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Iaitia

(26 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia
[English version] (Ἰαιτία). Stadt auf Sizilien (Diod. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; vgl. HN 148), wohl identisch mit Ietai (s. Nachträge). Falco, Giulia

Engyon

(119 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔγγυον; Énguon). City in the interior of Sicily, supposedly founded by Cretans (Diod. Sic. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), taken by Timoleon from the tyrant Leptines (Diod. Sic. 16,72); in the 2nd Punic War on the side of Carthage and yet treated gently by Marcellus (Plut., ibid.); according to Cic. Verr. 3,103 a civitas decumana, according to Plin. HN 3,91 stipendiarii; the sanctuary of the ‘mothers’ (Plut. ibid.) was famous, in Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 of the Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, with relics of Meriones and Odysseus. Undoubtedly identical with Troina [1. 13013; 2]. F…

Sileraioi

(83 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Σιλεραῖοι/ Sileraîoi). Ethnic name probably of Italic mercenaries from the region of the Sila Mountains (Sila [1], Bruttium), who up to the death of Dionysius [1] I in 367 BC minted Syracusan bronze coins in the 'drachma' series with the legend SILERAION and an attacking warrior. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Garraffino, La monetazione dell'età dionigiana. Contromarche e riconiazioni, in: Atti dell'VIII Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici Napoli 1983, 1993, 191-244, especially 224  G. Tagliamone, I figli di Marte, 1994, passim.

Entella

(209 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἔντελλα; Éntella), modern Rocca d'Entella west of Corleone. City of the  Elymi in the west of Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,3), often named in the wars of Dionysius I and of Timoleon with the Carthaginians (Diod. Sic. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), numbered by Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 among the civitates decumanae, by Plin. HN 3,91 to the stipendiarii, not destroyed until the 13th cent. by Frederick II. The investigation of the settlement and of the area belonging to it (begun in 1983) has brought finds to light from archaic times up into the Middle Ages [1; 2]. A series of written copper tablets [3; 4] (from the antiques trade) has thrown new light on historical events (expulsion of the inhabitants and ensuing synoikismós) and the topographical organization of the city and its …

Merusium

(39 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μερούσιον; Meroúsion). Settlement of unknown location, 70 stadia (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) from Syracuse, probably in the vicinity of a sanctuary of Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.

Piacus

(66 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πίακος/ Píakos). City in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), presumably to the northwest of Catania at Adrano in the Mendolito quarter. Finds of coins suggest this location: bronze (425-420 BC) and silver ( c. 400 BC) issues as well as an exemplar showing the double Piacinus/ Adran legend. Falco, Giulia (Athens) …

Echetla

(112 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐχέτλα; Echétla). Town in the interior of Sicily, neighbouring Leontini, Syracusae and Camarina (Diod. Sic. 20,32), in the border region between the spheres of influence of Carthage and Hieron II (Pol. 1,15,10). Besieged by the Romans at the beginning of the 1st Punic War. Plin. HN 3,91 calls the citizens of E. stipendiarii. Judging from the similarity in name, E. was located on the hill Occhialà near Grammichele east of Caltagirone where Siculan-Greek remains and a Demeter sanctuary were found. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, …

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after …

Ecnomum

(149 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] …

Himera

(487 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization (Ἱμέρα; Himéra). The settlers understood the non-Greek place name as ἡμέρα ( h…

Miscera

(22 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μίσκερα/ Mískera). Town in Sicania (Sicani; Theop. FGrH 115 F 198). Location unknown. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 159f.

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Pantacyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Παντακύας/ Pantakýas, Παντακίας/ Pantakías). River on the eastern coast of Sicily flowing into the Bay of Catane in the south near Brucoli, the modern Porcaria. In 729 BC. Lamis of Megara founded the settlement of Trotilum on the P. although it was abandoned shortly after. Other refererences: Thuc. 6,4,1; cf. Plin. HN 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliograph…

Eryce

(46 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐρύκη; Erýkē). Town in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐ., s.v. Παλική), located most probably in the mountainous area [1] of Ramacca [2]. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 V. Tartaro, La montagna di Ramacca e l'antica città di E., 1980 2 E. Procelli, s.v. Ramacca, BTCGI 14, 549-554.

Macella

(84 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μάκελλα/ Mákella; Latin Macela, ILS 65, l. 4). Sicilian inland city, cannot be located. After the naval victory of Mylae in 260 BC, captured by C. Duilius [1], in the Second Punic War at times on the Punic side, in the Slave War in 102 BC a military base of Athenion [2]. Plin. HN 3,91 counts the Magellini among the stipendiarii. Evidence: Pol. 1,24,2; Liv. 26,21; Diod. Sic. 23,4,2; Cass. Dio fr. 93,4; Ptol. 3,4,14. Falco, Giulia (Athens) …

Iaitia

(28 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Endesa

(100 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Siculan town [1] in the territory of Himera, mentioned in a dedication to Hera Thespis (rather than to Leukaspis [2]) inscribed on both sides of a relief. It was found in the Heraion of Samos and shows on one side a round shield and on the other the bow of the ship Samaina. The dedication was probably presented by citizens of Samos when they besieged Endesa (500 BC). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 M. Massa, s.v. E., BTCGI 7, 1989, 181 2 G. Manganaro, Una dedica di Samo rivolta non a Leukaspis, ma a Hera Thespis?, in: ZPE 101, 1994, 120-126.

Motyum

(62 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Stiela

(147 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Στίελ(λ)α; Stíel(l)a). Fortified city in Sicilia of unknown location (Sophron fr. [1.67]; Philistus FGrH 556 F 20), in the vicinity of Megara according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Στύελλα (corrected to Στιελα based on coins) [3]. In view of the legends STA/STI/ STIA, S. is to be attributed with two series of coins (5th/4th cent. BC) ([2]; a single coin was found in excavations: Francavilla di Sicilia west of Taormina […

Cossura

(91 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κόσσουρα, Κόσ(σ)ουρος; Kóssoura, Kós(s)ouros, Lat. Cossura, Cossyra). Vulcanic island between Sicily and Africa, modern Pantelleria, before the Punic Wars under Carthaginian rule, in the First Punic War temporarily, after 217 BC finally conquered by Rome and attached to the province of Sicilia. The partially Phoenician inscriptions of coins demonstrate that the population was Punic for a considerable time later. Remains from the Prehistoric to Byzantine periods. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Tusa, La Sicilia nella preistoria, 1983, 274ff. Id., At…

Elymi

(292 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔλυμοι; Élymoi). Pre-Greek tribe in western Sicily, thought by Thucydides (6,2,3; cf. Str. 13,1,53) to be descendants of Trojan refugees ( Elymus); a…

Eknomon

(148 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἔκνομον). Gebirgsstock in Südsizilien nahe der Mündung des Salso oberhalb Licata. Die Entdeckung von Resten aus archa. Zeit (chthonisches Heiligtum, Nekropole) in Mollarella und neuere Untersuchungen über den Be…

Echetla

(99 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἐχέτλα). Stadt im Innern von Sicilia, Leontinoi, Syrakusai und Kamarina benachbart (Diod. 20,32), im Grenzgebiet zw. den Einflußgebieten Karthagos und Hierons II. (Pol. 1,15,10). Zu Anf. des 1. Pun. Krieges von den Römern belagert. Plin. nat. 3,91 nennt die Bürger von E. stipendiarii. …

Eryke

(45 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἐρύκη). Stadt in Sizilien (Steph. Byz. s.v. E., s.v. Παλική), höchstwahrscheinlich im Bergland [1] von Ramacca [2] zu suchen. …

Kossura

(85 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Κόσσουρα, Κόσ(σ)ουρος, lat. Cossura, Cossyra). Vulkanische Insel zw. Sizilien und Afrika, h. Pantelleria, bis zu den Pun. Kriegen unter karthagischer Herrschaft, im Ersten Pun. Krieg vorübergehend, 217 v.Chr. endgültig von den Römern erobert und zur Prov. Sicilia geschlagen. Die z.T. phoinik. Beschriftung der Mz. zeigt, daß die Bevölkerung noch lange pun. war. Überreste von prähistor. bis zu byz. Zeit. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography …

Engyon

(111 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)

Makella

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μάκελλα; lat. Macela, ILS 65, Z. 4). Sizil. Binnenstadt, nicht lokalisierbar. Nach dem Seesieg bei Mylai 260 v.Chr. von C. Duilius [1] erobert, im 2. Punischen Krieg zeitweise auf pun. Sei…

Miskera

(22 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μίσκερα). Nicht lokalisierte Stadt der Sikania (Sikanoi; Theop. FGrH 115 F 198). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 159f.

Piakos

(63 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Πίακος). Stadt auf Sicilia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), verm. nordwestl. von Catania bei Adrano im Viertel Mendolito. Mz.-Funde legen diese Lokalisierung nahe: eine br. (425-420 v.Chr.) und eine silberne (ca. 400 v.Chr.) Emission sowie die auf einem Exemplar verzeichnete doppelte Legende Piakinos/ Adran. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTGCI 13, 501-507  E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 219.

Motyon

(55 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μότυον). Festung im Gebiet von Akragas, 451 v.Chr. von Duketios besetzt, im J. darauf von Akragas zurückerobert (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Möglicherweise beim h. Vassallaggi zu lokalisieren. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Phalarion

(46 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Φαλάριον). Festung (φρούριον) bei Gela auf Sicilia, wohl die am Monte Desusino (429 m H) entdeckte Befestigungsanlage, im 6. Jh.v.Chr. von Phalaris gegr. Hier lagerte 311 v.Chr. Agathokles [2] im Kampf gegen die Karthager (Diod. 19,108,2). …

Mons Neptunius

(45 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Gebirgszug im NO von Sicilia (Solin. 5,12), h. Monti Peloritani, benannt nach dem Poseidon-Tempel, den der mythische Jäger Orion [1] auf dem Pelorias errichtet haben soll (Hes. bei Diod. 4,85,5). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N…

Pantakyas

(67 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Παντακύας, Παντακίας). Fluß, der an der Ostküste von Sicilia im Süden der Bucht von Katane bei Brucoli mündet, h. Porcaria. Am P. legte Lamis aus Megara 729 v.Chr. die Siedlung Trotilon an, die aber nach kurzer Zeit aufgegeben wurde. Weitere Belege: Thuk. 6,4,1; vgl. Plin. nat. 3,89: Pantagies

Merusion

(37 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μερούσιον). Nicht lokalisierte, 70 Stadien (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) von Syrakusai entfernte Siedlung, wahrscheinlich in der Nähe eines Heiligtums der Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.

Trogilos

(89 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia; Olshausen, Eckart
[English version] (Τρώγιλος). Küstenstreifen bei Syrakusai (Thuk. 6,99,1; 7,2,4; Liv. 25,23,10: portus Trogilorum; Sil. 14,259), identisch entweder mit (1) dem am östl. Rand von Epipolai gelegenen, 1 km langen, grottenreichen Kap Mazzarona (zw. der Küste von Cappuccini und dem Scoglio Due Fratelli [1. 827]) oder mit (2) der Küste am nö Rand von Epipolai (beim Kap Santa Panagia [2. 28 f.; 3. 61 f.]). Falco, Giulia; Olshausen, Eckart Bibliography 1 H. P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakusai, RE Suppl. 13, 815-836 2 L. Polacco, R. Mirisola, Tucidide: la spedizione ateniese co…

Tissa

(58 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus; Falco, Giulia
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sicilia (Τίσσα). Stadt im Innern von Sicilia, Lage unbekannt (Philistos FGrH 556 F 37; Ptol. 3,4,12). Als civitas decumana war T. an der Klageerhebung gegen Verres 71/0 v. Chr. beteiligt (Cic. Verr. 2,3,86 f.:

Endesa

(102 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Sikulische Ortschaft [1] im Gebiet von Himera, in einer Weihung an Hera Thespis (eher als an Leukaspis [2]) erwähnt, die sich auf den beiden Seiten eines Reliefs befindet. Sie wurde im Heraion von Samos gefunden und zeigt auf der einen Seite einen runden Schild, auf der anderen den Bug des Schiffes Samaina. Die Weihung wurde wahrscheinlich von Bürgern von Samos dargebracht, als sie E. belagerten (500 v.Chr.). …

Himera

(437 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Kolonisation | Sicilia (Ἱμέρα). Den nichtgriech. ON verstanden die Siedler als ἡμέρα ( hēméra, “Tag”) und machten den Hahn zu ihrem Wappen (Mz.),…

Entella

(185 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sicilia (Ἔντελλα), h. Rocca d'Entella westl. Corleone. Stadt der Elymoi in Westsizilien (Thuk. 6,2,3), oft gen. in den Kriegen Dionysios' I. und des Timoleon mit den Karthagern (Diod. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), von Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 zu den civitates decumanae, von Plin. nat. 3,91 zu den stipendiarii gezählt, erst im 13. Jh. von Friedrich II. zerstört. Die Unt. der Siedlung und des dazugehörigen Gebiets (1983 begonnen) hat Zeugnisse aus archa. Zeit bis ins MA zutage gefördert [1…

Gaulos

(195 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος). Nordwestl. Insel der Malta-Gruppe (h. Gozzo), zuerst erwähnt von Hekataios (FGrH 1 F 341; vgl. Strab. 6,2,11; Diod. 5,12,4: Lage im offenen Meer mit guten Häfen; Prok. BV 1,14; Plin. nat. 3,92). Name wohl phoinik.: γαῦλος, “rundes Lastschiff”. Im 8. Jh. von Phoinikern besiedelt, später in karthagischem, griech. und seit 220 v.Chr. in röm. Besitz. Im Innern der Insel lag ein gleichnamiger Ort. Mz. mit griech. und p…

Elymoi

(278 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)

Thermai

(223 words)

Ustica

(107 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin; Falco, Giulia
[English version] (Οὐστίκα; auch h. Ústica). Kleine (8,6 km2, 239 m H) urspr. vulkanische Insel vor der NW-Küste von Sicilia (Plin. nat. 3,92; Ptol. 3,4,17), 57 km nördl. von Panormos [3] im mare Tyrrhenum, wohl identisch mit der bei Diod. 5,11,1 zu den Aeoli insulae gerechneten νῆσος Ὀστεώδης/ nḗsos Osteṓdēs (vgl. Mela 2,7,120). Arch. Grabungen im Bereich von I Faraglioni (Colombaia): eine prähistor. Siedlung der mittleren Brz. und Gräber mit phoinikischen oder karthagischen Beigaben; des weiteren Mosaike, Mz. und anderes Material aus röm. Zeit. Gärtner, Hans Armin; Falco, …

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Casmenae

(415 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Κασμέναι; Kasménai). Town in Sicily, founded by Syracuse in 644 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3); its fortified position and the lack of its own mint indicate its status as a dependent ‘military colony’.…

Mazara

(125 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] Town on the Sicilian south coast 20 km southeast of Marsala at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Mazara del Vallo, probably a Phoenician foundation. After the foundation of Selinus, the Mazara river was the border to Motya (later Lilybaeum) and Seg…

Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenic…

Motya

(277 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Μοτύα, Μοτύη; Motýa, Motýē). Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement on an island ( c. 45 ha) in…

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and dest…
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