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Ephedrismos

(156 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἐφεδρισμός; ephedrismós). A game where a target (δίορος; díoros) on the ground is to be hit with a rock or a ball; the loser had to carry the winner, who covered the loser's eyes, on his back until he touched the target with his foot. Boys and girls participated in ephedrismos, which according to the evidence of monuments became popular in the 5th cent. BC and is depicted in various stages. The representations also show satyrs and Erotes playing ephedrismos. The piggyback motif is very widespread in the Greek and Roman art (intaglios, sculpture; group in Ro…

Kemos

(92 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κημός; kēmós, late Ancient Greek χάμος; chámos; Lat. c[h]amus, -um). Kemoi cover a variety of objects that apparently relate to the basic concept of wrapping, covering, etc. Part of these are nosebags for horses, from which they take their fodder (Hesych. s.v.), as well as bow nets for fish, and the type of cloth that bakers tied around their mouth and nose (Ath. 12,548c) and that women wore in public to cover the lower part of their face. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography H. Schenkl, s.v. K., RE 11, 157-162.

Alveus

(128 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Trough-shaped container; actually cavity, vault or trough. The alveus served as wine press trough, bath for newborn children and as hot-water bath tub for one or more persons. Moreover, alveus can also mean a sarcophagus. In archaeological research alveus designates a large hip bath built in stone or brick, in the caldarium of the Roman thermae [1] (the smaller versions were called alveolus), which were heated by the praefurnium above the testudo alvei, a semicircular kettle. Functionally allied with the alveus are solium and   labrum . Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bi…

Swaddling Clothes

(139 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σπάργανον/ spárganon; Latin incunabula). SC in their modern form were not known in Antiquity; instead, a baby would be wrapped entirely - apart from the head - with narrow strips of wool. Wrapping was supposed to ensure the striaght growth of the body and the limbs (Sen. Ben. 6,24,1,  cf. Plin. HN 7,3). In Thessaly only the lower half of the body was wrapped, in Sparta SC were dispensed with entirely (Plut. Lycurgus 16,3). Depictions of babies survive from the Bronze Age onwards (e.…

Lakonikai

(64 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λακωνικαί; lakōnikaí). Men's shoes or boots, similar to the embas ( Shoes). Originally a Lacedaemonian (Spartan) phenomenon (Aristoph. Vesp. 1158-1165), later also worn elsewhere (Aristoph. Eccl. 74; 269; 345; 507, Aristoph. Thesm. 142); the elegant lakonikai were white (Ath. 215c) and red (Poll. 7,88). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography O. Lau, Schuster und Schusterhandwerk in der griech.-röm. Lit. und Kunst, 1967, 126f.

Orarium

(138 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (also called sudarium). The use of a 'face-cloth' ( orarium) or 'sweat-cloth' ( sudarium) is attested from the 1st cent. BC (Quint. Inst. 6,3,60; 11,3,148); it was used to wipe away sweat, cover the mouth (Suet. Nero 25), cover the head (Suet. Nero 45) or dry the hands (Petron. 67). It could also be worn around the neck (Suet. Nero 51; Petron. 67). According to Catull. 12,14 and 25,7, sudaria were made of Spanish linen. The name orarium does not emerge until the 3rd cent. AD; the two were used synonymously, with the orarium now being used for applause in arenas, for cover…

Plaga

(227 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Roman hunting net Roman hunting net, esp. for entrapment, into which game (stags, boars) was flushed from cover by dogs (Hor. Epod. 2,31-32; Hor. Epist. 1,6,58; 1,18,45), and so contrasts with the retia ('strike nets') and casses ('drop or purse nets'); of plagae plaited from rope, those from Cumae were the most highly valued (Plin. HN 19,11). The battue with the plaga, depicted in ancient art from early times (Vaphio Cup), later became primarily a theme of Roman mosaic and sarcophagus art. The term plaga is no longer used in modern archaeological scholarship, …

Pilos

(175 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πῖλος/ pîlos). Originally the term for the felt lining of helmets (Hom. Il. 10,265), shoes and caps (Hes. Op. 542-546) and the protective part of the armour (Thuc. 4,34,4), later for felt blankets (Hdt. 4,73 and 75) and shoes of felt (Cratinus 100 CAF), but esp. for a conical headdress (Hes. Op. 546, Anth. Pal. 6,90 and 199, cf. Hdt. 3,12; 7,61; 62; 92 on the felt mitres and tiaras of eastern peoples). The last resembles half an egg (Lycoph. 506), at times with a loop on the point for hanging up or carrying by the finger. The pîlos was worn by craftsmen (in pictorial represen…

Neck ornaments

(655 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Greece Neck ornaments famously play a role in the myth of Eriphyle, as they do in that of Scylla (Aesch. Choe. 613-622). The comedy Plókion by Menander also deserves mention (cf. Plut. Mor. 2,141d; Gell. 2,23,6). In Aristaen. 1,1 the stones of the necklace are organised in such a way that they give the name of Lais. Neck ornaments (ἁλύσιον/ halúsion, κάθημα/ káthēma, μάννος/ mánnos, μανιάκης/ maniákēs, ὅρμος/ hormos, πλόκιον/ plókoin) as a chain or a rope, with and without pendants, have survived in great numbers throughout the Mediterranean since…

Kekryphalos

(246 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κεκρύφαλος, -άλιον; kekrýphalos, -álion, Lat. reticulum), hair net, hair cloth. Mentioned already in Hom. Il. 22,469 as part of the female costume, the kekryphalos was used to cover the hair or parts thereof. Greek (cf. e.g. Aristoph. Thesm. 257) and Roman women wore a kekryphalos not only at night to keep their carefully arranged hairstyle together, but also during the day (Varro, Ling. 130; Non. 14,32 et al.). Men who occasionally were seen to wear a kekryphalos were criticized (Ath. 15,681c; Juv. 2,96) and perceived as effeminate. As a cloth, the kekryphalos could b…

Paludamentum

(262 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Rectangularly cut, mostly purple but also red or white, Roman cloak of linen or wool, corresponding to the Greek chlamys; Agrippina's gold-braided paludamentum is, however, unusual (Plin. HN. 33,63). Initially paludamenta were worn only by Roman generals and other high-ranking officers; they advanced in the imperial period to insignia of Imperial ruling power. Paludamenta were part of the battle dress of generals and emperors (cf. Varro Ling. 7,37) and were not to be worn within the limits of the city of Rome (Tac. Hist. 2,89); thu…

Fimbriae

(153 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κροσσοί/ krossoí; θύσανοι/ thýsanoi). These were actually the thread ends left at the edge of the cloth that ─ with several knotted together or hanging individually ─ decorated materials of all kinds such as cloths, blankets and clothes. They could also be worked separately and sewed on. Thus, for example, the ταραντῖνον ( tarantînon), a luxury garment, or the rica, a Roman head scarf, are explicitly defined as trimmed with fimbriae (Fest. 288,10; Non. 549,9). The Oriental and Egyptian garments already show evidence of fimbriae; they are also documented in Greek…

Trigon

(122 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Roman ball game, recorded for the Imperial period; it was played on the Field of Mars  (Hor. Sat. 1,6,126) and in baths (Petron. 27,1-3). Three players (Mart. 7,72,9) were needed for trigon; they positioned themselves in a triangle and played one or more small balls between themselves, either catching them (Mart. 12,82,4) or hitting them with both hands so that they were passed back to the thrower or to the third player (Mart. 14,46,1), sometimes with such violence that the palms …

Applause

(607 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κρότος, ἐπικροτεῖν [ krótos, epikroteîn], plausus, plaudere). The impulsive and impromptu expression of praise and approval, also of rejection, cursing and reprimand communicated through words, sounds, gestures and actions; these forms of expressing approval are so closely related to   acclamatio that it is often difficult to distinguish between them [1]. In the ancient world, the most frequent gesture used to express approval was the clapping of hands, for example, in the theatre, during music, danc…

Kalathos

(323 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ κάλαθος/ ho kálathos; diminutive τὸ καλάθιον/ tò kaláthion and ὁ/τὸ καλαθίσκος, -ν/ ho/tó kalathiskos, -n; Lat. calathus). A basket which opens like a blossom, made from a variety of materials such as clay, wood, precious metals (Hom. Od. 4,125). It can also be woven from rods [1]. It was used as a working basket by female wool spinners (e.g. Juv. 2,54; Ov. Ars am. 1,693 and 2,219) - and as such is a requisite of scenes of the women's quarters (e.g. Rhyton London, BM E 773 [2]) - or as a household receptacle for cheese, milk, or oil, which made the kalathos a common wedding pre…

Strophium

(208 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(στρόφιον/ stróphion). A band wound round something or twisted together. [German version] [1] Breast band A breast band worn by women in Greece and Rome (Aristoph. Thesm. 139; 251; 255; 638; Aristoph. Lys. 931; Catull. 64,65), also called μίτρα/ mítra (Anth. Pal. 5,13,4; Apoll. Rhod. 3,867), μηλοῦχος/ mēloûchos (Anth. Pal. 6,211), στηθόδεσμος/ stēthódesmos (Poll. 7,66), mamillare (Mart. 14,66 lem.), fascia pectoralis (Mart. 14,134 Lem., cf. Ov. Ars am. 3,274; Prop. 4,9,49). Women are variously portrayed in art wearing strophia or putting on strophia. Straps across the shoulde…

Umbrella, Parasol

(241 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σκιάδιον/ skiádion or σκιάδειον/ skiádeion; Latin umbella, umbraculum). Round, collapsible umbrellas and those with fixed frames had been familiar to the Greeks from the 5th cent. BC; as in the states of the Near East, in Greece too umbrellas were a status symbol and sign of dignity. Noble Greek women had them carried by a servant girl (Athen. 12,534a, cf. Ael. VH 6,1). For Greek men, carrying an umbrella was considered a sign of effeminacy (Pherecrates PCG 7, 70 (64)). In Antiquity, um…

Lakaina

(116 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λάκαινα; lákaina). A drinking vessel listed as a cup in Ath. 11,484f.; the technical term is used in archaeological research to describe a vessel with a goblet-like body and round-bellied lower part, with two horizontal handles. Produced predominantly in Sparta from the 8th cent. BC onwards, the L. became a model for Laconian vasepainting of the 7th cent. BC. The design was discontinued after the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Its decoration was usually ornamental, but black- glazed examples do occur. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography C. M. Stibbe, Lakon. Vasenma…

Chests

(267 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ζύγαστρον/ zýgastron, κιβωτός/ kibōtós, κιβώτιον/ kibṓtion, λάρναχ/ lárnax, χηλός/ chēlós; Latin arca, cista). Chests made of wood, bronze or other materials were used in the household for storing and transporting clothes, household goods, book rolls (  scrinium), equipment, provisions, etc. Chests could be simple and undecorated, or decorated with ornamental or figurative reliefs on their sides ( Praenestine cistae). Wooden chests often had metal fittings, which were also decorated, for reinforcing edges and corne…

Games

(1,734 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Egypt and Ancient Orient The boundaries between games and  sport are fluid; here only relaxation games ( Board games) are treated that are very well known e.g. for Egypt as originals from tomb contexts and pictorial representations e.g. the Senet board game ( znt) was popular. The position regarding the sources for the Ancient Orient is very limited for climatic reasons (wood barely preserved). We can make only assumptions about the rules of games. In addition to the game boards there are game stones, astragaloi ( Astragalos [2]), dice and little dice rods tha…

Sportula

(118 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ( sporta, sportella). Roman basket (Isid. Orig. 20,9,10; Petron. Sat. 40) used for shopping (Apul. Met. 1,24 and 25), the term is also used for a  basket which held money or food for clients (Petron. 40;  Juv. 1,95 f.; Salutatio ). Hence sportula denoted a feeding of the public (cf. Suet. Claudius 21,4) or a fee due to the magistrates for their official activities. In the 4th and 5th cents. AD, the fees that were charged by court magistrates for their services were also called sportula (Cod. Iust. 3,2). Donativum Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography H. A. Cahn et al., …

Shoes

(752 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] According to ancient literature (Poll. 5,18; 7,85-94; 10,49; Herodas 7,54 ff.), there was a great multiplicity of varieties of sandals and boots; only in a small number of cases is it possible to identify footwear mentioned by name with that represented in monumental art or with surviving originals (e.g. calceus ). From Classical Greece alone we have 82 words for footwear, named after origin, people, shape, colour, material or use: many kinds of footwear were adopted from other countries and given the name of their country of origin, e.g. 'Persian shoes', Περσικαί/ Pe…

Darius Crater

(159 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Apulian voluted crater from  Canosa (found in 1851) in Naples (NM, Inv. 81947 [H 3,253], H 130cm, [1]), known as the eponymous work of the  Darius Painter named after it. The main face has the crown council of Darius in the centre [1] I., with paymasters and tribute bearers below and Athena with Hellas before Zeus and Apate before Asia above. Archaeological study interprets this as a representation of the victories of  Alexander' [4] the Great in Persia or an echo of contemporary …

Wig

(282 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (φενάκη/ phenákē, πηνήκη/ pēnḗkē, Latin capillamentum, galerus). The use of wigs apparently began in Greece at the end of the 6th cent. BC; late Archaic korai show hairstyles that are inconceivable without added hairpieces. In the theatre, too, people made use of wigs in the 5th cent. BC (Aristoph. Thesm. 258) and also used false beards (Aristoph. Eccl.25), musicians and conjurers similarly wore wigs and hairpieces (Ael. VH 1,26; Lucian Alexandros 3). The use of wigs and hairpieces was extremely popular i…

Wineskin

(173 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀσκός/ askós; Lat. culleus, uter). For transporting solid (Thuc. 4,26) and liquid foods (Hom. Il. 3,247; Hom. Od. 5,265; 9,196), apart from barrels, people also used animal (ox, sheep, goat; in the Arab lands also camel, Hdt. 3,9) skins sewn together, a leg of the animal serving as inlet and outlet. Representations of wineskins are common in ancient art in transportation scenes; a wineskin-carrying silen is a fixed feature of the iconography of Dionysian scenes (Dionysus). In myths, …

Epiblema

(76 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἐπίβλημα; epíblēma). Greek term for  blanket, cloth, coat (Poll. 7,49f.). In modern-day archaeological terminology, epiblema denotes the shoulder-covering of Daedalic female statues, esp. those from Crete. As a rule the epiblema is fastened at the breast, but also across the neck and collarbone; the upper edge is occasionally decorated. The epiblema is frequently depicted on 7th-cent. BC monuments. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography C. Davaras, Die Statue aus Astritsi, 8. Beih. AK, 1972, 26-27, 59-64.

Mortar

(231 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὅλμος/ hólmos, ἴγδις/ ígdis, θύεια/ thýeia, ὕπερον/ hýperon, Latin mortarium, pistillum, pila). Mortars and pestles of various materials were among the household utensils (Plaut. Aul. 94-95; Household equipment) necessary for kneading dough, grinding corn, chopping and mixing fruits, vegetables, etc. Mortars were also used for preparing cosmetics and drugs, pigments and metal alloys. Mortars included smaller grinding bowls (with or without a lip and round grinding stone, called a coticula in Latin, Plin. HN 34,106; made of granite for eye ointment…

Arca

(216 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λάρναξ; lárnax). Box, case, chest, then especially the treasure chest of wood or metal-jointed wood in the atrium (Juv. 11,26; 14,259 and passim), of which there are known examples or remains of examples in Pompeii. Arca was the term used for a large number of sacred, state and private treasures, e.g. the one of the virgines vestales. The arca could be large enough for a person to hide inside (App. B Civ. 4,44). Small arcae are preserved from late antiquity which were given to one's wife as a present with congratulatory messages and their metal fitting…

Dipylon Painter

(303 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Attic vase painter of the geometric period (Late Geometric I, mid 8th cent. BC;  Geometric vase painting), named after the cemetery at the Dipylon Gate in Athens, where most of his works were found. The Dipylon Painter (DP) and the other painters of his workshop created about 20 monumental vases (kraters; amphorae), which were placed on tombs as receptacles for offerings ( Burial); of these, the amphora Athens, NM 804, with a height of 155 cm (the stand has been replaced and thus …

Solium

(184 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Seat Roman high seat with foot-, arm- and backrest, throne; the solium was the seat of kings (Ov. Fast. 3,358; 6,353) and, presumably as early as in Etruria, the symbolic seat of a pater familias . It was inherited from father to son, selling it was considered shameful ( Salutatio ). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography F. Prayon, Frühetrurische Grab- und Hausarchitektur, 1975, 111 f.  Th. Schäfer, Imperii Insignia. Sella curulis und Fasces. 29. Ergänzungsheft MDAI(R), 1989, 26 f. [German version] [2] Bathtub Roman bathtub for one (Mart. 2,42; Vitr. 9 …

Clavus

(113 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ‘Nail’, in the context of  clothing: ‘stripes’. The decoration of a  tunic with purple clavi extending from the shoulder to the lower seam at the front and back, served to denote rank in Rome. Senators, their sons (since Augustus) and officials wore a tunic with broad stripes ( lati clavi), equestrians one with small stripes ( angusti clavi). The clavi could be woven in or sewn on, cf.  Dalmatica. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography H. R. Goette, Studien zu röm. Togadarstellungen, 1990, 8-9 J. Bergemann, Röm. Reiterstatuen, 1990, 23-24 B. Levick, A Note on the …

Calenian Pottery

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Generic term for lower Italian black-glazed pottery ( Relief ware), evident from the second half of the 4th cent. to the 2nd cent. BC. The term Calenian Pottery (CP) (askoi, bowls, omphalos phialae, gutti) is commonly used for this group of vessels, yet they were undoubtedly also produced in other regions (Paestum, Sicily, Tarentum). Particularly well-known are bowls with medallions, worked in a medium relief (‘Arethusa bowls’); their origin from Cales (Calenus) or rather Campania…

Nestoris

(182 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A type of ‘Italian’ vase, also called trozella, which was adopted by Lucanian vase painting in the 5th cent. and by Apulian vase painting only around the middle of the 4th cent. BC. The nestoris appears to have been taken on from Messapian vase art. It is known in various forms; typical is its ovoid body with side handles and strap handles (which rise up from the shoulder of the vessel and connect to its lip) which are often decorated with discs (rotellae) [1. 11 fig. 3]. In vase …

Pilleus

(212 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (also pileus). Close-fitting half-spherical or ball-shaped head covering made of fur, felt, leather or wool; adopted by the Romans from the Etruscans (cf. Liv. 34,7). In Rome the pilleus was the mark of a free citizen and was given a slave (Petron. Sat. 41), prisoner of war, or gladiator (Tert. De spectaculis 21) upon manumission. Thus the pilleus libertatis, together with the vindicta , is the attribute of Libertas, who holds them in her hands on Roman coins. P illeus can be used synonymously as an expression for freedom (Mart. 2,68; Suet. Nero 57, cf. Plau…

Chiton

(507 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (χιτών; chitón). Greek undergarment, originally of linen, then wool; probably of Semitic origin ( Clothing). Frequent occurrences in Homer (e.g. Il. 2,42; 262; 416; 3,359; Od. 14,72; 19,242), show that the chiton was already a part of Greek costume in early times, and a favoured garment for men. The chiton came into fashion for women during the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, and later replaced the  peplos (vase paintings, sculptures). The chiton consists of two rectangular lengths of material ( ptéryges, wings), 150-180 cm wide and of varying length, sewn toget…

Recta

(107 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The first time the Roman boy donned the toga virilis, he wore the ( tunica) recta as an undergarment; for the sons of equestrians and senators, it was furnished with the insignia of rank ( latus clavus). The long, white tunica with tight upper sleeves which the Roman bride donned on the eve of her wedding, which she slept in and wore on her wedding day was called recta or regilla (Plin. HN 8,194). Clothing; Toga Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography Blümner, PrAlt., 336, 350 f.  C. M. Wilson, The Clothing of the Ancient Romans, 1938, 138-145  D. Balsdon, Die Frau in der röm…

Facial expression

(469 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] FE means the expressive motions of the entire face (moods) or parts of it that spontaneously indicate a momentary human mood or are deliberately assumed with the intention of making a particular expression. FE's are often situation-related and supplemented by  gestures ( Gestus) or even only become comprehensible through the latter. On the stage individual characters were shown with differing FE's ( Masks,  Mimos). FE's were also a means of providing a person (e.g. a philosopher, …

Palimpsest

(350 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (παλίμψηστος/ palímpsēstos [βίβλος/ bíblos or χάρτης/ chártēs], lat. codex rescriptus). A 're-scraped' book, papyrus or parchment leaf, prepared for renewed writing after its first text was scraped off. The first text was either wiped off with a sponge or scraped away with pumice stone. This method was already used in Egypt (e.g. PBerlin 3024, 12th dynasty, from c. 2000 BC), and was also standard practice in later periods, out of thrift (Cic. Fam. 7,18,2) or lack of virgin papyrus or parchment (cf. Catull. 22,5). Plutarch (Mor. 779c, 50…

Antyx

(109 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀντυξ; ántyx) Raised metal rim of the Greek shield (Hom. Il. 6,118; 15,645; 18,479 and passim); also refers to a hoop-like railing or ledge of the Greek racing and war chariot (archaic vase paintings [1.524 fig. 44]), which could be used to hold on to when stepping in or out (Hom. Il. 5,728 f.; 16,406). Evidently made of wood (Hom. Il. 21,38). When the chariot was not in motion, one could wrap the reins around the antyx (Hom. Il. 5,262). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 C. Weiss, M. Boss, Original und Restaurierung, in: AA 1992, 522-528. J. Wiesner, Fahren und Reit…

Mattress

(116 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τύλη/ týlē; Latin culcita, torus). Mattresses were laid on the Greek and Roman kline (lying on the supporting straps of the kline, Petron. Sat. 97,4) or were spread out directly on the floor (Ath. 15,675a; Alci. 4,13,14; χαμεύνη/ chameúnē: Theoc. 7,133; 13, 33). Mattresses were filled with wool, straw, reeds, sea grass, hay, hair, feathers; the feathers of Germanic geese being especially valued (Plin. HN 10,54, compare Ov. Met. 8,655 on rushes). There also was the κνέφαλλον/ knéphallon (Poll. 10,42) and the τυλεῖον/ tyleíon, the fine underbed made of wool cut a…

Crepundia

(88 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A piece of jewellery or a toy, usually metal, for small children in Rome. Besides the bulla ( Ages), children wore several such miniatures as an  amulet, strung on a chain and worn around the neck or over the shoulder. The crepundia were also used to identify abandoned children and were kept in a cistella (little chest) together with other children's items (Plaut. Cist. 634ff., Plaut. Rud. 1151ff.).  Amulet;  Jewellery Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Schmidt, Spielzeug und Spiele im klass. Altertum, 1971, 18-21 incl. fig. 1.

Greeting

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
I. Gestures of greeting [German version] A. Handshake According to Greek and Roman custom, one would shake the right hand of guests, family members, close acquaintances or friends and squeeze it firmly (Hom. Il. 10,542 et passim; Xen. Cyr. 3,2,14; Aristoph. Nub. 81; Plut. Cicero 879; Plut. Antonius 952; Plut. De amicorum multitudine 94b), both as a greeting (according to Plut. Caesar 708 more a form of affability) and to say good-bye. Shaking hands was seen as a sign of friendship and trust (Xen. Cyr. 3…

Canistrum

(110 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek κανοῦν; kanoûn). Flat wicker basket; it served as a fruit basket (Ov. Met. 8,675) and was used in agriculture (Verg. G. 4,280). Canistra of sturdy materials (clay, silver, gold) were used as receptacles for liquid substances, e.g. honey and oil. The canistrum was also a device for sacrifices (Tib. 1,10,27; Ov. Met. 2,713 and more); often represented in Roman art in this role, the canistrum contained incense, fruits and offering-cakes. The silver saucers for drinking vessels were called canistra siccaria (Serv. Aen. 1,706).  Kanoun Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bi…

Calceus

(275 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Roman shoe or half-boot made of leather that was probably adopted from the Etruscans and was part of the clothing ( vestis forensis) of the noble Roman citizen. If a member of the nobility dressed in other shoes in public, he would be criticized (Suet.Tib. 13; an exception was the dress for the banquet at which people wore the solla; Hor. Sat. 2,8,77; Mart. 3,50,3; Suet. Vit. 2). In Roman literature and art the calceus was represented in many ways; three variants can be distinguished that at the same time served to differentiate between social ranks. Th…

Geneleus

(237 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Sculptor of the archaic period, famous for the family group with his signature in the Heraion on  Samos (560-550 BC). The group consists of the reclining figure of the founder ...ιλάρχος, three standing girls (unknown name, Philippe, Ornithe), the fragments of a young man, and the enthroned mother Phileia; apart from Ornithe (Berlin, SM, Inv. 1739), all the figures are on Samos (Vathy, Mus. Inv. 768). G. proves himself a master of Ionian sculpture because of the minute detail to w…

Canosa Vases

(129 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Type of  Apulian vases, between c. 350 and 300 BC, probably made exclusively for use in graves. Their distinguishing feature is their decoration in a variety of water-soluble pigments (blue, red/pink, yellow, pale purple, brown) on a white background. Preferred  vessel forms are the volute-krater, cantharus, oinochoe, and askos, whose main bodies were frequently decorated with figures of women on small pedestals and with three-dimensional decor (winged heads, gorgoneia et al.). The gre…

Paestan ware

(394 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] PW first developed in around 360 BC when immigrant artists from Sicily founded a new workshop in the southern Italian city of Paestum (Poseidonia), the leading masters of which were the vase painters Asteas and Python. Both are the only vase painters in southern Italy whose signatures are known on vases. The Paestan vase painters favoured bell craters, neck amphorae, hydrias, lebetes gamikoi (nuptial cauldrons depicting mostly wedding but also funeral scenes), lekanides (cosmetic/trinket containers), lekythoi (one-handled flasks for perfumed oil) and jug…

Sakkos

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σάκκος/ sákkos). Closed bonnet, esp. popular as a headdress of Greek women in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. The evidence from Attic vase paintings and tomb reliefs shows the sákkos worn mainly by female servants, whereas in southern Italian art it appears as the headdress of any woman. Sákkoi frequently had a loop on the calotte for hanging them up and often tassels hanging down. Some sákkoi were unadorned or decorated with simple lines, while others were richly decorated with ornaments of meanders, waves, scrolls and similar. The sákkos was not necessarily the only hea…

Tiara

(266 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τιάρα/ tiára). Head covering of Near Eastern peoples (Armenians, Assyrians, Sagae, especially Persians; Hdt. 3,12; 7,61; 7,64 et passim), similar to a turban; also a tall tiara, decorated with stars and rising to a point, which among the Persians was fit only for the king, his relatives and holders of high office (Xen. An. 2,5,23; Xen. Cyr. 8,3,13). In Greek sources, the tiara is also called a kyrbasía or a kíd(t)aris (e.g. Aristoph. Av. 487). The tiara as a head covering for Middle Eastern aristocrats was also common in the Roman period (Suet. Ner…

Tribon

(99 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τρίβων/ tríbōn, τριβώνιον/ tribṓnion). A coat ( himátion, cf. pallium ) of 'bristly' wollen material, worn by Cretans (Str. 10,4,20) and Spartans (Plut. Lycurgus 30; Plut. Agesilaus 30; Ael. VH 7,13); later also common in Athens (Thuc. 1,6,3). It was part of the clothing of simple people (Aristoph. Eccl. 850; Aristoph. Vesp. 1131), farmers (Aristoph. Ach. 184; 343) and lakōnizóntes ('imitators of Spartan customs', Dem. Or. 54,34). From the time of Socrates (Pl. Symp. 219b; Pl. Prt. 335d; Xen. Mem. 1,6,2) the tribon was also the typ…
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