-Ḥārit̲h̲, Ḏj̲us̲h̲m and ʿAlī. Other important subordinate tribes were the Ḏh̲uhl, ʿId̲j̲l, Ḥanīfa, Ḳais and S̲h̲aibān. They lived in the Tihāma of Yaman, the Yamāma and Baḥrain as far as the borders of Mesopotamia. We find them here in the time of the Caliphs Ab…

al-Ḥodaida

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hodáde, Hadída), a seaport in Arabia, on the Red Sea about no miles N.N.W. of Mok̲h̲a [q. v.], the most important port for the coffee trade in Yemen and a landingplace for pilgrims to Mecca from Central Africa. It is under the protection of a patron saint, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadīḳ, whose festival is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the month S̲h̲aʿbān. In the time of Niebuhr and Seetzen, al-Ḥodaida belonged to the Imām of Ṣanʿāʾ. In 183 7 Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a was commander in the town. Since 1899, al-Ḥod…

al-Darʿīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Dreyeh, Deraya, Daraaije, or Drahia) a town in the district of al-ʿĀriḍ in the Nad̲j̲d country in Arabia, on the ¶ caravan route from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. It was handsomely built of stone and lay at the foot of high hills in a narrow valley, and a little wādī (W. Ḥanīfa)…

Ḥāyil

(817 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Hāyel, Haīl, Hāeyl), the capital of the land of Ḏj̲ebel-S̲h̲ammar [q. v.] in western Ned̲j̲d in the centre of a long plain called Sāhila al-Ḵh̲ammashīya, which lies between the parallel ranges of Ad̲j̲aʾ (M’nīf) and Salmā (Fittī) about 5000 feet about the level of the sea. The town, which is one of the main stations on the route for Persian pilgrims to Mecca, is surrounded by walls about 20 feet high and round and square towers. It is divided into eleven quarters and has a large mosque, a fort…

Ḥais

(477 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Häs, Hēs),a town in South Arabia, at the foot of the Ḏj̲ebel Raʾs at the entrance to a val…

Hawāzin

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large North Arabian tribe. Their genealogy is Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b, ʿIkrima b. Ḵh̲aṣafa b. Ḳais Ailān b. Muḍar. Among the important clans of the Hawāzin may be mentioned the T̲h̲aḳīf in Ṭāʾif northeast of Mecca where there is still a powerful tribe of them, the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [q. v.], the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am, the Saʿd b. Bakr ¶ (Ḥalīma b. Abī Ḏh̲uwaib, the nurse of the Prophet, was descended from them) and Hilāl. They were of the same stock as the Sulaim. During the Ḏj̲āhiliya they worshipped the idol Ḏj̲ihār in ʿUkāẓ, the large and much frequented market of the T̲h̲aḳīf between Ṭāʾif and Nak̲h̲la, where the poets used to recite their poems on the public market-place. They were scattered through Ned̲j̲d (on the Yemen border) and the Eastern Ḥid̲j̲āz near Mecca. Among places which belonged to them may be mentioned: Amlaḥ, ʿAds al-Maṭāḥil, al-Dardā, al-Ḍabʿān, F…

Ḥawra

(198 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥōra), a town in Ḥaḍramūt, N. E. of Has̲h̲arēn [q. v.] on the Ḏj̲ebel of the same name. The little Wādī Ḥōra flows past it, running for the earlier part of its course parallel to the large Wādī ʿAin (see ḥaḍramawt, p. 208a) and then joining it. At the upper end of the town there is a large

Ḥaḍūr

(704 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥadūr Nabī [Nebbi] S̲h̲uʿaib), a mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the Sarāt group of Alhān, to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near the Ḥarāz range [q. v.], from which it was separated in Hamdānī’s time by the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ (now Ḥaima [q. v.]) inhabited by the Ṣulaiḥ (a branch of the Ḥamdān). The name Ḥaḍūr is derived from Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the prophet S̲h̲uʿaib b. Mahdam, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra vii. 83 et seq. and xi. 85 et seo.) who was sent to preach and to warn his people on Mount Ḥaḍūr and was thereupon slain by them. The…

Hamdān

(758 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( of the South Arabian inscriptions), a large Arab tribe, belonging to the Yemen group. Their genealogy is Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-Ḵh̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Kahlān. Their land, the Balad Hamdān, a centre of civilization in ancient Arabia, was five days’ journey in length and breadth and lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] it stretched eastwards as far as Maʾrib [q. v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [q. v.] almost up to the desert and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). It was divid…

Ḍibāb

(274 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddite group. They were the descendants of Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb, who was called al-Ḍibāb because of three of his sons (Ḍibāb, Ḍabb und Muḍibb). Their genealogy is: Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAmr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Ilawāzin. They dwelled in the district of Ḥima Ḍarīya in the Nad̲j̲d territory.…

G̲h̲anī

(337 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Aʿṣur, a tribe in North Arabia, a branch of the Ḳais b. ʿAilān and related to the G̲h̲kṭafān [q. v., p. 144b et seq.]. They lived around Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Nad̲j̲d and were neighbours of the Ṭaiy with whom they were constantly at feud. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idols al-Lāt, Manāt and al-ʿUzzā, all of whom are mentioned in the Ḳorʾān (Sūra liii. 19, 20). The great pre-Islāmic poet Ṭufail b. ʿAwf, called Ṭufail al-Ḵh̲ail (on account of his skill in depicting the horse) belonged to the G̲h̲anī. Among the settlements of the G̲h̲anī were: Ayhab, Awʿāl, Ad̲h̲ruʿāt, Baṭn…

al-Ḥawṭa

(120 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name given in South Arabia to a district which is considered holy and regarded as a place of refuge. The substantive al-ḥawṭa denotes a place surrounded by a wall, then a place under the protection of a saint,’ who is buried there. The most important Ḥawṭa in South Arabia is that at ʿĪnāt (ʿAināt [q. v.] in Ḥaḍramūt, where the famous S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Munṣab Bū Bakr b. Sālim is buried. The second in importance is the Ḥawṭa in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥawṭa is also borne by the capital of the land of the ʿAbādil, Laḥd̲j̲ (Laḥed̲j̲) [q. v.], because several saints are buried there. Cf. La…

Hid̲j̲ra

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name of a village (indeed of several) in South Arabia which is exclusively inhabited by Sāda or As̲h̲rāf (“lords”, “notables”, descendants of the Prophet) and is considered sacrosanct. These villages (e. g. Ḥaifa in Arḥab [cf. ḥās̲h̲id and bakīl] …

Ḏj̲aʿda

(351 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin. The Ḳus̲h̲air and ʿUḳail were closely related tribes. The poet Nābig̲h̲a (al-Ḏj̲aʿdī) traces his descent from the Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb. They inhabited the district of Falad̲j̲ in the territory of Yamāma. Of places, which belonged to them, there are mentioned, amongst others: Ukma (a large fortified town on the Wādī of the same name, with a much frequented market, many wells, bazaars and …

Ḥūla

(75 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Arabia, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) in Nad̲j̲d, north of Ḥuraimila [q. v.]. The inhabitants are partly tradesmen and partly agriculturists. Its trade and prosperity has markedly increased under Wahhābī rule. During Palgrave’s stay in Nad̲j̲d, Ḥūla was one of the most flourishing places in Sedeyr. The town is surrounded by walls. (J. Schleifer) Bibliography Palgrave, A Narrative of a Year’s Journey in Arabia (London 1865), i. 338 sq

ʿĪnāt

(234 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Ḥaḍramūt, south east of Tarīm, on the wādī of the same name. The family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, the only Saiyid family in Ḥaḍramūt to bear arms, lives here. It has two munṣib’s of whom one is chief of the Banū Thanna [see ḥaḍramawt]. In the eighties of last century there lived in ʿĪnāt the greatest saint of Ḥaḍramūt, Saiyid Muhsin b. Sālim, of the family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, to whom people made pilgrimages from the whole country and from more distant lands, such as the Indian Archipelago, on account of the miracles performed b…

al-Ḥāḍina

(144 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a small independent territory in South Arabia, north of the Wāḥidī. It is one of the most interesting and most fertile territories in South Arabia. The products of the soil, which is artificially irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān are hawīr (indigo), d̲h̲ura (a kind of maize) and duk̲h̲n (millet). Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe al-Ḵh̲alīfa, which claims descent from the Hilāl [q. v.]. On the migration of the Hilāl they remained in South Arabia, whence ¶ their name Ḵh̲alīfa. They number about 1000 fighting men and are ruled by an ʿAḳīl whose residence is in th…

Dat̲h̲īna

(441 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, lying to the west of the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v., p. 514] in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr. It is a fairly mountainous country with a dry climate, as a rule. The soil is fertile only in the N. E. where it produces tobacco, wheat and maize. The main wādīs are: the very fertile Wādī Marrān (Mirān) and the Wādī al-Ḍura. Dat̲h̲īna is inhabited by two large tribes, the main branch, the Ahl um-Saʿīdī (Ahl al-Saʿīdī) and the ʿÖlah (al-ʿUlah, ʿUlah al-Kawr and ʿUlah al-Baḥr). The chief town is Blad Ahl um-Saʿīdī with several hundred inha…

G̲h̲ifār

(218 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: G̲h̲ifār b. Mulaik b. Ḍamra b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna; they were closely allied to the Hud̲h̲ail. They lived in the Hid̲j̲āz. The following places belonged to them: Aḍāʾa (near Mecca), Baʿāl (near ʿUsfān, also given as a hill), S̲h̲adak̲h̲ (in common with the Uslum), G̲h̲aiḳa, Waddān (both the latter between Mecca and Medīna), al-Tanādib and the hill of Mu…

ʿAwd̲h̲illa

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sing. ʿAwd̲h̲alī, pl. ʿAwād̲h̲ila, in Hamdānī, Banū Awd; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geogr. Arabiens, p. 206, 269, identical with the Оὐδηνοι of Ptolemy and t…

G̲h̲assān

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(G̲h̲assānids), an Arab dynasty in Syria, of Yamanī origin. They were monophysite Christians and were under the suzerainty of the Byzantine Emperors, whose frontiers they had to defend against the Fersians and their vassals, the Lak̲h̲mids of Ḥīra. Their rule extended approximately over the province of Arabia (roughly the Ḥawrān district and Balḳāʾ), Phoenicia ad Libanum, Palestina Prima and Secunda. In contrast co their relatives and natural enemies, the Lak̲h̲mids, to whom they were far superi…

Faḍlī

(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west there is the large valley of Abyan, with the Wādīs Bona (Bana, Bena) and Ḥasan, both of fair size, which are filled with water during the summer rains. The Ḏj̲ebel Nak̲h̲aʿi with the W. Salaʿ may be mentioned among the hills in the east. The soil is fertile only, in the west (district of Abyan); its chief product here is cotton. The east is mainly steppe-country. The capital of the country and residence of the Sulṭān is the town of Serīya, five miles from the coast, w…

Ḥalī

(273 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haly, Hhaly), a town in Arabia, lying to the south of Ḳonfude on the border between the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen on the Wādī ʿAs̲h̲r, with the small harbour of Marsā Ḥalī and the mountain spur of Raʾs Ḥalī (the latter according to Niebuhr in N. Lat. 18° 36′). Ibn Baṭūṭa, who visited the town on his journey to Yemen in 1331 …

Ḥarb

(454 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medīna. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālem and B. Moṣrūḥ. To the B. Salem belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Welad Selīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzaina, al-Hwāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Moṣrūḥ, amongst others; Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba (all robbers of pilgrims), Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū Ḥasseyn (all As̲h̲rāf), and Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages …

Ḥarīb

(787 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, about two days’ journey east of Maʾrib [q. v.] probably identical with the Caripeta of Pliny, the place from which the Roman general Aelius Gallus on his expedition to Arabia Felix began his retreat to the coast. Ḥarīb, a centre of ancient Arab civilisation, is traversed by a large wādī, the Wādī ʿAin, which receives on its left bank two small wādīs, the Wādī Mukbal and Wādī Ablaḥ. Two hours’ journey before reaching Wādī ʿAin rises Mount Mablaḳa, to which a series o…

al-Ḥarīḳ

(251 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Haryk), a province in Ned̲j̲d in the South of Yamāma lying on the edge of the great desert (Dahnā). The mountain range of this very warm district is said by Palgrave to be about 60—70 miles long. Ḥūta is the most important place in the country. During the Wahhābī wars after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] Ḥarīḳ was subdued by Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. After the Wahhābīs had regained Ned̲j̲d and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, a rebellion broke out against the chief ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿūd in Ḥarīḳ as in the adjoining Yamā…

Ḥāsik

(486 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), a town in the Mahra country [q. v.], east of Mirbāṭ [q. v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ’Ασίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei. Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (Ḏj̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Ra’s Ḥāsik), also called Kurya and Murya Bay after the two islands lying opposite (Ḵh̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here …

Ḥufās̲h̲

(216 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, dn the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [q. v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī in his ¶ Ḏj̲azīra, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyar Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rais̲h̲ān. Not far from the latter, (which in Hamdānī’s time was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque [called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir] on its summit, S̲h̲āhir), there lies a treasure, according to…

al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(642 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲er, Hadscher, Hödscher, al-Hhegr in Ritter) a town in Arabia, a day’s journey from Wādi ’l-Ḳura [q. v.] south of Taima [q. v.] identical with the ancient commercial town of ῞Εγρα in Ptolemy and Egra in Pliny. The town no longer exists. At present the name al-Ḥid̲j̲r is given by the Bedouins to the flat valley between Mabrak al-Nāḳa (Mazḥam) and Bīr al-G̲h̲anam which stretches for several miles and has a fertile soil with many wells at which numerous Bedouins encamp with their herds. Two road…

al-Ḥawṭa

(267 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hōta), a town in South Arabia in the land of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.] on the Wādī ʿAmaḳīn. It has over 1000 inhabitants who belong for the most part to the Mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the family of Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, who is said to be descended from ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī (flourished in the vith century), about 100 fortresslike houses and in addition to a large mosque has seven smaller ones, a large market with shops, many looms and a considerable cotton industry. Al-Ḥāwṭā is a free, independent town and pays no taxes. Next to ʿĪnāt [q. v.] it is the most ¶ important place of refuge in South Arabia. T…

Ḏh̲amār

(420 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(d̲h̲imār, damar, the of the ¶ Sabaean inscriptions), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf) and town in South Arabia, to the south of Ṣanʿā. The district of Ḏh̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertitily it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of Ḏh̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of Ḏh̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and Ḏh̲amūrān (the women of these two pl…

Barahūt

(521 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Balahūt, also written Burhūt), a Wādī in Ḥaḍramawt, on the verge of which, at the foot of a volcanic mountain, is the famous Biʾr Barahūt, the spring of Barahūt. According to the native accounts this is a fissure 33 feet long by 25 broad, at its entrance filled with burning sulphur. The stink of the sulphur and the bubbling of the spring (the noise of the volcano?) have given rise to the story that the souls of unbelievers predestined to hell are waiting here and cry out in the night time: “O Duma! O Duma!” in tones of woe. There used to be a proverb, as Hamdānī tells us in his Ḏj̲azīra among proverbial…

Ḥārit̲h̲

(834 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, usually called Balḥārit̲h̲, an arab tribe belonging to the Yemenī group. Their genealogy is: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). They lived in the district of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and were neighbours of the Hamdān. The following places amongst others belonged to them: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿAd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲ahāb, Dsu ’l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ [pl. Afrāt, between Nad̲j̲rān and the Ḏj̲awf], Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā), ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (between Ḥid̲j̲āz and Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥbal, Ṣamʿar, Sūḥān or Sawḥā…
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