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Ausum

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Castrum of the Numidian   limes , which was 75 km west-south-west of Biskra; probably the place today known as Sadouri. The military camp protected the area south of the Chott el-Hodna. A. was where the road from Lambaesis met the road that led from Auzia via Doucen to Gemellae. Inscription in honour of  Gordianus (AD 247 [1. 31-33]); it is, however, possible that A. was already in existence before this time. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Carcopino, Le Limes de Numidie et sa garde syrienne, in: Syria 6, 1925 2 AAAlg, folio 48, no. 1 3 J. Baradez, Fossatum Afric…

Tisiduo

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Τισιδουω: in inscriptions). City to the southeast of Carthage, destroyed by Caesar in 46 BC in the Roman civil war (Str. 17,3,12), not locatable; identification with Tisidium is unlikely [1. 1436]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 I. Schmidt, Komm. zu CIL VIII Suppl. 1. F. Windberg, s. v. Tisidium (2), RE 6 A, 1479 f.

Mosyli

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μόσυλοι; Mόsyloi). People on the south coast of the Gulf of Aden who have given their name to a port and a headland. References: Plin.HN. 6,174, promunturium et portus Mossylites; Ptol. 4,7,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μόσυλον. The port was situated two to three days' journey to the east of the ancient island of Mundu, Peripl. m. r. 10 (GGM I 265; τὸ Μόσυλλον). Export items were cinnamon and incense. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s.v. M., RE 16, 380f.

Thala

(139 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in the interior of Tunisia, 53 km to the south of Sicca Veneria, 20 km to the east of Ammaedara (also modern T.). The Numidian town was considerably Punicised; the original Punic cults of Caelestis, Pluto and Saturn continued until late Antiquity. In AD 20 followers of Tacfarinas unsuccessfully attacked a Roman unit in T. (Tac. Ann. 3,21,2). In the 3rd cent. T. presumably acquired the status of municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 501-576; 2, 10519 f.; Suppl. 1, 11668-11730; Suppl. 4, 23280-23352; AE 1905, 35. Another town called T. was 20 km to the ea…

Icosium

(141 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce (Ἰκόσιον; Ikósion, Punic ʾj ksm, ‘island of the owls’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Algiers. References: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,6; It. Ant. 15,5; Sol. 25,17 (with incorrect etymology); Amm. Marc. 29,5,16 (with allusion to this etymology); Geogr. Rav. 40,44; 88,12. A roman veterans' colony was founded at I. during the reign of  Juba II (Plin. HN 3,19; 5,20). Under Vespasian, the city became a colonia Latina (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20853). A h…

Celtianis

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The castellum to the north of Cirta belonged to the region of Cirta, the modern El Meraba or Beni Ouelbane. Under Marcus Aurelius (AD 161-180) the res publica of C. had a consilium decurionum. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19689f. Numerous inscriptions inform us about everyday life in C.: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19688-19847; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 2084-3398. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, folio 8, no. 91 H.-G. Pflaum, Remarques sur l'onomastique de Castellum Celtianum, in: E. Swoboda (ed.), Carnuntina, 1956, 126-151.

Aulodes

(40 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, modern Sidi Reiss. A. became a municipium under Septimius Severus. CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 14355. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 19, no. 9 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 75f.

Capsa

(168 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Africa | Limes Oasis town in southern Tunisia, modern Gafsa. C. was probably never Phoenician (despite Oros. 5,15,8; cf. Sall. Iug. 89,4). It is questionable whether it was ever Carthaginian. It was an important road junction from at the latest the Numidian period -- i. a. it lay on the road from Theveste to Takape (Sall. Iug. 89,4f.). In the course of the Jugurthine War, Marius conquered and destroyed C. in 106 BC (Sall. Iug. 91,3; Str. 17,3,12). In the Imperial Age, C. was rebuilt and given a constitution with sufetes: C…

Zoscales

(63 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζωσκάλης /Zōskálēs). Hellenistically influenced king who reigned in Axum and ruled from the territory of the Moschophagi (to the west of Ptolemaïs [6] Theron) to the area of Barbaria: Peripl. m. r. 5; the author of this 1st cent. AD work [1. 6 f.] describes Z. as a contemporary. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1989. F. Gisinger, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 844-848.

Mididi

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic M(j)ddm). An ancient Berber locality southwest of Mactaris, the modern Henchir Meded. M. came under strong Punic influence. Some 25 Neo-Punic inscriptions dating from around the 1st cent. BC have been found to date, including votive inscriptions for Baal Hamon, who was replaced by Saturnus from about the 2nd cent. AD. Cf. also CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 23356 ( Mars patrius). Other inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 608-618; 2, 11772-11778; Suppl. 4, 23357-23394 a; AE 1985, 902 (?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Some E. Lipiński, s.v. M., DCPP, 292 F. Vattioni, M. e le sue …

Succhabar

(107 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Plin. HN 5,21: Succhabar; Ptol. 4,2,25: Ζουχάββαρι/ Zouchábbari; Amm. Marc. 29,5,20: ' municipium Sugabarritanum'; cf. CIL VIII 2, 9607-9641; suppl. 3, 21481-21493) in the valley of Wadi Chéliff, modern Miliana (in Algeria). Punic names in inscriptions (CIL VIII 2, 9618; VIII suppl. 3, 21484) suggest Punic influence. Augustus founded the ' Colonia Iulia Augusta Zucchabar' there (AE 1940, 20). S. protected the route between Caesarea [1] and the interior of Mauretania. Roman Catholic bishops are recorded from AD 411 (PL 11, 1312: ' Epi…

Thubursicum

(246 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] T. Bure (Punic Tbrbš[ j]?). Punicized Berber town in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3.]; Aug. contra Cresconium 3,43,47; cf. Ptol. 4,3,29; Geogr. Rav 39,31), 8 km to the northwest of Thugga, modern Teboursouk. Evidence of a cult of Baal Hamon ( Interpretatio II. Romana: Frugifer; [1. 506]). A municipium from the time of Septimius [II 7] Severus, from Gallienus a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1424-1469; 2, 10618; Suppl. 1, 15254-15360; 4, 25994-26092; [1. 504-508; 2. 1329-1354; 3. 12]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 R. Cagnat et al. (ed.), Ins…

Chidibbia

(90 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis in the valley of Medjerda, modern Slouguia. Initially C. was a simple civitas, but at the latest at the end of the 2nd cent. AD, it was under the administration of undecimprimi (CIL VIII 1, 1327; Suppl. I, 14875) and in the 3rd cent., rose to the status of   municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1326-1352; VIII 2, 10614; Suppl. I, 14870-14879; BCTH 1932/33, 198f.; AE 1992, 513f. no. 1819. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 105.

Zabi

(98 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in Mauretania Sitifensis between Sitifis and Auzia, modern Henchir Bechilga (in Algeria). In the 3rd cent. AD the Mauretanian Limes (VIII C) ran near the city . In Not. Dign. Occ. 25,26 a praepositus limitis Zabensis is mentioned. Destroyed by the Vandals, Z. was rebuilt by Iustinianus [1] I (It. Ant. 30,3; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8805 f.; Suppl. 3, 20565). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 25, Nr. 85 C. Courtois, Les Vandales et l'Afrique, 1955 M. Leglay, s. v. Z. …

Rusicade

(192 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae Name of a promontory and the Punic base built nearby (in the later Roman province Numidia), modern Skikda in Algeria (Mela 1,33: Rusiccade; Plin. HN 5,22: R.; Ptol. 4,3,3: Ῥουσικάδα/ Rhousikáda; Tab. Peut. 3,3: R. colonia; Vibius Sequester, Geographia p. 151: Rusiccade; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44: Rusiccade oppidum; Geogr. Rav. 39,12: Russicade; 88,22: R.; Guido, Geographia 132,32: Rusicada). [1. 379] explains the name with R( ) š-( h) kd = 'Cap de la Cruche'. Numerous stelae indicate …

Aradi

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis; the modern Bou Arada west of El-Fahs; important ruins (inscription CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12444; 12445; Suppl. 4, 23861-23869 [1. 677-679]; BCTH 1930-1931, 126-128), among them a boundary stone of the   fossa regia (Bulletin Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques 1934/1935, 391). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin, Inscr. lat. de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, Bl. 34, no. 99 H. Dessau, s. v. Aradus no. 4, RE 2, 372 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire 2, 1981, 71 f.

Avedda

(70 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa proconsularis, situated to the north of Medjez el-Bab, today Henchir Bedd. A. was a municipium from the time of Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 14369; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 1206). Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 14369-14376; Inscr. latines d' Afrique 435-439; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 1206-1213; AE 1973, 193 no. 602. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, folio 19, no. 8.

Calama

(117 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Pilgrimage Probably a Libyan settlement of the later Africa proconsularis, 74 km south-west of Hippo Regius, modern Guelma, strongly influenced by Punic traditions (documentary evidence: KAI 165-169; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 1, 233; 290). Under Trajan (AD 98-117), it became a   municipium (Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 1, 285), and a   colonia before 283 (Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 1, 247). Imperial domains were located within the territory of C. (CIL VIII 1…

Uchi maius

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Township in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]) 12 km to the west of Thugga, modern Henchir Douemis. Marius [I 1] settled Gaetulian veterans there [1. 10]; they did not form a colonia but only a conventus of Carthage (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 26250; 26252; 26276). Under Septimius [II 7] Severus UM was a res publica (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 26255), in 230 AD a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15447; 15450; Suppl. 4, 26270;  cf. CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15446-15467; Suppl. 4, 26239-26415; [2. 1370-1372]). U. Minus (Plin. HN 5,29), like UM one of the 15 oppida civium Romanorum in the interior of t…

Siagu

(105 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis to the southwest of Neapolis [9] (Σιαγούλ/ Siagoúl: Ptol. 4,3,9; Tab. Peut. 6,1; civitas Siagitana: [1. 793]), modern Ksar el-Zit in eastern Tunisia. In 28 AD sufetes held the leading positions in the city (CIL V 1, 4922) - a sign of a strong Punic tradition. There are records of decuriones for the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD (CIL VIII 1, 964). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 964-967; suppl. 1, 12446-48; 4, 24090; [1. 792, 795]; AE 1933, 66. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, Bl. 37,…

Plynus

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πλυνός/ Plynós, Hdt. 4,168,2 and Lycoph. 149; Ps.-Scyl. 108: Πλῦνοι/ Plŷnoi; Str. 17,3,22: Πλῦνος/ Plŷnos). Port on the coast of northern Africa between  Cyrenaica and the Nile Delta, but although in the Bay of Sollum [1. 225f.], hardly identifiable with modern Sīdī Barrānī [2. 227]. P. was apparently an ancient Greek apoikía . In the 5th century BC the Adyrmachidae lived to the east of P. and the Giligamae to the west (Hdt. 4,168f.). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Laronde, Cyrène et la Libye hellénistique, 1987 2 F. Chamoux, Cyrène sous la monarchie des…

Agisymba

(108 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Region in central  Africa, probably north of Lake Chad. According to  Marinus of Tyre (Ptol. 1,8,5),  Iulius Maternus together with the king of the  Garamantes set off from  Garama to the south and, after four months and 14 days (Ptol. 1,11,5), reached the Ethiopian land of A., where they saw a great number of rhinoceros (cf. also Ptol. 1,7,2; 8,2; 6 f.; 9,8; 10,1; 11,4; 12,2; 4,8,5; 7,5,2). Maternus seems to have travelled as a trader between AD 83 and 92. To our knowledge, he penetrated further than any other Roman into the African interior. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliograp…

Abbir

(177 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
There are references to four north African places of that name: [German version] [1] A. (without addition) A. (without addition): mentioned in Acta conc. I 1112 A Hardouin and Not. episc. proc. Afr. 2a. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] A. Cella A. Cella: CIL VIII 1, 893; Suppl. 1, 12344. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [3] A. Germaniciana A. Germaniciana: Acta conc. I 164 A; 1252 A Hardouin. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [4] A. Maius A. Maius: AE 1975, 243 no. 872; Acta conc. I 1085 B Hardouin. These four places can possibly be reduced to just two: A. Cella or Maius and A.…

Aegimurus

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Αἰγίμουρος; Aigímouros). Island west of Cape Bon, c. 30 miles (Liv. 30,24,9) or 230 stades from  Carthage (It. Ant. 492,13; 515,1), modern Ile Zembra (Liv. 29,27,14; Str. 2,5,9; 6,2,11; 17,3,16; Ptol. 4,3,44: Αἰγίμιος / Aigímios; Steph. Byz.: Αἰγίμορος; Aigímoros). Plin. HN 5,42 had knowledge of duae Aegimoeroe (Ile Zembra and Ile Zembretta). Verg. Aen. 1,109 and Plin. HN 5,42 referred to both islands as arae [1. 250 annotation 270]. In this context, see also the remark by Serv. Aen. 1,108: saxa haec..., in quibus aiunt Poenorum sacerdotes rem divinam facere solitos.…

Regio Zeugitana

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The name of the northern part of the province Africa proconsularis (Africa 3., with map) before Diocletianus and, later, of Diocletianus' province Africa proconsularis (Diocletianus, with map); it derives from a native name (cf. mons Ziguensis, pagus Zeugius; Plin. HN 5,23; Mart. Cap. 6,669; Isid. Orig. 14,5,8; cf. Solin. 26,2; 27,1). The border ran from Tacatua (Takouch on Tunisia's north coast) southwards to the area south of Theveste and from there north-eastwards via Ammaedara, Althiburus and Abthugni to the region near Pupput (on Tunisia's east coast). Huß, We…

Zygantis

(78 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζυγαντίς/ Zygantís). City in Libya (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 337: πόλις Λιβύης/ pólis Libýēs). The Ζύγαντες ( Zýgantes) in Steph. Byz. s. v. Ζυγαντίς might be identical with the Γύζαντες ( Gýzantes) in Hdt. 4,194, since the same story about collecting honey is told about both. The Zygantes possibly lived on the Tunesian mainland across from the island of Cercina along with other tribes. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 97 f. K. Ziegler, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 859 f.

Pupput

(124 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]) 3 km north of Bir Bou Rekba, modern Souk el-Abiod (It. Ant. 52,4; 56,6; 58,3: Pupput or Putput of MS P; Tab. Peut. 6,2: P.; Geogr. Rav. 88,43: Pulpud; Guido, Geographia 132,64: Pulpite). The town, presumably marked by Punic influence, was a colonia from Commodus (AD 176-192) on (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 24092 f.: Pupput; 24095: colonia Puppit(anorum)). P. was the hometown of the jurist P. Salvius Iulianus [1] (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 24094). An episcopus Puppitanus is recorded for AD 484 (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 24091). Further inscri…

Thisdra

(193 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Θύσδρος/ Thýsdros, Lat. Thisdra). City in Byzacena (Africa [3]; Bell. Afr. 36,2; 76,1; 86,3; 93,1; Plin. HN 5,30; Ptol. 4,3,39; Hdn. 7,6,1), 60 km to the south of Hadrumetum, modern El Djem, with significant ancient remains (e.g. an amphitheatre). In the middle of the 1st cent. BC an insignificant market town (Bell. Afr. 97,4), in which Caesar or Augustus evidently settled veterans ( Colonia Iulia T. [1. 183]). In the 2nd cent. AD T. experienced economic growth, primarily as a result of an incre…

Zeta

(75 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Byzacena (Byzacium), variously located (Sidi Nejah, to the southwest of Aggar: [1]; Henchir Zeiat or Zaiet, to the south of Sousse: [2]). It was conquered in the African War by Caesar's troops. Caesar left a garrison in Z. (Bell. Afr. 68; cf. 74,1). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 S. Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du Nord, vol. 8, 1928, 112-115 2 AATun 050, sheet 51, Nr. 9-11. M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 238.

Tigisis

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Fortified city in Numidia (Numidae; Tab. Peut. 3,5) on a hill dominating the Plain of Bahiret et-Touila to the southeast of Cirta, modern Aïn el-Bordj. Initially part of the colonia of Cirta, T. later became independent ( curator, ordo are recorded). Bishops are recorded from 305 onwards (Aug. Epist. 43; Aug. contra Cresconium 3,27,30). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 4817-4819; 2, 10162f.; 10819-10826; Suppl. 2, 18764-18782; AE 1957, 175. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 17, No.340  F. Windberg, s.v. T. (1), RE 6 A, 957.

Zigua

(98 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis at the foot of Djebel Zaghouan. Some 30 neo-Punic stelai attest to the cult of Saturnus/Baal Hamon (Baal). One of these stelai bears a neo-Punic inscription (Répertoire d'épigraphie sémitique II, 598). Neo-Punic graves also indicate the Punic past of the city. In the Roman period a well installation supplied the great Aqueduct of Carthage (cf. CIL VIII 1, 895-905; 2, 10523 f.; Suppl. 1, 12424-12431; AE 1984, 739?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 35, Nr. 104 M. Leglay, Saturne africain: monuments, vol. 1, 1961, …

Suthul

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian town (Numidae). Storage place of Iugurtha's treasures, which the legatus A. Postumius (cf. Postumius [I 9]), acting as pro-praetor, wanted to seize (Sall. Iug. 37,3; 38,2). S. lay on top of a steep "mountain" and was "surrounded by a muddy plain" (Sall. Iug. 37,4). According to Oros. Hist. 5,15,6, "the royal treasures lay near the town of Calama". However, since S. cannot be identified with Calama, its location remains unknown. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography E. Honigmann, s.v. S., RE 4 A, 989.

Lambafundi

(130 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Thamugadi, modern Henchir Touchine (CIL VIII 1, 2438 = Suppl. 2, 17941 [ saltus? La] m[ b] afundensium; Tab. Peut. 3,3: Lambafudi; Geogr. Rav. 39,40: Lambafudin). The following designations of origin may be attributable to the episcopal see of L.: Lampuensis ( plebs) (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 411, 1,133,292), Iamfuensis (Not. episcoporum Numidiae 87a), Lamfuensis (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 525; [2. 647]). In Procop. Aed. 6,7,10, a Numidian town newly fortified by Iustinianus is named as Λαμφουαομβά/ Lamphoua…

Cartennae

(103 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Καρτέννα[ι], Κάρτιν[ν]α; Karténna[i], Kártin[n]a). Probably a Punic town in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Ténès (sources: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,4; It. Ant. 14,2; Aug. Epist. 93,20-22; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia 47; Geogr. Rav. 40,46; 88,9). In around 30 BC, C. admitted a colonia of veterans. C. was important as a harbour town, not least as a landing place for the vexillationes, deployed in the battles against the Mauri. Inscriptions: CIL V…

Avitta Bibba

(115 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀουΐττα; Aouítta). City in Africa proconsularis, on the connecting road running from west to east between Agbia and Pupput; today Henchir Bou Ftis. (Plin. HN 5,30 oppidum Avittense; Ptol. 4,3,31; Tab. Peut. 5,4). The Punic influence is demonstrated by the constitution of the city which had sufetes (CIL VIII 1, 797). A. was a municipium (CIL VIII 1, 799; 800; 1177) from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 796-813; 1177; Suppl. 1, 12265-12284; Suppl. 4, 23875; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 670-675; AE 1989, 290 no. 893.  Sufetes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) B…

Novar

(94 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Caesariensis between Sitifis and Cuicul, modern Beni Fouda or Sillègue. Saturnus (27 steles of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD) was the focus of its cultic life. The genius of N. (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20429; 20430), Ceres [1. 403] and Mercury (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20431) were also worshipped. Other inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20431-20483. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Poulle, in: Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de Constantine 19, 1878, 402ff. AAA, sheet 16, no. 216  E. Lipiński, s.v. N., DCPP, 315-317.

Zabe

(65 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζάβη/ Zábē). Moorish region ( chṓra), Mauritanía hē prṓtē ('First Mauretania') as a Byzantine province, beyond the Aurès mountains, probably the area of Chott el-Hodna (in Algeria): Procop. Vand. 2,20,30. Sitifis was the mētrópolis [2] of this region. Not identical with the city of Zabi (It. Ant. 30,3). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Courtois, Les Vandales et l'Afrique, 1955 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2203 f.

Choba

(67 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Coba, Χωβάθ; Chōbáth, Χωβάτ; Chōbát). Town in Mauretania Caesariensis, 50 km east of Saldae; the modern Ziama. (Sources: Ptol. 4,2,9; It. Ant. 18,2; Tab. Peut. 2,5; Geogr. Rav. 40,22). Municipium under Hadrian (AD 117-138) : CIL VIII 2, 8375 [1. 495-497] (additional inscription: CIL VIII 2, 8374-8378; Suppl. 3, 20214). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 L. Leschi, in: BCTH 1946-1949, appeared 1953. J.-P. Laporte, s.v. Choba, EB, 1933-1935.

Zarai

(126 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Numidia near the Mauretanian border, modern Zraia (to the northwest of Batna in Algeria; It. Ant. 35,7; Tab. Peut. 2,3: Zaras). In the time of Hadrian, a cohors was stationed in Z. (CIL VIII 1, 2532 = Suppl. 2, 18042). A customs tariff of the year AD 202 was discovered in Z. (CIL VIII 1, 4508 = Suppl. 2, 18643) which gives important information on questions of economic law and history [1. 7-23]. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2532; 4508-4574; 2, 10765; Suppl. 2, 18042; 18643-18645. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. P. Darmon, Note sur le Tarif de Zaraï, in: L…

Idicra

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Numidia south of Milev-Cuicul line, the modern Azziz-ben-Tellis (It. Ant. 28,4). Two inscriptions tell of a tariff of sacrifices for the cult of African gods (CIL VIII 1, 8246f.); further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 8243-8266. In the 4th and 5th cents. I. was an episcopal see (Optatus 2,18, p. 53,4; 19, p. 54,14; Notitia episcopatuum Numidiae 16a). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 17, no. 214.

Quiza

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Caesariensis, northeast of Portus [5] Magnus on the right bank of the Oued Chelif (Plin. HN 5,19: Q. Cenitana; Ptol. 4,2,3: Κούϊζα κολωνία/ Koúïza kolōnía;  It. Ant. 13,9: Q. municipium), modern El-Benian. Duumviri are attested for AD 128 (CIL VIII 2, 9697); there is also mention of a disp( unctor) reip( ublicae) Q( uizensium) ('comptroller of the city of Q.', CIL VIII 2, 9699). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9697-9703; suppl. 3, 21514 f. Significant ruins survive. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, leaf 11, no. 2  P. Cadenat, Q. et Mina ..., in:…

Abba

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἄββα; Ábba, varia lectio Obba, Liv. 30,7,10). Town in   Africa proconsularis .  Syphax retreated to A. in 203 BC, after his encampment near  Utica had been burned down by C.  Laelius and  Massinissa (Pol. 14,6,12; 7,5). A.'s location most likely corresponds to either the modern Henchir Bou Djaoua or Henchir Merkeb en-Nabi [1. 430 f.]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 2, 1967. AATun 100, sheet 29, no. 87 f.

Macrobii

(277 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Μακρόβιοι; Makróbioi, Lat. Macrobii). [German version] [1] According to Herodotus 'the long-lived Ethiopians' According to Herodotus, Cambyses had also the intention of campaigning against the ‘long-living Ethiopians’ (μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, Hdt. 3,17,1), who lived on the ‘southern sea’ (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ, Hdt. l.c.; cf. also Hdt. 3,21-23). Since this notíēi thalássēi (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ) of Herodotus' is lost in mythical darkness, it is useless to speculate on the locales of the ‘long-living Ethiopians’, who are occasionally incorrectly separated from…

Mina

(393 words)

Author(s): Hitzl, Konrad (Tübingen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Unit of weight and coinage The mina (μνᾶ/ mná), with its multiples and divisions, was the most common Greek unit of weight alongside the stater. It was set on the one hand by the theoretical weight of the drachma coin minted in the city concerned, and on the other hand by the number of Drachmai which equated to a mina. The view long current in research that every mina weighed 100 drachmai, has been refuted. On Aegina, the mina (coin and weight) amounted to 70 drachmai (70×6.237 g = 436.6 g); the Corinthian mina was probably commensurate to it, equating to 150 drachmai (150×2.91…

Casae

(168 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [2] Town in the province of Numidia Town in the province of  Numidia, north-east of Lambaesis, modern El Mahder. The small settlement developed into a town and -- probably under the Severan emperors -- became a municipium (CIL VIII 1, 4327). A division of the legio III Augusta was garrisoned there: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 18532. Inscription: CIL VIII 1, 4322-4353; Suppl. 2, 18527-18539. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 27, no. 141 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 400f. [German version] [1] Town in Cilicia (Κάσαι; Kásai). Town in  Cilicia …

Lares

(1,355 words)

Author(s): Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] ( Lar, Lares). [German version] A. Nature of the lares The lares (Old Latin Lases [1]; cf. Etruscan Lasa = Nympha) are Roman spirits, which were worshipped in houses, on streets and at crossroads (= Manes: Arnob. 3,41; Serv. Aen. 3,302; = daímones: Cic. Tim. 38; CGL 2,121,17; 265,62; = hḗrōes: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,2; Plut. Mor. 316f; CGL 2,121,14; 3,290,56); they were equated with the deified souls of the dead (e.g. Paul Fest. 273). Servius (Aen. 6,152) has the worship of the lares come from primeval household burials. The lares are male and capable of procreation;…

Hippo

(524 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ἱππώ; Hippṓ). [German version] [1] Oceanid  Oceanid, perhaps the goddess of a ‘horse well’. Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Amazon  Amazon (= Hippolyte, Callim. H. 3,239ff.; 266f.). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [3] Daughter of Chiron Daughter of  Chiron (= Hippe), mistress of Hellen's son  Aeolus [1]. Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [4] Wet-nurse of Dionysus Wet-nurse of Dionysus (= Hippa, Orph. H. 48; 49; Procl. in Pl. Ti. 124c). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [5] Punic foundation This item can be found on the following maps: Thea…

Naustathmus

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ναύσταθμος; Naústathmos). [German version] [1] Harbour town in the south east of Sicily Harbour town in the south east of Sicily, on the coast between Syracusae and the mouth of the Helorus [2] (Plin. HN 3,89), probably at Fontane Bianche. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 58. [German version] [2] Harbour in the north eastern Cyrenaica Harbour in north eastern Cyrenaica, on the eastern side of the promontory of the same name (modern Ras el-Hilal). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM 1,83); S…

Daras

(191 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] [1] River which rises in the Upper Atlas River which rises in the Upper Atlas (Δύρις; Dýris), flows through the region to the south of the Anti-Atlas mountains and into the Atlantic Ocean, today known as Oued Dra. Other forms of the name: Dyris, Vitr. De arch. 8,2,6; Darat, Plin. HN 5,9; Δάραδος or Δάρας; Dárados or Dáras, Ptol. 4,6,6; 9; 14; Dara, Oros. 1,2,31. It is possible that the D. can be identified with the Λίξος ( Líxos) mentioned by Hanno, Periplus 6 (GGM 1,5) and the Ξιῶν/ X iôn mentioned by [Scyl.] 112 (GGM 1,93). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. T. Fischer, s.v. …

Genre, genre theory

(4,401 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Huss, Bernhard (Munich)
Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] A. Ancient Foundations (CT) In Antiquity, the genre debate was largely determined by Aristotle's Poetics and Horace's Ars poetica ( Epistula ad Pisones). The views expressed in these texts, albeit at times contradictory, affected the entire modern reception of the ancient genre debate. The trend towards a normative poetics, and thus a prescriptive understanding of ancient theorems, was generally dominant and already evident in Horace's thinking [18. 257]. In the modern debate, theref…
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