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Skikda

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Philippeville (Skikda) Norman A. Stillman

Rio di Janeiro

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Brazil Norman A. Stillman

Ezekiel's Tomb (al-Kifl)

(707 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The traditional tomb of the biblical prophet Ezekiel is situated in the village of al-Kifl (coll. Ir. Ar. al-Chifl) on the Euphrates River, 32 kilometers (20 miles) south of the town of Hilla in central Iraq. The name of the town is from Ezekiel’s epithet of Dhū ʾl-Kifl (the Guarantor) in Islamic lore (Ezekiel, Ar. Ḥizqīl, is not mentioned in the Qurʾān). The first known mention of the tomb is in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon ( Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaʾon) in the tenth century. Benjamin of Tudela visited the shrine around 1170 (Adler ed., pp. 67-68). His account notes that “people come f rom a distanc…

Daniel, Jean

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Bitola

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Monastir (Bitola, Manastir) Norman A. Stillman

Cizye (Poll Tax)

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Taxation Norman A. Stillman

Hekim Yakub

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Jacopo of Gaeta (Hekim Yakub) Norman A. Stillman

Ragusa

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dubrovnik (Ragusa) Norman A. Stillman

Arabia

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see ; Aden; Bahrain (Bahrayn); Hadramawt;Hijaz; Yemen Norman A. Stillman

Money Changing

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking Norman A. Stillman

Sephardi Impact on Islamicate Jewry

(2,362 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
1.    Demographic Impact The arrival of Sephardim in the Islamic world following the expulsion from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1497 marked a veritable watershed in the history of the Jews of the Muslim world. Many of the exiles sought a refuge in the Islamic kingdoms of the Maghreb, in Mamluk Egypt and the Levant, and in the expanding Ottoman Empire, which within a generation would take over all of the Middle East and North Africa from Persia to Morocco. The Iberian refugees infused new vitality—de…

Lévy, Sam

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Halevy, Samuel Saadi Norman A. Stillman

Contributor Biographies. Contributors

(25,035 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Abdar, Carmella PhD Among her main areas of expertise are folk art and material culture of Yemenite Jews, mainly rural communities. She has published several articles: “The dress code as an expression of ethno-religious status of the Jews”; “The Habbanic bride’s dress in 1950s in Israel—a bridge between past and present”; “The Yemenite jewelry and the myth of antiquity” She wrote the book Weaving a Story [Hebrew, 1999] about a village in Yemen and edited the book Maʾase Rokem: Dress and Jewelry in…
Date: 2015-09-03

Mahdiyya, al-

(520 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Al-Mahdiyya is a coastal city in present-day Tunisia, 200 kilometers (124 miles) south of Tunis, founded by the first Fatimid caliph, ʿUbayd Allāh al-Mahdī (r. 909–934), to be his capital in place of Qayrawan. The establishment of a capital on the coast represented a singular break with Islamic tradition, which since the time of the conquests in the seventh century was to build new urban administrative centers inland away from the Byzantine Sea (as the Mediterranean was called). Al-Mahdiyya did not replace Qayrawan …

Cairo Riots (1945, 1948)

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Egyptian Riots (1945, 1947) Norman A. Stillman

Heqdesh (Qodesh, Waqf, Ḥabs)

(990 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Charity and social welfare have since ancient times been an integral part of the Jewish communal ethos. Already in biblical times, funds and property could be consecrated to the needs of the Temple (Bet ha-Miqdash) in Jerusalem (e.g., see II Kings 12:5–17; Mishna Temura 7:2, Sheqalim 4:7). The term for dedicated property was heqdesh (consecrated). The Talmud forbade the dedication of heqdesh property in the biblical sense following the destruction of the Temple, since the misappropriation of such property would have constituted sacrilege (Heb. meʿila). But in the Middle Ages bo…

Muslim writers on Judaism

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Polemics (general) Norman A. Stillman

Aït Bougmez

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Rāghib

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Elisha ben Samuel (Rāghib) Norman A. Stillman

Hadramawt

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Habban Norman A. Stillman

Qalʿat Banī Ḥammād

(515 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Qalʿat Banī Ḥammād (also known as Qalʿat Ḥammād and Qalʿat Abī Ṭawīl) was the capital of the Hammadid dynasty in the Central Maghreb (today Algeria) during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The fortified town, which today lies in ruins, sits in the Maadid Mountains and dominates the Hodna Plain 500 meters (1,640 feet) below. The site was chosen by Ḥammād ibn Buluggīn in 1008 as his stronghold when he broke from the authority of his nephew, the Zirid ruler in Qayrawan, Bādīs ibn al-Manṣūr (r. 996–1016). At first, the population of the town was mainly made up of Ḥammād’s fel…

Karasu

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Carasso Norman A. Stillman

Yunus Nadi

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nadi, Yunus Norman A. Stillman

Forced Conversion

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Conversion Norman A. Stillman

Beni Hayoun

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dra’a Norman A. Stillman Bibliography : S

Wargla

(461 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Wargla (Warglān; Fr. Ouargla) is an oasis town in the Algerian Sahara located 659 kilometers (410 miles) southeast of Algiers. It was once an important way-station on the caravan route to Timbuktu and West Africa. Nothing is known about the town before the Islamic period. The Muslims of medieval Wargla were adherents of the Kharijite Ibāḍī sect, which was generally tolerant of Jews. The Jewish community in Wargla during the Middle Ages was apparently a Karaite center and is noted as such by Abraham ibn Ezraand Abraham Ibn Da’ud. In his commentary on Exodus 12:11, Ibn Ezra ment…

Muḥammad Riḍā('ῑ) “Jadῑd al-Islam”

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iqāmat al-Shuhūd fῑ Radd al-Yahūd Norman A. Stillman

Manchester

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Great Britain Norman A. Stillman

Ibn ʿAṭṭār, Ḥayyim

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben ʿAṭṭār, Ḥayyim Norman A. Stillman

Alroy, David

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Rūjī, Solomon and Menahem, al Norman A. Stillman

Ghardaia

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Mzab Norman A. Stillman Bibliography 750

Kāhina, al-

(415 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Al-Kāhina (Ar. the sorceress) was the name given by the Arabs to the leader of the Berber Jerāwa tribe in the Aurès Mountains region of the Central Maghreb (present-day Algeria). The name reflected the fact that she was an ecstatic who prophesied and performed divinations. Al-Kāhina led the resistance against the Muslim Arab invaders after the fall of Byzantine  Carthage in 692/93 to Ḥassān ibn al-Nuʿmān. She inflicted a major defeat on him and drove his forces out of Ifrīqiya (modern Tunisia) almost to Tripoli. For several years, she held sway over a lar…

Chief Rabbi

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Anti-Judaism and Judaism in medieval Islam

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Polemics (general) Norman A. Stillman

Hilperine, Wolf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Em ha-Banim Norman A. Stillman

Barukh, Marco

(399 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Marco (Joseph Marcou) Barukh, an early apostle of pre-Herzlian Zionism in the Muslim world, was born in Constantinople in 1872. He studied at several European universities and because of his involvement in radical student groups was under police surveillance for much of his brief adult life. His involvement with Jewish nationalism began in 1893 when he joined the  Kadimah student association in Vienna. The following year he was in Algeria, where he tried to propagate the Jewish national idea among the rapidly assimilating Algerian Jews. He published a short-lived journal,   Le Juge, bu…

Ḥoter b. Solomon

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dhamārī, Manṣūr Sulaymān (Ḥoter ben Solomon) Norman A. Stillman

Ghriba Synagogues

(550 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Ghrība (Coll. Ar. wondrous, unique) is the name given to seven supposedly ancient synagogues in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria which are considered to be holy places and have become pilgrimage sites. The most famous of the Ghrība synagogues is the one in the village of Dighet near Hara Seghira on the island of Jerba. The others are located in Yefren and Mʿanin (actually between Mʿanin and al-Qsir) in the Jebel Nafusa region of Libya, in Le Kef in southern Tunisia and Ariana on the northeastern coast, and in Bône (Būna) and Biskra in Algeria. Many of the Ghrība shrines are in places that …

Prostitution

(1,773 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Although prostitution has existed in every age, prostitution was apparently a rare phenomenon among the Jews of the Islamic world prior to modern times except in periods of great socioeconomic decline and the breakdown of communal discipline. 1. The Middle Ages References to prostitution are extremely rare in the Cairo Geniza documents and in most medieval sources, and in many cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the reference is to professional prostitution or to licentious behavior, since Heb. zenut/Ar. z inā' refer to illicit sex in general. In more than one inst…

Barqa

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Benghazi Norman A. Stillman

Editorial Board

(1,617 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Stillman, Norman A. is the Schusterman/Josey Professor of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma, and is an internationally recognized authority on the history and culture of the Islamic world and on Sephardi and Oriental Jewry. Professor Stillman received his BA (magna cum laude) and PhD in Oriental Studies from the University of Pennsylvania and was a post-doctoral fellow at the Jewish Theological Seminary. He is the author of seven books and numerous articles in several languages. His next…

Nāʾib

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nagid Norman A. Stillman

Ladino

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Judeo-Spanish Literature Norman A. Stillman

Ratti-Menton, Benoît Ulysse-Laurent-François, Count de

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Damascus Affair (1840) Norman A. Stillman

Mustaʿrab

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Toshavim Norman A. Stillman

Majlis

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Polemics (general) Norman A. Stillman

London

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Great Britain Norman A. Stillman

Reinette l’Oranaise

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Daoud, Reinette Sultana Norman A. Stillman

Judeo-Tat

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Juhūrī (Judeo-Tat or Judeo-Tātī) Norman A. Stillman

Judeo-Arabic - History and Linguistic Description

(3,619 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Of all the Jewish literary and spoken vernaculars of the post-talmudic period (Yiddish, Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Ladino, Judeo-Persian, Judeo-Greek, Judeo-Tat, Judeo-Berber, Judeo-Provençal, to mention only some of the better known), Judeo-Arabic holds a place of special significance. It has had the longest recorded history—nearly fourteen hundred years. It has had the widest geographical diffusion, extending across three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe) during the Middle Ages. Until early moder…
Date: 2014-09-03
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