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Kastolos

(136 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Καστωλός). Stadt (und Fluß?) in Lydia. Die “Ebene von K.” (Καστωλοῦ πεδίον) war ständiger Sammelplatz des persischen Heeres im Alarmfall (vgl. Kyros d.J.: Xen. hell. 1,4,3; Xen. an. 1,1,2; 9,7). Die Ebene ist nicht sicher lokalisierbar, aber nicht fern von Sardeis, nahe der persischen Königsstraße zu suchen: nach Inschr. evtl. die Burçak-Ebene um den Söğüt çayı, K. dort das h. Bebekli. Früher selbständig (Ethnika IG II2 3059; 3233) mit Befestigungen (Tetrapyrgia) um seine Ebene, war K. in der Kaiserzeit (1./2. Jh.) nur kṓmē (OGIS 448) von Philadelphia (h. Al…

Massabatai

(61 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Μασσαβάται, Μεσσαβάται, lat. Messabatae). Bewohner der nach ihnen benannten Landschaft Massabatike (Μασσαβατική, Μεσ(σ)αβατική) in der südl. Media bzw. nördl. Elymaïs (Strab. 11,13,6; 16,1,18; Plin. nat. 6,134), oder - weniger wahrscheinlich - südl. der Elymaïs im nördlichsten Teil der Persis (Ptol. 6,4,3; vgl. Plin. nat. 6,135). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R.N. Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, 1984, 89.

Alabanda

(316 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Pompeius | Theater (Ἀλάβανδα). Ca. 40 km südl. des Maiandros-Tals in der mittelkarischen Ebene (Karia) von Çine, im Altertum deren Vorort, auf 2 eng nebeneinander liegenden Hügeln (Strab. 14,2,26) und in nördl. anschließender Ebene, am linken Ufer des Marsyas, h. Araphisar. Erstmals erwähnt für 480 v. Chr. (Stadttyrann Aridolis in griech. Gefangenschaft: Hdt. 7,195 - unklar, wie die Nachricht bei Hdt. 8,136 damit zu vereinbaren ist); Blüteze…

Gygaia/-e limne

(245 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη). See in Lydia nördl. des Hermos und von Sardeis, an den im Süden die lyd. Königsnekropole (h. Bintepe, “Tausend Hügel”) mit den Grabtumuli des Alyattes, Gyges und anderer Fürsten (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson) anschließt; evtl. nach dem gleichnamigen Vorfahren des Gyges (Nikolaos von Damaskos FGrH 90 F 46) oder einer Sagengestalt benannt. G.l. wird schon bei Homer erwähnt (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; vgl. 2,865), mythographische Fabeleien finden sich bei Lykophr. Alexandra 1353 (…

Hiera Kome, Hierokaisareia

(242 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Ἱερὰ Κώμη, Ἱεροκαισάρεια). Ort in Lydia an der ant. Straße Pergamon - Sardeis östl. des Hyllos beim h. Sazova bzw. Beyova. H.K. entwickelte sich um ein Heiligtum der Anaitis; der unter der Perserherrschaft eingeführte Kult war im lyd. Hermostal verbreitet und fand wegen seiner Fremdartigkeit (Feuerdienst, Magerpriester) noch im 2. Jh. n.Chr. den Zuspruch der Griechen (Paus. 5,27,5ff.; 7,6,6). 201 v.Chr. Opfer der Invasion Philippos' V. (Pol. 16,1,8), wurde der Tempel erneut 156 …

Knidos

(388 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Attisch-Delischer Seebund | Bildung | Kolonisation | Theater | Straßen (Κνίδος, lat. Cnidus). Stadt der kar. bzw. dor. Chersonesos (h. Halbinsel Reşadiye). Dor. Gründung (Hom. h. 1,43; Hdt. 1,174); Mitglied der dor. Pentapolis. K. lag urspr. wohl in der Mitte der Halbinsel beim h. Datça. Histor. Daten: Um 580 v.Chr. an der sizil. Kolonisation (Thuk. 3,88) und am Hellenion in Naukratis (Hdt. 2,178) beteiligt; 546/5 pers. (Hdt. 1,174). Um…

Keramos

(236 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attisch-Delischer Seebund (Κέραμος). Stadt in SW-Karia an der Nordküste des nach K. benannten Golfs (Κεράμειος oder Κεραμικὸς κόλπος, sinus Ceramicus; h. Gökova körfezi), durch Deltabildung des zuletzt unterirdisch fließenden Koca Çay von der Küste entfernt (Strab. 14,2,15) gelegen, h. Kemerdere bei Ören (Plin. nat. 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,10; Paus. 6,13,3f.). Urspr. karisch, ab dem 6. Jh. v.Chr. hellenisiert (archa. Kuroskopf, ca. 540/530 [1]); 454/3 v.Chr. im Attisch-Delischen Seebund (IG I3 259,5,18), in hel…

Kurupedion

(65 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Κούρου bzw. Κόρου πεδίον). Ebene in Lydia nördl. von Magnesia am Sipylos, östl. der Mündung des Hyllos [4] in den Hermos [2] (Strab. 13,4,5; 13), wo Lysimachos 281 v.Chr. von Seleukos (Porphyrios FGrH 260 F 3,8), Antiochos [5] III. 190 v.Chr. von den Römern geschlagen wurde (Liv. 37,37-39). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography H. Bengtson, Griech. Gesch., 51977, 389 mit Anm. 4, 481.

Lagina

(169 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bildung (τὰ Λάγινα). Ort nördl. von Stratonikeia mit Heiligtum der karischen Hekate (h. Leyna bei Turgut); jährl. Panegyris (Strab. 14,2,25; 29), Prozession mit dem heiligen Schlüssel, Mysterienspiele, penteterische Agone. 81 v.Chr. eingerichtet als Hekatesia Rhomaia mit Verleihung des Asylrechts durch den Senat, von Caesar, Augustus, 22 n.Chr. von Tiberius bestätigt (Tac. ann. 3,62,2). Arch. Befund: Von dor. Stoai gesäumtes Geviert um Pseudodipteros-Tempel mit 8 × 11 korinth. Säulen (2. H.…

Myndos

(435 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Μύνδος). Stadt in SW-Kleinasien an der Westküste der von Halikarnassos bis M. sich erstreckenden Halbinsel, h. Gümüşlük. Ihr Vorgänger war eine befestigte Höhensiedlung der Leleges (“Alt-M.”, Plin. nat. 5,107) auf dem Hügel Bozdağ (3,5 km südl.). Im 5. Jh.v.Chr. war M. Mitglied im Attisch-Delischen Seebund. Um 360 wurde der Ort aufgegeben bzw. an die durch ein Vorgebirge geschützte Hafenbucht verlegt. Die Neugründung wohl unter Maussollos war gleichzeitig mit dem synoikismós von sechs Siedlungen um Halikarnassos mit der neuen…

Maionia

(333 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαιονία, lat. Maeonia). [English version] [1] Landschaft in Lydia Landschaft in Lydia um die Gygaia Limne, zu Füßen des Tmolos (Hom. Il. 3,401, vgl. 2,864ff.; 10,431); vorwiegend als älterer Landes- bzw. Stammesname aufgefaßt (Μηίονες, Hdt. 1,7; 7,74; Diod. 4,31,5; Dion. Hal. 1,27,1; Plin. nat. 5,110). Urspr. umfaßte M. die Katakekaumene [1] (Strab. 12,8,13; 13,4,11) mit dem Grenzgebiet zu Phrygia (Plin. nat. 5,146; Ptol. 5,2,16), das Tal des Kogamos (h. Alaşehir Çayı), das Gebiet um Sardeis (Plin. nat.…

Kares, Karia

(2,507 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κᾶρες/die Karer, Καρία; lat. Cares, Caria). [English version] I. Geographie Stamm bzw. Landschaft in SW-Kleinasien, vom Maiandros bzw. den Gebirgen Mykale und Mesogis im Norden, Salbakos im Osten begrenzt; die Südküste von K. erstreckt sich vom Triopischen Vorgebirge bis zur Bucht von Telmessos (Strab. 14,2,1; Liv. 37,16). An der durch Golfe und langgezogene Halbinseln gegliederten Westküste liegen zunächst die noch zu Ionia zählenden Städte Miletos, Myus, Herakleia [5] und Priene, landeinwärts Magnesia …

Mokadene

(85 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Μοκαδ(δ)ηνή). Landschaft in Ost-Lydia am oberen Hermos in der Maionia [1], an der Grenze zu Phrygia, inschr. durch zugehörige Orte ausgewiesen ( kṓmē Thermai Theséos, h. Kula Emir Hamamları; mētropóleis Silandos, h. Selendi, und Temenothyrai). Die Mokkadenoi, einen dḗmos in Asia (Ptol. 5,2,18 mit falscher Lokalisierung in Bithynia), mit der M. zu verbinden, bleibt fragwürdig. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography K. Buresch, Aus Lydien, 1898, 186 mit Karte  J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 2113  Ders., s.v. Mokkadenoi, RE 15, 2115  Magie 2, 1022.

Idyma

(169 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Ἴδυμα). Alte kar. Siedlung (Ptol. 5,2,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.) am östl. Ende des Golfs von Keramos nahe Gökova, 4 km landeinwärts bei İskele, in der Nähe das Flüßchen Idymos. Erh. sind Mz. (ab 6. Jh. v.Chr.) mit Panskopf, aus hell. Zeit mit rhod. Apollon und Feigenblatt. Mitte 5. Jh. v.Chr. gehörte I. zum Attisch-Delischen Seebund, damals von Paktyes beherrscht. Im 3.-2. Jh. zur rhod. Peraia gehörig, wurde I. nach Inbesitznahme durch Philippos V. 201 vermutlich um 197 durch den …

Labraunda, Labranda

(254 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα). Ort und Heiligtum des karischen Zeus Stratios (auch Labraundos) auf einem südl. Ausläufer des Latmos; über eine heilige Straße mit Mylasa verbunden, dem es mit der späteren Siedlung als kṓmē angehörte (Strab. 14,2,23). ON und Name des Gottes sind vorgriech. Die Doppelaxt ( lábrys) von L. galt als von den Amazonen bzw. den lyd. Heraklidenkönigen übernommen (Plut. qu. Gr. 45). Die Kultstatue ( xóanon ) mit der geschulterten lábrys ist auf Mz. des 4. Jh.v.Chr. dargestellt. Das Heiligtum war zentraler Tagungsort des alten karisch…

Mardoi

(207 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Μάρδοι). Vorderasiat. Stämme in Armenia (Ptol. 5,12,9), Media bzw. Hyrkania südl. des Kaspischen Meeres im h. Elburz-Gebirge/Nordiran (Strab. 11,13,3), hier Amardoi gen. (Strab. 11,6,1; 7,1; Plin. nat. 6,36; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀμαρδοί, s.v. Μ.), in Margiane (Strab. 11,8,8; Plin. nat. 6,47); auch einer der vier pers. Nomadenstämme (Hdt. 1,125,4) oberhalb der Elymaïs (Strab. 11,13,6; Plin. nat. 6,134; Arr. Ind. 40,6) im h. Ansan. Pers. M. dienten im Achaimenidenheer (Hdt. 1,84,2; Ai…

Marathus(s)a

(54 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Μαραθοῦσσα, “Fenchelinsel”). Südlichste der Inseln vor Klazomenai im SW des Golfs von Smyrna, h. Hekim bzw. Çiçek adaları. Geringe Reste. Belegstellen: Thuk. 8,31,3; Strab. 14,1,36; Plin. nat. 5,137; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαράθουσα. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. Winkler, R. König (Hrsg.), C. Plinius Secundus d.Ä., Naturkunde, B. 5, 1993, 262f. (Komm.).

Idrias

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰδριάς; Idriás). Mountainous region in Caria with the Marsyas valley east of Mylasa (Hdt. 5,118; Str. 14,5,23), with the like-named Carian city. Its allegedly older name, Chrysaoris (Steph. Byz. s.v. I.; s.v. Chrysaoris), is also attributed to the city of Stratoniceia and its countryside (Paus. 5,21,10), probably in the sense that I. lay in an area where the villages had joined together in the Carian league of Chrysaoreis around the sanctuary of Zeus Chrysaoreus; the city of Strat…

Curupedion

(72 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κούρου or Κόρου πεδίον). Plain in Lydia north of Magnesia on the Sipylos, east of the confluence of the Hyllus [4] and the Hermos [2] (Str. 13,4,5; 13), where Lysimachus was defeated in 281 BC by Seleucus (Porphyrius FGrH 260 F 3,8), and Antiochus [5] III was defeated in 190 BC by the Romans (Liv. 37,37-39). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography H. Bengtson, Griech. Gesch., 51977, 389, see n. 4, 481.

Silandus

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σίλανδος/ Sílandos). City in eastern Lydia, at a northern tributary of the Hermus [2] (e.g. river god Hermus in coin images). Under Domitianus [1] (AD 81-96) S. became a civitas , issuing coins (until Severus [2] Alexander); at the same time Mocadene was divided into the territories of the cities of S. and Temenothyrae, the two cities then being called mētropóleis. S. was near modern Kara Selendi (to the west of Selendi). Bishops of S. took part in the Councils of Nicaea in 325 and Cha…

Calynda

(248 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (τὰ Κάλυνδα; tà Kálynda). Settlement on the south-western coast of Asia Minor, taken as being part of Caria as well as Lycia, 60 stades inland from the coast on the Axon (modern Kargın çayı) east of the  Indus [2] (Hdt. 1,172; Str. 14,2,2; Plin. HN 5,103; Ptol. 5,3,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. C.). In 480 BC, it was under the rule of  Damasithymus (Hdt. 8,87f.), in the middle of the 5th cent. a member of the  Delian League (as Klaÿnda); Ptolemaic in the 3rd cent. In 166 BC, C. was subordinate to  Caunus [2…

Myndus

(497 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μύνδος; Mýndos). City in southwestern Asia Minor on the western coast of the peninsula stretching from  Halicarnassus to M., modern Gümüşlük. Its predecessor was a fortified highland settlement of the Leleges (Old ‘M.’, Plin. HN 5,107) on Mount Boz (3.5 km to the south). In the 5th cent. BC, M. was a member of the Delian League. In about 360, the town was abandoned or relocated to a harbour protected by foothills. The refoundation, probably under  Maussollus, was simultaneously connected with a synoikismós of six settlements around Halicar…

Massabatae

(68 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μασσαβάται/ Massabátai, Μεσσαβάται/ Messabátai, Latin Messabatae). Inhabitants of the region of Massabatice (Μασσαβατική/ Massabatikḗ, Μεσ(σ)αβατική/ Mes(s)abatikḗ), which was named after them, in southern Media or northern Elymaeis (Str. 11,13,6; 16,1,18; Plin. HN 6,134), or - less likely - south of the Elymaeis region in the northernmost part of Persis (Ptol. 6,4,3; cf. Plin. HN 6,135). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. N. Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, 1984, 89.

Maeonia

(372 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαιονία; Maionía, Latin Maeonia). [German version] [1] Area in Lydia Area in Lydia around the Gygaia Limne, at the foot of Tmolus (Hom. Il. 3,401, cf. 2,864ff.; 10,431); primarily understood as the oldest country or tribal name (Μηίονες/ Mēíones, Hdt. 1,7; 7,74; Diod. Sic. 4,31,5; Dion. Hal. 1,27,1; Plin. HN 5,110). Originally, M. comprised the Catacecaumene [1] (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,11) with the border region of Phrygia (Plin. HN 5,146; Ptol. 5,2,16), the valley of the Cogamus river (modern Alaşehir Çayı), the area around Sardes (Pl…

Euromus

(375 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Persian Wars | Education / Culture (Εὔρωμος; Eurōmos). Town in the Carian interior (Str. 14,1,8; 2,22; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; Plin. HN 5,109), 22 km south of the former Gulf of Latmia (the modern Bafa or Çamiçi gölü), 3 km south of Selimiye at the northern end of the Mylasa plateau; today's Ayaklı. In the 5th cent. as H(K)yromos a member of the  Delian League. The town was probably not called E., often also Eúropos, until after the 4th cent. BC. Sympolitically linked with its περιπόλιοι ( peripólioi, ‘neighbouring towns’…

Termera

(276 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Τέρμερα/ Térmera). City of the Leleges in Caria (Cares IV.) on the southwestern coast of the Halicarnassus peninsula (Str. 14,2,18; incorrect location: Plin. HN 5,107) at modern Asarlık. The Lelegean bandit Termerus is named as eponymous founder (Schol. Eur. Rhes. 509; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.); his ravaging and his removal by Heracles [1] (Plut. Theseus 11) are the origin of the expression 'Termeran evil', when an evil-doer is given a …

Sardis

(3,784 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Σάρδεις/ Sárdeis, Lat. Sardis). [German version] I. Location and name City set at the opening of the valley of the Pactolus into that of the Hermus [2] as it broadens into the Sardian Plain. Centre of th…

Mes(s)ogis

(88 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μεσ(σ)ωγίς; Mes(s)ōgís). Central range of a chain of mountains stretching westwards from near Celaenae in southwestern Phrygia to the Mycale, and reaching heights of over 1,600 m (Strab. 13,4,12f.), modern Aydın Mountains, the watershed between the Cayster and the Maeander [2], originally the frontier between Lydia and Caria (Ptol. 5,2,15). The best wines of the M. was said to be from grapes grow on Mount Aroma (Strab. 14,1,47; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄρωμα). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 1100ff. Magie, 783.

Icarian Sea

(235 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰκάριος πόντος; Ikários póntos). Southeastern part of the Aegean Sea, from Samos to Mykonos (Plin. HN 4,51) respectively from Icarus, with Corassiae (Corseae, modern Fourni) and Samos, via Patmos, Leros and Kalymnos to Kos (Str. 10,5,13). References: Hom. Il. 2,145 (Ἰκάριος πόντος); Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 694; Auson. epist. 23 ( Icarius pontus); Ov. Fast. 4,283; 566; Plin. HN 4,68; 6,215 ( Icarium); Hdt. 6,96; Str. 2,5,21; Ptol. 5,2,1-6; 17,2; Diod. Sic. 4,77,6 (Ἰκάριον πέλαγος); Claud. in Eutropium 2,265 ( Icarium pelagus). The Icarian Sea (IS) breaks on the …

Telmissus

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τελμισσός/ Telmissós; by-form Τελμεσσός/ Telmessós: Syll.3 1047,7 f.). City in Caria (Cares) at modern Gürece, about 11 km (Polemon FHG 3, 128 Fr. 35) to the west of Halicarnassus, for the expansion of which T. had to relinquish part of its population c. 361 BC (Callisthenes FGrH 124 F 25; Plin. HN 5,107). With its Apollo sanctuary, still famous in the Roman Imperial period (HN 619), T. formed the League of the Telmisseis [1. 377-380]. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC T. was entirely absorbed into Halicarnassus. On…

Castabos

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κάσταβος; Kástabos). Site in the north-west of the Carian Chersonesus (Bozburun Yarımadası) in the hinterland of the Bay of Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü), to the east above ancient Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü) in the Rhodian  Peraea. On the Pazarlık, a ridge of the Eren Dağı, remains of an Ionic peripteros ( c. 300 BC), a small theatre and further structures belonging to the much-visited sanctuary of  Hemithea (Diod. Sic. 5,62 f.), a goddess of healing whose originally Carian cult, traceable back to the end of the 7th cent. BC…

Alinda

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ἄλινδα/ Álinda). City in northern Caria (Cares; Ptol. 5,2,20). In the Delian League in the middle of the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1, 467 f.); in 341/40 the only fortress remaining to the princess Ada, which in 334 BC she handed over to Alexander [4] the Great, only to receive it back by adopting him (Arr. Anab. 1,23,8; Diod. 17,24,2). After that A. was for a short time renamed Alexandria on the Latmus [1]; the city is supposed to have…

Loryma

(161 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Λώρυμα; Lṓryma). Town on the south coast of Caria (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 247), east of the southern tip of Boz Burun in the heart of the peraea of Rhodes, belonged to Kasara (modern Asardibi), modern Bozuk Kale (‘castle ruin’). On the headland (Str. 14,2,4; 2,14; Larumna, Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104; Ptol. 5,2,8; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) over the approach to the bay lie the ruins of a Rhodian fortress (3rd/2nd cent. BC); on the southeastern side, rock inscriptions for Rhodian Zeus At…

Mostene

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοστήνη; Mostḗnē). Lydian city (Ptol. 5,2,16), localised according to inscriptions and coins either at the eastern foot of Mount Sipylus near modern Çobanisa or Sancaklıboz or to the south of Thyateira or c. 40 km to the east of Magnesia [3] (modern Asartepe near Urganlı). In AD 17, M. was destroyed by an earthquake (Tac. Ann. 2,47,3). M. was one of 12 or 14 cities of the province of Asia that thanked Tiberius for help in rebuilding with honorary inscriptions and a monument in Rome (copy: Puteoli, CIL X 1624; I…

Idyma

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἴδυμα; Ídyma). Ancient Carian settlement (Ptol. 5,2,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.) on the eastern end of the gulf of Ceramus near Gökova, 4 km inland near İskele, by the river Idymus. Coins (from the 6th cent. BC onwards) showing a head of Pan and from the Hellenistic period with a Rhodian Apollo and fig leaf are preserved. In the mid-5th cent. BC I. was a member of the  Delian League and was ruled by Pactyes. In the 3rd/2nd cents. I. belonged to the Rhodian Peraea, was occupied in 201 …

Theangela

(390 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεάγγελα/ Theángela). City in Caria (Cares), to the east of Halicarnassus, most eastern settlement of the Leleges; a precedessor settlement may have been Συάγγελα/ Syángela (S.), at the modern Alazeytin Kalesi to the west above Çiftlik [1. 112-116, 145-147; 2. 89-96], or on Mount Kaplan to the southwest of modern Etrim [3. 17 note 3, 224 note 33a]. In the 6th/5th cent. BC S. was in the hands of the Carian dynastic family of Pigres, who held a command…

Trapezopolis

(140 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τραπεζόπολις/ Trapezópolis). City in Caria (Ptol. 5,2,18; Cares) on the northern slopes of Mount Cadmus (modern Baba) in the Salbacus mountains (modern Akdağ); scant remains of the city are at Bolu to the west of Denizli. As well as in inscriptions and on coins (1st-3rd cents. AD) T. is particularly well attested in late Antiquity literary sources. T. was part of the Conventus of Alabanda (Plin. HN 5,109). T. enjoyed close relations with the neighbouring city of Attuda (modern Hasköy; cf. Homónoia coins under Antoninus [1] Pius). In the 4th cent. AD T. was …

Amyzon

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἀμυζών/ Amyzṓn). City in Caria (Cares; cf. Str. 14,2,22; Ptol. 5,2,19), on the northern slopes of the Latmus [1] mountains 15 km to the northwest of Alinda (see vol. 15 addenda). A 6th cent. BC settlement which arose around a mountain sanctuary - in the middle of the 5th cent. possibly belonging to the Delian League (ATL 1, 521) - was expanded under Idrieus (351-344 BC) into a Greek-style city. It attained its peak in the 3rd cent. BC. A. was renamed Alexandria for a short time, w…

Cedreae

(271 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Education / Culture (Κεδρέαι, also Κεδρεῖαι, Κεδρεαί; Kedréai, Kedreîai, Kedreaí). Town in Caria on the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf, on the island of Şehir adası and on the mainland near Taşbükü. Originally, its population was purely Carian, later Carian-Greek (μιξοβάρβαροι, mixobárbaroi, Xen. Hell. 2,1,15). The inhabitants of C. spoke the dialect of Dorian Asia Minor (cf. inscriptions). At the end of the 6th cent. BC, Hecat. mentions C. as a town (FGrH 1 F 248); in the 5th…

Thyssanus

(109 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Θυσσανοῦς/ Thyssanoûs). Port in southern Caria (Cares; Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula on the Gulf of Syme (modern Sömbeki) at modern Ortaca. T. belonged to the Rhodean peraia, as a dámos ( demos [2] B) politically to Camirus on Rhodes, with a territory stretching as far as the southern and northern bays (e.g. with the remains of an acropolis at modern Cumhuriyet Mahallesi). After a temporary separation T. was returned to Rhodes by the Romans presumably c. 70 AD. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Blümel, Die Inschr…

Olymus

(128 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ὄλυμος/ Ólymos or Ὄλυμον/ Ólymon?). City in Caria north-west of Mylasa; known only from inscriptions. In the 5th cent. BC, member of the Delian League ( Hýlimos); in the 3rd/2nd cents., O. merged with Mylasa in sympoliteía . A temple of Apollo and Artemis survives at modern Kafaca, 8 km north-west of Milâs. The inscriptions (end of 2nd cent.  - 70s of 1st cent. BC) very often relate to the selling or leasing of temple land and provide information about a privileged class constituted by the desce…

Cnidus

(445 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Colonization | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κνίδος; Knídos, Lat. Cnidus). City of the Carian or Dorian Chersonesus (now the Reşadiye peninsula). Dorian settlement (Hom. Il. 1,43; Hdt. 1,174); member of the Dorian Pentapolis. C. probably stood originally in the middle of the peninsula near today's Datça. Historical dates: About 580 BC it participated in the colonization of Sicily (Thuc. 3,88) and in the Hellenion in Naucratis (…

Blaundos

(240 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Βλαῦνδος; Blaûndos). City in eastern  Lydia on the border with Phrygia, to which it is therefore also assigned (Ptol. 5,2,25: Βλέανδρος; Bléandros); south of Inay (cf.  Klannudda) near the modern Sülümenli (also Sülünlü) on a narrow spur between two ravines flowing into the Hippurius (the modern Köprülü Çay), a northern tributary of the upper Maeander [2]. Indigenous place name in 2nd cent. BC still Mlaundos (on coins). From its official designation Blaundeī́s Makedónes (coins, inscription IGR 4, 717, 3rd c…

Telandrus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (Τήλανδρος; Tḗlandros). City in the border region of Caria (Cares) and Lycia (Lycii) on the River Glaucus (Plin. HN 5,101;  Quint. Smyrn. 4,7); hardly to be correctly located in the ruin sites of modern Nif on the upper River Nif  (ancient Glaucus?), rather, as a member of the Delian League, to be found near the coast: the Telandrii, who were included in the tribute lists for the years 453/2-425/4 BC ( Phóros C.; cf. ATL 1, 555), probably inhabited the island of Telandria (modern Tersane) o…

Labraunda, Labranda

(312 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα; Lábraunda, Lábranda). Locality and sanctuary of the Carian Zeus Stratios (also Labrandos), situated on a southern spur of Mt Latmus. Connected by a sacred road to Mylasa, to which it belonged as kṓmē together with the later settlement (Str. 14,2,23). Place name and name of the god are pre-Greek. The double-headed axe ( lábrys) of L. was believed to have been taken over from the Amazons or the Lydian Heraclid kings (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 45). The cult statue ( xóanon ) with the shouldered lábrys is depicted on coins of the 4th cent. BC. The shri…

Klannudda

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κλαννούδδα/ Klannoúdda; Tab. Peut. 9,4: Clanudda). City in eastern Lydia, c. 55 km east-north-east of Philadelphia [1], north of the Persian royal road. K. is probably the site of ruins at Hacet Kalesi near Kışla, where Hellenistic wall-ruins were identified, on the north-west edge of the plain of İnay (ancient Náïs). Coins in the 2nd/1st cents. BC ( Klannoudda; [1]; HN 650). K. was probably established as a Seleucid fortress, like neighbouring Blaundos, 15 km to the south, and absorbed by it at the start of the Roman Imperial period. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliogr…

Gerga

(269 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γέργα; Gérga). Village in northern  Caria, south-east of Eskiçine on the Marsyas [4], near Incekemer (formerly Gâvurdamları). The name G. (also Gergas, G. kṓmē) is to be found many times in uniquely large clumsy Greek (on one occasion also Latin) letters on boulders, rock stelae hewn in a pyramid shape and idol-like colossal statues (fragmentary) in the vicinity of a small temple (?) built of solid granite blocks, on the temple itself and carved into one of the low well-houses (?). Several parts that h…

Tmolus

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Τμῶλος/ Tmôlos). [German version] [1] Mountain chain in Lydia Mountain chain (up to 2157 m elevation) in Lydia, snow-covered in winter (Hom. Il. 2,866; 20,385), modern Bozdağ. The T. mountains were the source of the Pactolus, which in Antiquity bore auriferous sand; Sardis was on its banks (Plin. HN 5,110). In the T. mountains, vines were cultivated (Str. 14,1,15; Plin. HN 14,74; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,12), they were known for fields of saffron (Verg. G. 1,56; 4,380; Solin. 40,10). The T. were the residence…

Gygaie limne

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη; Gygaíē límnē). Lake in Lydia north of  Hermus and of  Sardis, to which in the south adjoin the Lydian royal necropolis (modern Bintepe, ‘Thousand Hills’) with the tomb tumuli of  Alyattes,  Gyges and other princes (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson); possibly called after the ancestors of  Gyges (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 46) by the same name or a legendary figure. Gygaiae limne (GL) is already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; cf. 2,865), mythographical fantastic stori…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …
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