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Zigua

(98 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis at the foot of Djebel Zaghouan. Some 30 neo-Punic stelai attest to the cult of Saturnus/Baal Hamon (Baal). One of these stelai bears a neo-Punic inscription (Répertoire d'épigraphie sémitique II, 598). Neo-Punic graves also indicate the Punic past of the city. In the Roman period a well installation supplied the great Aqueduct of Carthage (cf. CIL VIII 1, 895-905; 2, 10523 f.; Suppl. 1, 12424-12431; AE 1984, 739?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 35, Nr. 104 M. Leglay, Saturne africain: monuments, vol. 1, 1961, …

Triton

(545 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τρίτων/ Trítōn, Latin Triton). [German version] [1] Sea deity Sea deity with the upper body of a human and the tail of a fish, sometimes also as an ichthyocentaur with the forelegs of a horse (Tzetz. Lycophr. 34; 886), son of Poseidon and Amphitrite (Hes. Theog. 930-933), who stirs up the waters with his conch shell and calms them again (Verg. Aen. 10,209-212; Ov. Met. 1,330-342). Like the related sea gods  Glaucus [1], Halios geron, Nereus, Phorcys [1] and Proteus, T. in particular is a figure of liter…

Suthul

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian town (Numidae). Storage place of Iugurtha's treasures, which the legatus A. Postumius (cf. Postumius [I 9]), acting as pro-praetor, wanted to seize (Sall. Iug. 37,3; 38,2). S. lay on top of a steep "mountain" and was "surrounded by a muddy plain" (Sall. Iug. 37,4). According to Oros. Hist. 5,15,6, "the royal treasures lay near the town of Calama". However, since S. cannot be identified with Calama, its location remains unknown. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography E. Honigmann, s.v. S., RE 4 A, 989.

Lambafundi

(130 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Thamugadi, modern Henchir Touchine (CIL VIII 1, 2438 = Suppl. 2, 17941 [ saltus? La] m[ b] afundensium; Tab. Peut. 3,3: Lambafudi; Geogr. Rav. 39,40: Lambafudin). The following designations of origin may be attributable to the episcopal see of L.: Lampuensis ( plebs) (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 411, 1,133,292), Iamfuensis (Not. episcoporum Numidiae 87a), Lamfuensis (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 525; [2. 647]). In Procop. Aed. 6,7,10, a Numidian town newly fortified by Iustinianus is named as Λαμφουαομβά/ Lamphoua…

Cartennae

(103 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Καρτέννα[ι], Κάρτιν[ν]α; Karténna[i], Kártin[n]a). Probably a Punic town in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Ténès (sources: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,4; It. Ant. 14,2; Aug. Epist. 93,20-22; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia 47; Geogr. Rav. 40,46; 88,9). In around 30 BC, C. admitted a colonia of veterans. C. was important as a harbour town, not least as a landing place for the vexillationes, deployed in the battles against the Mauri. Inscriptions: CIL V…

Avitta Bibba

(115 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀουΐττα; Aouítta). City in Africa proconsularis, on the connecting road running from west to east between Agbia and Pupput; today Henchir Bou Ftis. (Plin. HN 5,30 oppidum Avittense; Ptol. 4,3,31; Tab. Peut. 5,4). The Punic influence is demonstrated by the constitution of the city which had sufetes (CIL VIII 1, 797). A. was a municipium (CIL VIII 1, 799; 800; 1177) from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 796-813; 1177; Suppl. 1, 12265-12284; Suppl. 4, 23875; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 670-675; AE 1989, 290 no. 893.  Sufetes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) B…

Novar

(94 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Caesariensis between Sitifis and Cuicul, modern Beni Fouda or Sillègue. Saturnus (27 steles of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD) was the focus of its cultic life. The genius of N. (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20429; 20430), Ceres [1. 403] and Mercury (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20431) were also worshipped. Other inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20431-20483. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Poulle, in: Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de Constantine 19, 1878, 402ff. AAA, sheet 16, no. 216  E. Lipiński, s.v. N., DCPP, 315-317.

Zabe

(65 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζάβη/ Zábē). Moorish region ( chṓra), Mauritanía hē prṓtē ('First Mauretania') as a Byzantine province, beyond the Aurès mountains, probably the area of Chott el-Hodna (in Algeria): Procop. Vand. 2,20,30. Sitifis was the mētrópolis [2] of this region. Not identical with the city of Zabi (It. Ant. 30,3). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Courtois, Les Vandales et l'Afrique, 1955 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2203 f.

Choba

(67 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Coba, Χωβάθ; Chōbáth, Χωβάτ; Chōbát). Town in Mauretania Caesariensis, 50 km east of Saldae; the modern Ziama. (Sources: Ptol. 4,2,9; It. Ant. 18,2; Tab. Peut. 2,5; Geogr. Rav. 40,22). Municipium under Hadrian (AD 117-138) : CIL VIII 2, 8375 [1. 495-497] (additional inscription: CIL VIII 2, 8374-8378; Suppl. 3, 20214). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 L. Leschi, in: BCTH 1946-1949, appeared 1953. J.-P. Laporte, s.v. Choba, EB, 1933-1935.

Zarai

(126 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Numidia near the Mauretanian border, modern Zraia (to the northwest of Batna in Algeria; It. Ant. 35,7; Tab. Peut. 2,3: Zaras). In the time of Hadrian, a cohors was stationed in Z. (CIL VIII 1, 2532 = Suppl. 2, 18042). A customs tariff of the year AD 202 was discovered in Z. (CIL VIII 1, 4508 = Suppl. 2, 18643) which gives important information on questions of economic law and history [1. 7-23]. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2532; 4508-4574; 2, 10765; Suppl. 2, 18042; 18643-18645. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. P. Darmon, Note sur le Tarif de Zaraï, in: L…

Idicra

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Numidia south of Milev-Cuicul line, the modern Azziz-ben-Tellis (It. Ant. 28,4). Two inscriptions tell of a tariff of sacrifices for the cult of African gods (CIL VIII 1, 8246f.); further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 8243-8266. In the 4th and 5th cents. I. was an episcopal see (Optatus 2,18, p. 53,4; 19, p. 54,14; Notitia episcopatuum Numidiae 16a). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 17, no. 214.

Quiza

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Caesariensis, northeast of Portus [5] Magnus on the right bank of the Oued Chelif (Plin. HN 5,19: Q. Cenitana; Ptol. 4,2,3: Κούϊζα κολωνία/ Koúïza kolōnía;  It. Ant. 13,9: Q. municipium), modern El-Benian. Duumviri are attested for AD 128 (CIL VIII 2, 9697); there is also mention of a disp( unctor) reip( ublicae) Q( uizensium) ('comptroller of the city of Q.', CIL VIII 2, 9699). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9697-9703; suppl. 3, 21514 f. Significant ruins survive. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, leaf 11, no. 2  P. Cadenat, Q. et Mina ..., in:…

Abba

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἄββα; Ábba, varia lectio Obba, Liv. 30,7,10). Town in   Africa proconsularis .  Syphax retreated to A. in 203 BC, after his encampment near  Utica had been burned down by C.  Laelius and  Massinissa (Pol. 14,6,12; 7,5). A.'s location most likely corresponds to either the modern Henchir Bou Djaoua or Henchir Merkeb en-Nabi [1. 430 f.]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 2, 1967. AATun 100, sheet 29, no. 87 f.

Ammaedara

(263 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes (Ἀμμαίδαρα; Ammaídara). Town in Africa proconsularis [5. 147, n. 756] between  Althiburus and  Theveste (Ptol. 4,3,30), modern Haïdra; for other forms of the name [4. 1841]. Originally, A. was probably a settlement of the  Musulamii [2. 117-121]. Because of its strategically important location, which allowed it to control important communication roads and to cover the southern flank of Africa proconsularis, the   legio III Augusta was relocated to the vicinity of A. dur…

Bagae

(159 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in  Numidia, located between the Aurès mountains to the south and the salt lake Garaat al-Tarf to the north, called Ksar Baghai today, originally perhaps a local castellum. There is evidence for a council of decuriones in the year AD 162 (CIL VIII 1, 2275). A diocesan town in 256, it became one of the most important centres of  Donatism in late antiquity [1. 284, 304, 719-723]. For example in the year 394, 310 Donatist bishops assembled in B. (Aug. Epist. Parmeniani 3,4,21; c. Cresconium grammaticum 3f.). B. wa…

Emporia

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] As Emporia in a strict sense are to be understood all the cities of the Syrtis Minor but in a broader sense the cities of the Syrtis Minor and the Byssatis or the Syrtis Minor and the Tripolitania or the Syrtis Minor, the Byssatis and the Tripolitania. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Bresson, P. Rouillard (ed.), L'emporion, 1993 R. Rebuffat, Où étaient les emporia?, in: Semitica 39, 1990, 111-126.

Cephalae

(46 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κεφαλαί; Kephalaí). Foothills (literally ‘heads’), marking the western entrance to the Great Syrte, modern Cape Mesrâta or Râs Bou-Chaifa. Str. 17,3,19; Plut. Dion 25,8; Ptol. 4,3,13; Stadiasmus maris magni 92 (GGM I 460). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. K., RE 11, 190.

Casae

(168 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [2] Town in the province of Numidia Town in the province of  Numidia, north-east of Lambaesis, modern El Mahder. The small settlement developed into a town and -- probably under the Severan emperors -- became a municipium (CIL VIII 1, 4327). A division of the legio III Augusta was garrisoned there: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 18532. Inscription: CIL VIII 1, 4322-4353; Suppl. 2, 18527-18539. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 27, no. 141 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 400f. [German version] [1] Town in Cilicia (Κάσαι; Kásai). Town in  Cilicia …

Zygritai

(48 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζυγρῖται; Zygrîtai). Libyan people to the west of Catabathmus and to the east of the Chattani (Ptol. 4,5,22), approximately in the area of Sidi Barrani (in modern Libya). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 174  M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 857.

Oea

(319 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Wjt). City on the coast of Africa Tripolitania between Sabratha and Leptis Magna, modern Tripoli. Evidence: Mela 1,37; Plin. HN 5,27; 38; Sil. Pun. 3,257; Ptol. Geog. 4,3,12 (Ἐῶα; Eôa); It. Ant. 62,2 ( Ocea colonia); Tab. Peut. 7,3 ( Osa colonia); Stadiasmus maris magni 98f. (GGM 1,463f.). Probably a Phoenician foundation [1. 36, 74]. Colonists from Africa and Sicily participated in the later expansion of the city (Sil. Pun.…

Nigritae

(142 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νιγρῖται; Nigrîtai). Following the Periplus of Ophelas (?), Str. 17,3,3 maintains that, together with the Pharusii, the N. lived a 30 days' journey from Lynx (Lix [1], present-day Larache). Str. 2,5,33 places them - like the Pharusii and Garamantes - in the regions which lie between the Gaetuli and the Aethiopes. In warfare the N., the Pharusii and the Aethiopes made use of bows as well as chariots with sickle-shaped blades attached to the axles. References: Str. 17,3,7 (Νίγρητες)…

Curubis

(76 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in the Africa Proconsularis, situated on the east coast of the Bon Peninsula, modern Korba. At the time of Caesar it was a colonia. Literary evidence: Plin. HN. 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,8 (Κουραβίς, Κούροβις); It. Ant. 56,7; 57,5; 493,9. Inscription.: CIL VIII 1, 977-981; Suppl. 1, 12451-12453; Suppl. 4, 24099-24102; [1. 386].  Cap Bon Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Bull. Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques 1930-1931. S. Lancel, E. Lipiński, s.v. Cap Bon, DCPP, 88f.

Uthina

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City (probably of Libyan origin) in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; Plin. HN. 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,34; 8,14,11; Tab. Peut. 5,5 incorrectly Uthica) some 30 km to the south of Carthage, modern Oudna, with many archaeological remains (triumphal arch, temple, theatre, thermal baths, amphitheatre). It remains questionable whether U. is identical to Adys (Pol. 1,30,5; [1. 89]), where in 256 BC Carthaginians and Romans for the first time came into conflict on African soil. Caesar or the later Augustus founded in U. a colonia for the veterans of the Thirteenth Legion.…

Gir

(72 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River that has its source in the high Atlas Mountains, presumably the Oued Guir. C.  Suetonius Paullinus advanced to it with his troops in AD 42. References: Plin. HN 5,15 ( Ger); Ptol. 4,6,13; 16; 31 (Γείρ; Geír); Geogr. Rav. p. 2,69; 3,14; 36,28; 37,11 ( Ger); Claud. Carm. 21,252 ( Gir); Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 31 (GGM II 502; Γίρ; Gír). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Dessau, s.v. G., RE VII 1, 1366.

Apisa Maius

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis; the modern Henchir Tarf ech-Chena. In AD 28 A. was led by two   sufetes with Punic names and surnames; from the 3rd cent. AD a   municipium . Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Inscriptions: CIL V 1, 4921; 8,1, 774-791; Suppl. 1, 12233-12240; Suppl. 4, 23843-23846. AATun 50, folio 34, no. 111 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire 2, 1981, 68-70.

Naraggara

(172 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis, 33 km to the northwest of Sicca Veneria, modern Sidi Youssef. The name, a Libyan inscription [1.570] and a bilingual one in Latin and Neo-Punic  (CIL VIII 1, 4636 = Suppl. 1, 16811 = ILAlg 1,1186) suggest a pre-Roman origin for the city. Evidence: Ptol. 4,3,30 (Ναράγγαρα/ Narángara); Itin. Anton. 41,5; 44,7 ( N.); Tab. Peut. 4,4 ( N.); Geogr. Rav. 39,18 ( Narragara). N. was a city by Roman Law (CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 18085; ILAlg 1,1189). Cultic worship of the Berber god Iocolon (ILAlg 1,1184) and the Punic-Roman goddes…

Lambiridi

(93 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Lamasba, modern Kherbet Ouled Arif. Literary evidence: Tab. Peut. 3,1 ( Lambiridi); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44 ( Lamuiridi oppidum); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,206,32 ( episcopus Lambiriditanus); Not. episcoporum Numidiae 19a ( Iamuiritanus). L. was a municipium in the 3rd cent. AD. Some ruins are preserved - including a grave with a mosaic, opinions vary as to its interpretation [1. 464]. Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 1, 4413-4435; Suppl. 2, 18564-18584. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Le …

Maxula

(185 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Μαξοῦλα/ Maxoûla). City in the province of Africa proconsularis ( Africa [3]), to the east of Tynes, modern Radès. Sources: Ptol. 4,3,7 (Μαξοῦλα/ Maxoûla); 4,3,34 (Μαξοῦλα παλαιά/ Maxoûla palaiá); It. Ant. 57,3 ( M. Prates); 58,1 ( M. Civitas); Tab. Peut. 6,1; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 122f. (GGM 1,471); Geogr. Rav. 88,38. Since it was located by the sea, it is possible that at times the Greeks (also) called it Leukòs Týnes (Λευκὸς Τύνης, Diod. Sic. 20,8,7) [1. 66-68]. Traces of Punic influence have been fo…

Barke

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete (Βάρκη; Bárkē). Greek city in  Cyrenaica, 97 km north-east of Benghasi, today Barka, founded by Cyrenaicans in the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Grain and   silphion allowed B. to reach its peak quickly. (Sources: Hdt. 3,13; 3,91; 4,160-205; Aen. Tact. 37,6f.; Heraclid. Pont. 4,2 (FHG II 212); Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM I 83); FGrH 115 Theopompus of Chios F 103; Diod. Sic. 1,68,2; 18,20,3; Sil. Pun. 2,62; 3,251; Polyaenus, Strat. 7…

Garamantes

(206 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Berber tribe in the Libyan interior centered on  Garama. References: Hdt. 4,174; 183,1-184,1; Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,19; 23; Liv. 29,33,9; Mela 1,23; 45; Plin. HN 5,26; 36; 38; 6,209; 8,142; 178; 13,111; Flor. Epit. 2,31; Ptol. 1,8,5-7; 9,9; 10,2; 4,6,16; Solin. 29,7; 30,2; Arnob. 6,5; Tab. Peut. 7,4; Amm. Marc. 22,15,2; Oros. 1,2,88; 90; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48; B 47; Chronicum Alexandrinum in: Chron. min. 1, p. 107,167; Isid. Orig. 9,2,128; Geogr. Rav. p. 36,22-40. The influence of the G., who perhaps included a sub-Saharan racial element, exten…

Rapidum

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes City in Mauretania (III. B.) Caesariensis, about 24 km to the west of Auzia on the Limes (Limes VIII.C., with map), modern Sour Djouab (It. Ant. 30,7: Rapidi; 38,9: Rapido castra). In AD 122 Hadrianus founded a castrum at R. (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20833). In 167 the veterani et pagani consistentes aput R. ('veterans and farmers at R.') built the walls of the city adjacent to the castrum  (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20834 f.). After being destroyed more than once, R., then a municipium , was rebuilt by Diocletianus…

Lares

(1,355 words)

Author(s): Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] ( Lar, Lares). [German version] A. Nature of the lares The lares (Old Latin Lases [1]; cf. Etruscan Lasa = Nympha) are Roman spirits, which were worshipped in houses, on streets and at crossroads (= Manes: Arnob. 3,41; Serv. Aen. 3,302; = daímones: Cic. Tim. 38; CGL 2,121,17; 265,62; = hḗrōes: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,2; Plut. Mor. 316f; CGL 2,121,14; 3,290,56); they were equated with the deified souls of the dead (e.g. Paul Fest. 273). Servius (Aen. 6,152) has the worship of the lares come from primeval household burials. The lares are male and capable of procreation;…

Bezereos

(91 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes Castellum at the limes Tripolitanus, east of the Chott el-Djerid, modern Sidi Mohammed ben Aïssa (near Bir Rhezen; it was occupied at the latest since Commodus (AD 180-192) (Inscr. latines d'Afrique 26), and, in AD 201, accommodated a vexillatio of the legio III Augusta (Inscr. latines d' Afrique 27). Epigraphical evidence: Inscr. latines d'Afrique 26-32; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 56-59; It. Ant. 74,5; Not. Dign. occ. 31,5; 31,20. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography P. Trousset, s.v. B., EB, 1487f.

Hippo

(524 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ἱππώ; Hippṓ). [German version] [1] Oceanid  Oceanid, perhaps the goddess of a ‘horse well’. Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Amazon  Amazon (= Hippolyte, Callim. H. 3,239ff.; 266f.). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [3] Daughter of Chiron Daughter of  Chiron (= Hippe), mistress of Hellen's son  Aeolus [1]. Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [4] Wet-nurse of Dionysus Wet-nurse of Dionysus (= Hippa, Orph. H. 48; 49; Procl. in Pl. Ti. 124c). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [5] Punic foundation This item can be found on the following maps: Thea…

Thelepte

(129 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa Byzacena (Africa [3]); important road hub, 77 km to the north-northwest of Capsa, modern Medinet el-Kdima, with significant ancient remains. A municipium possibly from the time of Vespasianus, from the time of Traianus [1] a colonia. In 354 AD the dux of Africa Byzacena was resident there (Cod. Iust. 1,27,2,1; cf. It. Ant. 77,4; Tab. Peut. 4,5; Procop. Aed. 6,6,18). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 176-183; 211; 216; 2094; 2565 b; CIL VIII 2, 10032-10037; Suppl. 1, 11263-11273; 4, 23181-23186; [1. 56]. Huß, We…

Nasamones

(182 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νασαμῶνες; Nasamônes). Libyan tribe, which for a long time was resident in the Great Syrtis. Evidence: Hdt. 2,32,1f.; 4,172-174; Ps.-Scyl. 109 (GGM 1,84); Diod. 3,49,1, who, however, in  17,50 erroneously transplants it to the area north of the oasis of Siwa; Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,20; Plin. HN. 5,33; Ptol. 4,5,21; 30; Tab. Peut. 8,2f. ( Nesamones). In summer the N. grazed their herds near the coast and migrated to the Augila (modern Auǧila) oasis to harvest dates. They buried their dead in a sitting position. They prophesied from dreams …

Madaurus

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Punic Wars Numidian city of the later province of Africa proconsularis ( Africa [3]), situated c. 25 km south of Tagaste near modern Mdaourouch: Ptol. 4,3,30 (Μάδουρος; Mádouros); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia B 44 ( Madauros). According to Apul. Apol. 24, M. initially belonged to the kingdom of Syphax, then to that of Massinissa. In the Flavian period (AD 69-96), M. was the place of residence ( colonia) of veterans [1. 2152]. The little town developed into a centre of Roman life…

Naustathmus

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ναύσταθμος; Naústathmos). [German version] [1] Harbour town in the south east of Sicily Harbour town in the south east of Sicily, on the coast between Syracusae and the mouth of the Helorus [2] (Plin. HN 3,89), probably at Fontane Bianche. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 58. [German version] [2] Harbour in the north eastern Cyrenaica Harbour in north eastern Cyrenaica, on the eastern side of the promontory of the same name (modern Ras el-Hilal). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM 1,83); S…

Numerus Syrorum

(88 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Military base on the Limes (Limes VIII, with map) of Mauretania Caesariensis between Oujda and Tlemcen, modern Marnia, named after the numerus Severianus Alexandrinus Syrorum stationed there in the 3rd cent. AD. CIL VIII 2, 9961-9987; 10467-10470; Suppl. 3, 21798-21808. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAA, Bl. 41, Nr. 1  H.T. Rowell, s.v. Numerus, RE 17, 2537-2554, hier 2553f.  P. Salama, La voie romaine de la vallée de la Tafna, in: Bull. d'archéologie Algérienne 2, 1966/7, 183-217.

Galata

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Small island off the north African coast between Karalis and Thabraca (modern Tabarka), formed from volcanic rocks, modern Galita. Source references: Mela 2,120; Plin. HN 3,92; 5,42; 35,202; Ptol. 4,3,44 (Καλάθη; Kaláthē); It. Ant. 494,7-495,1; 514,4-8 (providing some wrong distances); Tab. Peut. 3,4; Liber generationis, Chron. min. 1, p. 103,134; 109,212; Liber genealogus, Chron. min. 1, p. 168,165; Mart. Cap. 6,645; Geogr. Rav. p. 102,1. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Toutain, Note sur l'île de la Galite, in: MEFRA 11, 1891, 454-456.

Daras

(191 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] [1] River which rises in the Upper Atlas River which rises in the Upper Atlas (Δύρις; Dýris), flows through the region to the south of the Anti-Atlas mountains and into the Atlantic Ocean, today known as Oued Dra. Other forms of the name: Dyris, Vitr. De arch. 8,2,6; Darat, Plin. HN 5,9; Δάραδος or Δάρας; Dárados or Dáras, Ptol. 4,6,6; 9; 14; Dara, Oros. 1,2,31. It is possible that the D. can be identified with the Λίξος ( Líxos) mentioned by Hanno, Periplus 6 (GGM 1,5) and the Ξιῶν/ X iôn mentioned by [Scyl.] 112 (GGM 1,93). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. T. Fischer, s.v. …

Quinquegentiani

(93 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribal group, settled in the Great Kabylia (modern Algeria) between Rusuccuru and Saldae (?), which was finally subjugated by Maximianus [1]. References: Pan. Lat. 7,8,6; Eutr. 9,22 f.; Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,22; Oros. 7,25,4; 7,25,8; Iord. Historia Romana 297; 300; Get. 110; Zon. 12,31. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2615; 2, 8836; 8924; 9010(?); AE 1985, 902(?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 67  L. Galand, Les Quinquegentanei, in: Bulletin d'archéologie algérienne 4, 1970, 297-299  H. Treidler, s. v.…

Genre, genre theory

(4,401 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Huss, Bernhard (Munich)
Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] A. Ancient Foundations (CT) In Antiquity, the genre debate was largely determined by Aristotle's Poetics and Horace's Ars poetica ( Epistula ad Pisones). The views expressed in these texts, albeit at times contradictory, affected the entire modern reception of the ancient genre debate. The trend towards a normative poetics, and thus a prescriptive understanding of ancient theorems, was generally dominant and already evident in Horace's thinking [18. 257]. In the modern debate, theref…

Ampelusia

(89 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀμπελουσία; Ampelousía). Greek name of Cape Spartel (north-west Africa) -- ‘Cape of the vineyards’ (Mela 1,25; 2,96; 3,107; Plin. HN 5,2). Was its aboriginal (Berber?) name αἱ Κώτεις ( hai Kṓteis; Str. 17,3,2) or rather Κώτης ἄκρον ( Kṓtēs ákron; Ptol. 4,1,2,) (in the same sense)? According to Ps.-Scyl. 112, Κώτης is the gulf between the ‘Pillars of Heracles’ and the ‘Foothills of Hermes’, according to Plin. HN 5,2; 32,15, Cottae lay beyond the ‘Pillars of Heracles’ Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography E. Bernus, s. v. A., EB 4, 605 f.

Bavares

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A seemingly bipartite Berber tribe; one group settled in the extreme west, the other in the extreme east of Mauretania Caesariensis. Sources: Amm. Marc. 29,5,33; Liber generationis 1,197,67 Mommsen; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 47; Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis 14,4. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography G. Camps, s.v. B., EB, 1394-1399 J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 47 fn. 2.

Cinyps

(172 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River, discharging into the sea 18 km south-east of  Leptis Magna, modern Oued Caam. Source references: Hdt. 4,175; 198; Verg. G. 3,311-313; Mela 1,37; Plin. HN 5,27; Ptol. 4,3,13; 20 (probably not 4,6,11); Tab. Peut. 7,3f.; Vibius Sequester, Geographica 147 Riese; Geogr. Rav. 38, 39; Thgn. 2,98 Cramer; Suda s.v. Κινύφειος. Probably towards the end of the 6th cent.,  Dorieus [1], son of the Spartan king Anaxandridas, founded an   apoikía at the mouth of the C. However, its citizens could only hold on to their position for two ye…

Hadrumetum

(320 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Rome (Ἀδρύμης; Hadrýmēs). Phoenician trading centre on the east coast of Tunisia, modern Sousse. Evidence: Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM I 88); Sall. Iug. 19,1; Solin. 27,9. From the Punic or Neo-Punic period come the Tofet (with prominent steles), a necropolis (with various tomb offerings) and over 60 inscriptions. In 310 BC H. went over to the side of  Agathocles [2] (Diod. Sic. 20,17,3-5)…

Xylicces

(45 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξυλικκεῖς; Xylikkeîs). A - possibly negroid - people which probably lived to the north of the Ahaggar Massif (in the Sahara)  (Ptol. 4,6,23: Ξ. Αἰθίοπες). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241  H. Treidler, s. v. Ξ., RE 9 A, 2161-2163.

Igilgili

(112 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Punic ʾj glgl[ t]?, ‘Skull Island’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation located in the later  Mauretania Sitifensis - west of the mouth of the Ampsaga - modern Djidjelli. Attested to Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,11; It. Ant. 39,7; 40,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Amm. Marc. 29,5,5; Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 4a; Anon. Geographia 40 (GGM II 505); Geogr. Rav. 40,22; 88,20; Guido p. 132,29. Augustus (?) elevated I. to a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8367-8373, 10330-10333; Suppl. 3, 20211-20213. Huß, W…

Fussala

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Fort on the border of the region of Hippo Regius. The precise location is unknown. Augustine appointed a bishop in F. who had mastered the Punic language (Aug. Epist. 209,2). F. remained a bishop's see (Not. Episc. Num. 21a). Inscription: AE 1983, 283 no. 980. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 9, no. 59 J. Desanges, S. Lancel, L'apport des nouvelles lettres à la géographie historique de l'Afrique antique et de l'Église d'Afrique, in: C. Lepelley (ed.), Les lettres de saint Augustin découvertes par Johannes Divjak, 1983, 87-98 and 99, here 92-98.
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