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al-Ruʿaynī

(891 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, abu ’l-ḥasan ʿalī b. muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Hayṣam (al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲), scholar and adīb of Muslim Spain. He belonged to a family, known as the Banu ’l-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲, established in Baṭs̲h̲a (near Seville) and was also known as Ibn al-Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ār, “the son of the potter”, that being his father’s occupation, which he refused to follow. Al-Ruʿaynī was born in Seville in 592/1196 and died in Marrākus̲h̲ in 666/1267, where his funeral was widely attended. He studied the Ḳurʾānic sciences, grammar, ḥadīt̲h̲ , fiḳh and adab . Most of the detail…

Razīn b. Muʿāwiya

(879 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan b. ʿAmmār al-ʿAbdari al-Saraḳusṭī (d. 524/1129 or 535/1140), Andalusian traditionist. Of unknown date of birth, his nisba indicates that he probably was born in Saragossa. The biographical works do not record any data about his life in al-Andalus. If he did live in Saragossa, he may have left it when the Almoravids captured the town in 503/1110, in which case he must have belonged to those who did not welcome the new lords of the Peninsula. Otherwise, he may have left the town …

al-Ṭabarānī

(371 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Sulaymān b. Ayyūb b. Muṭayyir al-Lak̲h̲mī, one of the most important traditionists of his age (260-360/873-971). He is said to have begun his studies in ḥadīt̲h̲ at the age of 13, with his education spanning his native Syria, ʿIrāḳ, the Ḥid̲j̲āz, Yemen and Egypt, and he is said to have frequented several thousand masters in the course of a riḥla fī ṭalab al-ʿilm which lasted for 33 years. Amongst these were Abū Zurʿa al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī, al-Ṭabarī and al-Nasāʾī [ q.v.]. He died at Iṣfahān, where he had lived for sixty years under the aegis of the governor Abū ʿAlī A…

al-S̲h̲āṭibī

(822 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Mūsā b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī al-S̲h̲āṭibī al-G̲h̲arnāṭī (d. 790/1388), a Mālikī uṣūlī scholar from al-Andalus. Although al-S̲h̲āṭibī is known by the nisba of his family’s place of origin, Játiva (conquered by the Christians in 645/1247), he was born and died in Granada. In that town he studied with scholars; of special importance were Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr al-Zawāwī and al-Maḳḳarī al-D̲j̲add (d. 759/1357), both transmitters of Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲ib’s Muk̲h̲taṣar al-Muntahā (based upon Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Maḥṣūl ), who instilled in ¶ al-S̲h̲āṭibī an interest for uṣūl…

al-S̲h̲us̲h̲tarī

(589 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Numayrī, Ṣūfī of Muslim Spain and resident of Malaga and Grenada ( b. ca . 610/1212, d. at Ṭīna 668/1269 and buried at Damietta; his nisba derives from S̲h̲us̲h̲tar, here a ḳarya or village of the Guadix district). His masters included Ibn Surāḳa al-S̲h̲āṭibī and other disciples of Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar al-Suhrawardī (d. 632/1234 [ q.v.]), and he was in contact with the Ṣūfī poet al-Nad̲j̲m b. Isrāʾīl al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī, whom he met in 650/1252. But most influential for al-S̲h̲us̲h̲tarī was the philosopher and mystic Ibn Sabʿīn [ q.v.], whom he met at Bid̲j̲āya i…

al-Waḳḳas̲h̲ī

(368 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abu ’l-Walīd His̲h̲ām b. Aḥmad b. His̲h̲ām al-Kinānī al-Waḳḳas̲h̲ī al-Ṭulayṭulī (408-89/1017-96), Andalusī scholar in both the traditional and speculative sciences from Waḳḳas̲h̲, modern Huecas in the province of Toledo. He was a pupil of al-Ṭalamankī [ q.v.]. Nominated judge in Talavera by the D̲h̲u ’l-Nūnid rulers of Toledo, he later settled in Denia where he died. Abu ’l-Ṣalt Umayya [ q.v.] of Denia was his pupil. Al-Waḳḳas̲h̲ī was praised for his vast knowledge extending to many fields: handasa , mathematics, logic, fiḳh , uṣūl , iʿtiḳādāt , grammar, le…

al-Tud̲j̲ībī

(232 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, ʿAlam al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Balansī al-Sabtī (b. at Ceuta ca. 670/1271, d. ca. 730/1329), North African scholar and author of a Bārnāmad̲j̲ . He studied in Ceuta with Ibn Abi ’l-Rabīʿ, al-Ḳabṭūrī, Ibn al-Muraḥḥal and Ibn al-S̲h̲āṭ. He travelled to the East and to al-Andalus, studying with famous masters, especially in the field of Ḥadīt̲h̲ . He wrote several works, including a taḳyīd on the Muʿd̲j̲am mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ihi fī ṭalab al-ḥadīt̲h̲ of ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. K̲h̲alaf al-Dimyāṭī al-Tūnī (d. 705/1306) and another work called al-Targ̲h̲īb fi ’l-d̲j̲ihād

al-Sanhūrī

(386 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Nuṭūbisī al-Mālikī, Nūr al-Dīn, Egyptian uṣūlī faḳīh and grammarian ( ca. 814-89/ ca. 1411-84). He was born at Nuṭūbis, and he lived at Sanhūr near Alexandria, where he learnt the Ḳurʾān, and finally settled at Cairo, in the Azhar. Amongst his masters there were some of the most celebrated religious lawyers of the time, with whom he studied, amongst other works, the ʿAḳīla and the Ḥirz al-maʿānī of al-S̲h̲āṭibī [ q.v.]. The Alfiyya of Ibn Mālik [ q.v.] and the two Muk̲h̲taṣars of Abū ʿAmr Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.]. He also followed courses in mathematics…

al-Ṭulayṭulī

(454 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-Tud̲j̲ībī al-Ḳurṭubī, faḳīh of al-Andalus in the 4th/10th century. He was originally from Toledo, where he studied with Wasīm b. Saʿdūn, and then at Cordova with various masters, including ʿUbayd Allāh, son of Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā al-Layt̲h̲ī, and Aḥmad b. K̲h̲ālid. Ibn Muṭāhir, the author of a lost Taʾrīk̲h̲ Fuḳahāʾ Ṭulayṭula wa-ḳuḍātihā , says that he was a pious ascetic who practiced the precept of al-amr bi ’l-maʿrūf wa ’l-nahy ʿan al-munkar to the point of drawing on himself condemnation by the people of Toledo. He then retired to a ḳarya

al-Saraḳusṭī

(864 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, the nisba of two Andalusian traditionists, father and son, both connected with the northern Spanish town of Saraḳusṭa [ q.v.] or Saragossa. These are Abū Muḥammad Ḳāsim b. T̲h̲ābit b. Ḥazm b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muṭarrif b. Sulaymān b. Yaḥyā al-ʿAwfī al-Zuhrī (255-302/869-914) and his father Abu ’l-Ḳāsim T̲h̲ābit (217-313/832-925 or 314/926). The biographical sources mention variants in their nasab that show that their genealogy was manipulated. They were Berbers who had established ties of walāʾ ( walāʾ ʿalāḳa ) with the Banū Zuhra, as all the Berbers…

al-Zaḳḳāḳ

(288 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, ʿAlī b. al-Ḳāsim b. Muḥammad al-Tud̲j̲lbī al-Fāsi, Abu ’l-Ḥasan (d. 912/1507), famous Mālikī jurist, whose laḳab is explained in the sources as being unconnected with the trade of making skin vessels for holding wine. He studied K̲h̲alīl’s Muk̲h̲taṣar with Muḥammad b. Ḳāsim al-Ḳawrī al-Miknāsī al-Fāsī (d. 872/1468) and al-Mawwāḳ al-G̲h̲arnāṭī (d. 897/1492), whose al-Tād̲j̲ wa ’l-iklīl he also transmitted. Al-Zaḳḳāḳ is the author of an urd̲j̲ūza [see rad̲j̲az ] in which he explained the basic principles of the Mālikī legal school, entitled al-Manhad̲j̲ al-muntak̲h̲ab ilā uṣūl…

al-Wādīʾās̲h̲ī

(315 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ābir al-Ḳaysī al-Andalusī al-Tūnisī (673-749/1274-1348: not to be confused with his slightly younger contemporary, the blind poet and grammarian from Almeria Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. D̲j̲ābir al-Hawwārī), the North African author of a Barnāmad̲j̲ ). Al-Wādīʾās̲h̲ī was born in Tunis, where he died during the plague. He travelled twice to the East, visiting also al-Andalus, and combining commerce with ¶ study. Ibn al-G̲h̲ammāz, Ibn ʿAbd al-Rafīʿ, Badr al-Dīn Ibn D̲j̲amāʿa, al-G̲h̲ubrīnī and the grammarian Abū Ḥayyān were amon…

al-Ṭalamankī

(647 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū ʿUmar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad . . . b. Ḳarlamān al-Maʿāfirī (340-429/951-1037), Andalusian scholar of the religious sciences, born at Talamanca near Madrid in a frontier zone frequented by ascetics of the ribāṭs . He studied at Cordova, his main master being Ibn ʿAwn Allāh (d. 378/988), an open partisan of the reality of saints’ miracles in the polemics then aroused on this subject in the capital, a position equally shared by al-Ṭalamankī (see M. Fierro, in BSOAS, lv [1992], 236-49). In the years 375-81/985-91, he travelled abroad and made the Pilgrimage, acquiring a soli…

Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā al-Layt̲h̲ī

(796 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
(d. 234/848), Cordovan faḳīh , descendant of a Berber (Maṣmūda) soldier who entered the Peninsula at the time of the conquest. His family, known as the Banū Abī ʿĪsā, was always closely connected to the Umayyad family whom they served with the pen and the sword. Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā was the first member of the family to devote himself to religious knowledge ( ʿilm ). He took part in movements of opposition against the Umayyad amīr al-Ḥakam I, being mentioned among the participants in the famous Revolt of the Arrabal (al-Rabaḍ). He …

 Kitāb al-ṣalāt fī l-naʿlayn

(151 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Praying in sandals Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Waḍḍāḥ ibn Bazīʿ al-Umawī l-Marwānī l-Qurṭubī Date: Probably between 859 and 900 Original Language: Arabic Description This lost work dealt with the issue of the permissibility of praying while wearing sandals, an issue debated in the formative period of Islam, with some accepting the practice. Significance M.J. Kister ('Do not assimilate yourselves...: Lā tashabbahū', JSAI 12 (1989) 321-71) has shown that the issue of the permissibility of praying while wearing sandals was related to the more general issue of mukhālafat ahl al-kitāb, i…

 Sirāj al-mulūk

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
A lamp for rulers Al-Ṭurṭūshī Date: 1122 Original Language: Arabic Description The Sirāj al-mulūk belongs to the ‘mirrors for princes’ genre, containing various forms of advice to the ruler about how to behave in order to ensure justice and preserve his reign. Ibn Khaldūn quotes from it in his Muqaddima. Al-Ṭurṭūshī started it under the vizierate of al-Afḍal (1094-1121) and completed it under al-Baṭāʾihī (1121-25), to whom he dedicated it. The actual year of completion is indicated in one of the British Library MSS. The material relating to Christians is varied. Part of it refe…

 Risāla

(421 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Letter Mundhir ibn Saʿīd al-Ballūṭī Date: Unknown; before 966 Original Language: Arabic Description  In the conversion document ( wathīqa) of a Christian, Mundhir ibn Saʿīd objects to the formula: ‘He witnesses that Muḥammad is the servant of God and his Messenger and that Jesus is God’s Messenger and his Word ( ʿĪsā rasūl Allāh wa-kalimatuhu)’, a partial quotation of Q 4:171. Mundhir’s argument is that, as it stands, the formula implies that if Jesus was the Word of God and also a created being, it would follow that God’s utterance is created. Thi…

 Kitab birr al-wālidayn

(114 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Devotion to parents Al-Ṭurṭūshī Date: After 1095-97 Original Language: Arabic Description This book, which al-Ṭurṭūshī must have written after al-Ghazālī’s (q.v.) Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, which it quotes, discusses duties towards parents. Significance The work includes material on cases of non-Muslim parents. Manuscripts MS Cairo, Dār al-kutub – (undated) MS Cairo, Al-Khizāna al-Taymūriyya – (undated) MS Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional – 5341 miscellanous (1602) MS Dublin, Chester Beatty – majmūʿa 5010 (1604) Editions & Translations Ed. M. ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm al-Qāḍī, Beirut, 1986, 19912 S…

Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Waḍḍāḥ ibn Bazīʿ al-Umawī l-Marwānī l-Qurṭubī

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Ibn Waḍḍāḥ Date of Birth: 815 Place of Birth: Cordova Date of Death: 3 February 900 Place of Death: Cordova Biography Ibn Waḍḍāh’̣s grandfather Bazīʿ was a slave soldier, probably a Christian from Oviedo, manumitted by the Cordovan Umayyad emir ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I (r. 756-88). Ibn Waḍḍāḥ’s non-Arab origin did not prevent him from entering the world of Islamic scholarship, but it did make him the object of derision on the part of an Arab colleague for his alleged defective knowledge of Arabic. Ibn Waḍḍāḥ was the first member of his family to devote himself to the pen and not to …

 Kitāb fi tahrīm jubn al-Rūm

(244 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Condemnation of Byzantine cheese Al-Ṭurṭūshī Date: Between 1097 and 1126 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-Ṭurṭūshī was against the importation, sale and consumption of cheese made by the Byzantines, a stance that created hostility between him and the notable family of the Banū l-Ḥadīda in Alexandria, where this work was written. Al-Ṭurṭūshī’s opposition was motivated by the use of mayta (material from animals not slaughtered according to Islamic regulations) in the making of this cheese, having thus to do with issues of purity ( ṭahāra). Significance The work is of inter…

Mundhir ibn Saʿīd al-Ballūṭī

(629 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Abū l-Ḥakam Mundhir ibn Saʿīd ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Kuznī l-Nafzī l-Ballūṭī l-Qurṭubī l-Mālikī Date of Birth: 886 Place of Birth: Cordova Date of Death: 966 Place of Death: Cordova Biography Of Berber origin, Mundhir ibn Saʿīd al-Ballūṭī belonged to a family that had come to al-Andalus at some earlier date from the area of Qayrawān. He travelled to the East for more than three years, starting in 920-21, and visited Mecca and Egypt. Back in al-Andalus, he became famous for his great knowledge of literature and for…

 Kitāb al-bidaʿ wa-l-nahy ʿanhā

(591 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Kitāb al-bidaʿIttiqāʾ al-bidaʿInnovations and the prohibition of them, InnovationsWariness of innovations Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Waḍḍāḥ ibn Bazīʿ al-Umawī l-Marwānī l-Qurṭubī Date: Probably between 859 and 900 Original Language: Arabic Description It includes twelve chapters of uneven length containing prophetic traditions and transmissions from the first generations of Muslims. The material was compiled by Ibn Waḍḍāḥ's pupil Aṣbagh ibn Mālik and consists of what Ibn Waḍḍāḥ heard from his teachers in the east regarding th…

Al-Ṭurṭūshī

(853 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Walīd ibn Muḥammad ibn Khalaf al-Ṭurṭūshī Date of Birth: About 1059 Place of Birth: Ṭurṭūsha (Tortosa, southern Catalonia) Date of Death: 22 August-19 September 1126 Place of Death: Alexandria Biography A famous Mālikī jurist, ascetic, theologian and author of a ‘Mirror for princes’1, al-Ṭurṭūshī (also known as Ibn Abī Randaqa, which according to Ibn Khallikān derived from a French expression which was explained to him by a Frank ( baʿḍ al-Faranj) as meaning taʿālā, ‘come’) started his studies in the taifa kingdom of Saragossa, where one of his t…

 Khuṭba

(458 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Sermon Mundhir ibn Saʿīd al-Ballūṭī Date: Probably 948-49 (or perhaps 945-46) Original Language: Arabic Description An emissary from the Byzantine emperor arrived in Cordova and the Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III asked his heir al-Ḥakam to select someone who excelled in oratory to deliver a welcome speech. He chose the Baghdādī grammarian Abū ʿAlī al-Qālī, but this expert was unable to perform in the manner required by the occasion. At this, Mundhir saved the situation by delivering an excellent (and largely lost) khuṭba that left everybody, including the Christian emissary, amaz…

 Kitāb al-ḥawādith wa-l-bidaʿ

(680 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Novelties and innovations Al-Ṭurṭūshī Date: After 1086, and probably after 1097 Original Language: Arabic Description This treatise, which al-Ṭurṭūshī certainly composed after 1086, and most probably after he settled in Alexandria in 1097, is against religious innovations both in matters of doctrine and practice (see M. Fierro, ‘The treatises against innovations ( kutub al-bidaʿ)’, Der Islam 69 (1992) 204-46). Many of these innovations can be shown to refer to rituals and practices that were followed under Fatimid rule in Egypt. As is usual in other works of this genre, man…

al-S̲h̲alawbīn

(742 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū ʿAlī ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Azdī al-Is̲h̲bīlī al-Naḥwī (562-645/1166-1247), Andalusī grammarian. He was known as al-S̲h̲alawbīn, a laḳab derived by some biographers from S̲h̲alawbīniyya, today Salobreña, which would have been his place of origin (so that he is also called al-S̲h̲alawbīnī). Others, however, explain that al-s̲h̲alawbīn is a word which in the language of the Christians of al-Andalus means al-as̲h̲ḳaral-azraḳ (another version al-abyaḍ al-as̲h̲ḳar ), i.e. of a ruddy complexion combined with fairness. He…

al-Rushāṭī

(904 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, abū muḥammad ʿabd allāh b. ʿalī b. ʿabd allāh b. ʿalī b. k̲h̲alaf b. aḥmad b. ʿumar al-lak̲h̲mī al-marī al-andalusī , traditionist and historian of Muslim Spain. He was born in 466/1074 at Orihuela (Murcia). His nisba al-Rus̲h̲āṭī is of Romance origin and refers to a physical characteristic. One of his ancestors had on his body a mole ( s̲h̲āma ) of the type known as “rose” ( warda ) called by the Christians “ rūs̲h̲a ”; the Romance-speaking servant ( k̲h̲ādim ʿad̲j̲amiyya ) who cared for him as a child called him “Rus̲h̲aṭelo”, from which the nisba of the family derived. When he was six y…

S̲h̲abṭūn

(562 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, an Andalusian faḳīh who was the grandson of a Syrian Arab who had entered the Iberian Peninsula either during the conquest or shortly after and who had left descendants in Cártama, Sidonia and Rayya. Abū ʿAbd Allāh Ziyād b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ziyād b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Zuhayr al-Lak̲h̲mī (d. 204/819) was the first member of the family to devote himself to ʿilm . He was known as S̲h̲abṭūn or S̲h̲abaṭūn, a word apparently of Romance origin and a laḳab given to other Andalusī scholars. During his riḥla to the East, probably begun in 173/789, he studied with Ibn …

al-Ṣadafī

(1,295 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū ʿAlī Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. Fīrruh (from the Romance word fiero , i.e. al-ḥadīd ) b. Muḥammad b. Ḥayyūn b. Sukkara/Sukkaruh al-Ṣadafī al-Saraḳusṭī, known commonly as Abū ʿAlī al-Ṣadafī or Ibn Sukkara, Muslim Spanish scholar and traditionist. According to ʿIyāḍ, he was born in Saragossa around the year 454/1062. He studied in that town, among others, with Abu ’l-Walīd al-Bād̲j̲ī [ q.v.], in Valencia with al-ʿUd̲h̲rī and in Almería with Ibn Saʿdūn al-Ḳarawī and Ibn al-Murābiṭ. He travelled to the East on 1 Muḥarram 481/1088, performing the pilgrimage and…

Ṣafwān b. Idrīs

(823 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿĪsā b. Idrīs al-Tud̲j̲ībī al-Mursī al-Kātib, Abū Baḥr (560-98/1164-1201), poet and scholar of Muslim Spain. He was born in Murcia when the town was ruled by Ibn Mardanīs̲h̲ (d. 567/1172), but the major part of his life witnessed Almohad times (see the studies of Gaspar Remiro and Guichard about the history of Murcia under Almohad rule). He belonged to an important family of the town, the Banū Idrīs, some of whom were judges. Ṣafwān gives information on them in his Zād al-musāfir (152-7). He studied with his father and his relative, the ḳāḍī

al-Ṣadafī

(1,401 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū ʿAlī. Abū ʿAlī Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. Fīrruh (du mot romance, i.e. al-ḥadīā) b. Muḥammad b. Ḥayyūn b. Sukkara/Sukkaruh al-Ṣadafī al-Saraqusṭī, savant et traditionniste musulman d’Espagne plus connu sous le nom d’Abū ʿAlī al-Ṣadafī ou Ibn Sukkara. D’après ʿIyāḍ, il naquit à Saragosse aux environs de l’année 454/1062. Il étudia dans cette même ville avec, entre autres, Abū l-Walīd al-Bād̲j̲ī, à Valence avec al-ʿUd̲h̲ri et à Alméria avec Ibn Saʿdūn al-Ḳarawī et Ibn al-Murābiṭ. Il partit pour l’Orient le 1er muḥarram de l’année 481/1088 afin d’accomplir le pèlerinage et en q…

al-Tud̲j̲ībī

(319 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, ʿAlam al-dīn Abū l-Ḳāsim b. Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Ibn al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār al-Balansī al-Sabtī (vers 670/1271/vers 730/1329), auteur d’un Barnāmad̲j̲. Il naquit à Ceuta, où il étudia avec Ibn Abī l-Rabīʿ, al-Ḳabṭūrī, Ibn al-Muraḥḥal et Ibn al-S̲h̲āt. Il voyagea en Orient et dans al-Andalus, étudiant avec des maîtres éminents, notamment dans le domaine du ḥadīt̲h̲. Il rédigea plusieurs œuvres, dont un Taḳyīd sur le Muʿd̲j̲am mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲i-hi fī ṭalab al-ḥadīt̲h̲ de ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. Ḵh̲alaf al-Dimyāṭī al-Tūnī (m705/1306) et un autre ouvrage intitulé al-Targ̲h̲īb fī l-d̲j̲ihād, …

al-S̲h̲āṭibī

(896 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Mūsä b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī al-S̲h̲āṭibī al-G̲h̲arnāṭī (m. 790/1388), faḳīh mālikite uṣūlī d’al-Andalus. Bien qu’il soit connu sous la nisba correspondant au lieu d’origine de sa famille, Játiva (conquise par les Chrétiens en 645/1247), al-S̲h̲āṭibī est né et mort à Grenade. C’est dans cette ville qu’il effectua ses études. Ses maîtres Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr al-Zawāwī et al-Maḳḳarī al-Ḏj̲add (m. 759/1357), tous transmetteurs du Muk̲h̲taṣar al-Muntahā d’Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲ib (basé sur al-Maḥṣūl de Fak̲h̲r al-dīn al-Rāzī), furent d’une importance particulièr…

Ṣafwān b. Idrīs

(888 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abu Baḥr Ṣafwān b. Idrīs b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿIsā b. Idrīs al-Tud̲j̲ībī al-Mursī al-Kātib (560/1164-598/1201). Il naquit à Murcie à l’époque où la ville était gouvernée par Ibn Mardanīs̲h̲ (m. 567/1172), mais la majeure partie de sa vie se passait aux temps des Almohades (voir les travaux de Gaspar Remiro et Guichard sur la situation politique et intellectuelle à Murcie pendant cette période). Il appartenait aux Banū Idris̄, l’une des familles les plus importantes de la ville, dont certains membres furent juges. Safwān nous renseigne sur eux dans son Zād al-musāfir (152-7).…

al-Rus̲h̲āṭī

(926 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Ḵh̲alaf b. Aḥmad b. ʿUmar al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Marī al-Andalusī, traditionniste et historien andalou. Naquit à Orihuela (Murcie) en 466/1074. Sa nisba al-Rus̲h̲āṭī est d’origine «romance» et réfère à une caractéristique physique. En effet, l’un de ses ancêtres avait sur le corps un grain de beauté ( s̲h̲āma) connu sous le nom de «rose» ( warda) et appelé par les Chrétiens «rūs̲h̲a»; une femme au service de la famille qui parlait le «romance» ( k̲h̲ādim ʿad̲j̲amiyya) et qui s’occupait de lui lorsqu’il était enfant, l’appelait «R…

al-Ṭabarānī

(355 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū l-Ḳāsim Sulaymān b. Aḥmad b. Ayyūb b. Muṭayyir al-Lak̲h̲mī, un des plus importants traditionnistes de son époque (260/873-360/ 971). Il aurait commencé ses études de ḥadīt̲h̲ à l’âge de treize ans. Sa formation se déroula dans sa Syrie natale, en ʿIrāḳ, au Ḥid̲j̲āz, au Yémen, en Egypte, et il aurait fréquenté un millier de maîtres au cours d’une riḥla fī ṭalab al-ʿilm qui dura trente-trois ans. Au nombre de ceux-ci, il faut citer Abū Zurʿa al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī, al-Dabarī et al-Nasāʾī [ q.v.]. Il mourut à Iṣfahān, où il avait résidé pendant soixante ans sous l’égide du gouverne…

al-Ruʿaynī

(938 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Hayçam (al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲) al-Ruʿaynī appartenait à une famille connue sous le nom de Banū l-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ et établie à Baṭs̲h̲a (près de Séville). Il était également connu sous le nom d’Ibn al-Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ār, «le fils du potier», en relation avec le métier de son père et qu’il avait refusé d’exercer. Al-Ruʿaynī naquit à Séville en 592/1196 et mourut à Marrākus̲h̲ en 666/1267 où ses funérailles furent largement suivies. Il étudia les sciences ḳurʾāniques, la grammaire, le ḥadīt̲h̲, le fiḳh et l’ adab. Bon nombre des détails…

al-Ṭulayṭulī

(466 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā b. ʿUbayd al-Tud̲j̲ībī al-Ḳurṭubī, faḳīh d’al-Andalus au IVe/Xe siècle, originaire de Tolède où il étudia avec Wasīm b. Saʿdūn, ainsi qu’à Cordoue avec divers maîtres, parmi lesquels ʿUbayd Allāh, fils de Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā al-Layt̲h̲ī, et Aḥmad b. Ḵh̲ālid. Ibn Muṭāhir, auteur d’un Taʾrīk̲h̲ fuḳahāʾ Ṭulayṭula wa-ḳuḍāti-hā perdu, affirme que c’était un pieux ascète qui pratiquait le précepte d ’al-amr bi-l-maʿrūf wa-l-nahy ʿan al-munkar, au point de susciter la réprobation des gens de Tolède. Il se retira alors dans une ḳarya où il s’occupait personnellement…

al-Waḳḳas̲h̲ī

(373 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, savant andalou aussi bien dans les sciences traditionnelles que dans les sciences spéculatives (408/1017-489/1096). Abū l-Walīd His̲h̲ām b. Aḥmad b. His̲h̲ām b. Ḵh̲ālid b. Saʿīd al-Kinānī al-Waḳḳas̲h̲ī (de Waḳḳas̲h̲, Huecas, dans l’actuelle province de Tolède) al-Ṭulayṭalī, un disciple d’al-Talamankī [ q.v.]. Nommé juge par les rois Ḏh̲ū l-Nūnides des Tayfas de Tolède, il s’installa à Dénia où il devait mourir. Abū l-Ṣalt Umayya de Dénia [ q.v.] fut son disciple. Al-Waḳḳas̲h̲ī fut loué par ses biographes pour l’étendue de ses connaissances dans diverses branches du savoir: handa…

al-Wādī Ās̲h̲ī

(307 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ābir al-Ḳaysī al-Andalusī al-Tūnisī (673-749/1274-1348), l’auteur nord-africain du Barnāmad̲j̲. Il ne doit pa.s être confondu avec son contemporain un peu plus jeune, le poète et grammairien aveugle d’Almeria, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Ḏj̲ābir al-Hawwarī. Al-Wādī Ās̲h̲ī naquit à Tūnis où il mourut durant la peste. Il voyagea en Orient à deux reprises et visita également l’Andalus, combinant activités commerciales et études. Il comptait Ibn al-G̲h̲ammāz, Ibn ʿAbd al-Rafīʿ, Badr al-dīn ibn Ḏj̲amāʿa, al-G̲h̲ub…

al-Zaḳḳāḳ

(275 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, ʿAlī b. al-Ḳāsim b. Muḥammad al-Tud̲j̲ībī al-Fāsī, Abū l-Ḥasan (m. 912/1507), juriste mālikite célèbre, dont le laḳab est relié d’après les sources à son activité de fabricant d’outrés en cuir pour transporter le vin. Il étudia le Muk̲h̲taṣar de Ḵh̲alīl, sous la direction de Muḥammad b. Ḳāsim al-Ḳawrī al-Miknāsī al-Fāsī (m. 872/1468) ainsi que sous la direction d’al-Mawwāḳ al-G̲h̲arnāṭī (m. 897/1492), dont il transmit le Tad̲j̲ wa l-iklīl. Al-Zaḳḳāḳ est l’auteur d’une urd̲j̲ūza [voir Rad̲j̲az], intitulée al-Manhad̲j̲ al-muntak̲h̲ab ilā usūl al-mad̲h̲hab (ms. Bibliothèque N…

S̲h̲abṭūn

(567 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Ce faḳīh d’al-Andalus était le descendant d’un Arabe syrien entré dans la Péninsule Ibérique durant la conquête, ou peu après, qui eut des descendants à Cārtama, Sidonia et Rayya. Abū ʿAbd Allāh Ziyād b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Zuhayr al-Lak̲h̲mī (m. 204/819) fut le premier membre de la famille à se consacrer au ʿilm. Il est connu comme S̲h̲abṭūn/S̲h̲abaṭūn, surnom d’origine, semble-t-il, romance, qui fut porté par d’autres savants d’al-Andalus. Au cours de sa riḥla en Orient, commencée probablement en 173/789, il étudia notamment avec Ibn ʿUyayna et al-Layt̲h̲ b. Saʿd, ma…

Razīn b. Muʿāwiya

(918 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
b. ʿAmmār, Abū l-Ḥasan al-ʿAbdarī al-Saraḳusṭī (m. 524/1129 ou 535/1140), traditionniste d’al-Andalus. Sa nisba indique qu’il devait être originaire de Saragosse ou bien même qu’il y vécut. Les biographies consultées n’apportent aucune information sur sa vie en al-Andalus. Si il vécut à Saragosse, on peut penser qu’il dut l’abandonner après la conquête chrétienne en 512/1118, voire même avant, lorsque les Almoravides s’en emparèrent en 503/1110 et si l’on admet que Razīn faisait partie de ceux qui ne souhaitèrent pas la bienvenue aux maitres nord-africains de la Péninsule. Le VIe/X…

al-Sanhūrī

(390 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī al-Nuṭūbisī al-Ḳāhirī al-Azharī al-Ḍarīr al-Mālikī Nūr al-dīn, faḳīh uṣūlī et grammairien (vers 814/1411-889/1484), naquit à Nu(ūbis, résida ensuite à Sanhūr, où il apprit le Ḳurʾān, et s’établit finalement au Caire, où il résida à al-Azhar. Il eut pour maîtres les faḳīh les les plus éminents de son époque, et il étudia avec eux, entre autres œuvres, la ʿAḳīla et le Ḥirz al-maʿānī d’al-S̲h̲āṭibī [ q.v.], l’ Alfiyya d’Ibn Mālik [ q.v.] et les deux Muk̲h̲taṣars d’Abū ʿAmr b. al-Ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.]. Il suivit également des enseignements de mathémat…

al-S̲h̲alawbīn

(956 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū ʿAlī ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Azdī al-Ishbīlī al-Nahwī (562/1166-645/1247). Ce grammairien d’al-Andālus est connu sous le nom d’al-S̲h̲alawbīn, laḳab que certains auteurs considèrent comme dérivé de ce qui aurait été son lieu d’origine, S̲h̲alawbīniyya (aujourd’hui Salobreña), raison pour laquelle on l’appelle également al-S̲h̲alawbīnī, tandis que d’autres expliquent al-s̲h̲alawbīn comme un mot signifiant, dans la langue des Chrétiens d’al-Andalus, al-as̲h̲ḳar al-azraḳ (ou bien al-abyaḍ al-as̲h̲ḳar), c’est à dire de complexion rubiconde. …

al-Ṭalamankī

(678 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū ʿUmar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī ʿĪsā Lubb b. Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Ḳarlamān al-Maʿāfirī al-Ṭalamankī (340/951-429/1037). Il naquit à Talamanca, près de Madrid, région frontalière fréquentée par des Musulmans pieux voués à la vie ascétique du ribāṭ. Il étudia à Cordoue sous al-Ḥakam II et al-Manṣūr. Son principal maître fut Ibn ʿAwn Allāh (m. 378/988), partisan déclaré de la réalité des miracles des saints dans la polémique qui avait lieu à ce sujet à Cordoue, position partagée également par al-Ṭalamankī (voir M. Fierro, dans BSOAS, LV [1992], 236-49). Entre 375/985 …

al-Saraḳusṭī

(882 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
On désigne sous cette nisba deux traditionnistes d’al-Andalus, originaires de Saragosse [voir Saraḳusṭa] : Abū Muḥammad Ḳāsim b. T̲h̲ābit b. Ḥazm b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muṭarrif b. Sulaymān b. Yaḥyā al-ʿAwfī al-Zuhrī (255/869-302/914) et son père Abū l-Ḳāsim T̲h̲ābit (217/832-313/925 ou 314/926). Ce nasab est celui qui apparaît dans la plupart des sources, mais il existe d’autres variantes, qui laissent voir une manipulation dans la généalogie. Il s’agit d’une famille d’origine berbère, dont on affirme qu’elle contracta des liens de clientèle (en particulier walāʾ ʿalāḳa) avec le…

al-Aṣfar

(667 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
Al-Aṣfar, “the Yellow,” is an appellation first adopted during the early centuries of Islam by three Yemeni (Qaḥṭān) rebels who claimed to be al-Aṣfar al-Qaḥṭānī. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. al-Ashʿath, who belonged to a noble Kindī family settled in Kūfa, was the first to use al-Aṣfar al-Qaḥṭānī as a political and religious slogan. After serving the Umayyads, he eventually rebelled and his revolt came near to overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate. Defeated in 82/701, he died in 85/704. The second of these rebels was Yazīd b. al-Muhallab al-A…
Date: 2019-05-08

Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā al-Layt̲h̲ī

(811 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
(m. en 234/848), faḳīh de Cordoue, descendant d’un soldat berbère (Maṣmūdī) qui arriva dans la Péninsule au temps de la conquête. Sa famille, les Banū Abī ʿĪsā, fut toujours étroitement liée à la famille umayyade qu’ils servirent par la plume ou par l’épée. Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā fut le premier de cette famille à se consacrer au savoir religieux ( ʿilm). Il fit partie de mouvements d’opposition contre l’ amīr umayyade al-Ḥakam Ier, et il est cité parmi ceux qui participèrent à la célèbre Révolte de l’Arrabal (al-Rabaḍ). Il dut s’enfuir de Cordoue, essayant de trouver refug…

al-S̲h̲us̲h̲tarī

(695 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
, Abū l-ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Numayrī, connu sous le nom d’al-S̲h̲us̲h̲tarī (de S̲h̲us̲h̲tar, ḳarya du district de Guadix), Ṣūfī d’al-Andalus, né vers 610/1212, résida à Malaga et Grenade. Après avoir quitté al-Andalus, il visita plusieurs villes du Nord de l’Afrique (Rabat, Meknès, Fès, Tripoli, Gabès, Bougie) et d’Egypte. Il effectua le pèlerinage à plusieurs reprises. Mort en 668/1269 à Ṭina, il fut enterré dans la ville voisine de Damiette. Parmi ses maîtres, on trouve Ibn Surāḳa al-S̲h̲āṭibī et d’autres disciples de ʿUmar al-Suhrawardī (m. 632/ 1234). Il…
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