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Camillus

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of presumably Etruscan origin (Schulze, 290, 322; ThlL, Onom. 120-122), in its meaning probably linked with camillus ‘noble-born, not yet mature youth’, then‘ assistant at sacrifices’ (Fest. 38; 82L; Varro, Ling. 7,34 et al.) In the Republican Age, C. is the family cognomen of the Furii; its most famous bearer was M.  Furius C., conqueror of Veii in 396 BC and saviour of Rome after the Gallic invasion. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann 1, 147.

Mulvius

(62 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Uncommon Latin gens name. Bearers were the (otherwise unknown) builder of the pons Mulvius ( pons Milvius ; late 2nd cent. BC) and a M.M. who as triumvir nocturnus was condemned in 241 BC for appearing too late with his colleagues to fight a fire on the via sacra (Val. Max. 8, 1 damn. 5). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Catulus

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (‘the Young Dog’) in the family of the Lutatii ( Lutatius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Epigrammatist see  Lutatius Catulus, Q. Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 326.

Paetus

(94 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen meaning 'slightly cross-eyed', for instance describing a squint (Cic. Nat. D. 1,80; Hor. Sat. 1,3, 44f. among others). A genetic trait in the families of the Aelii from the 4th cent. BC (Aelius [I 7-11]) and the Autronii in the 1st cent. (Autronius [I 8]); also an epithet for Cicero's friend L. Papirius [I 22] P. More widespread in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 261 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 239. [German version] [2] P. Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus see P. Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus

Atinius

(377 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian gentilicium (also Attinius). The most important gens, verifiable since the end of the 3rd cent., came from Aricia (Cic. Phil. 3,16; Schulze 69; ThlL 2,1174f.). [German version] [1] Volkstribun im 2.Jh. v.Chr., Urheber einer lex Atinia A., tribune of the people in the 2nd cent. BC and author of a lex Atinia about the acceptance of tribunes of the people in the Senate (Gell. NA 14,8,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., C. Praetor 188 v. Chr. in Hispania ulterior tribunus militum in the 4th legion in 194 BC, praetor in 188 in Hispania ulterior (MRR 1,344; 36…

Gaetulicus

(44 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [II] ‘Victor over the Gaetuli’, cognomen of Cossus  Cornelius [II 26] Lentulus G. and his son Cn.  Cornelius [II 29] Lentulus G., as well as C.  Iulius Tiro G. and D. ( Iunius) Silanus G. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 206.

Scipionic circle

(181 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Modern term for a circle of friends (of debatable historicity) supposedly surrounding P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus Africanus ( cos. 147, 134 BC). Its members - including C. Laelius [I 2] ( cos. 140), L. Furius [I 28] Philus ( cos. 136), Sp. Mummius [I 4] and P. Rupilius [I 1] ( cos. 132) - are supposed to have been connected by a particular interest in Greek culture (Philhellenism) and a more humane Roman foreign policy (influenced by Stoic teachings as transmitted by Panaetius [4]). The idea of a fixed group can be t…

Galus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (orthographic variation of  Gallus?) in the  Sulpicii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 253 Id., FCap 149 Kajanto, Cognomina 195.

Salinator

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from sal, ‘salt’) in the family of the Livii (Livius [I 11-13]); legend of its origin in Liv. 29,37,4. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 322.

Diadematus

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of L. Caecilius [I 26] Metellus D. ( cos. 117 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Falcidius

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian personal name (Schulze 272). F., C. (P.?), people's tribune in 41 BC and originator of one of the last known plebiscites ( lex Falcidia), which prescribed that a testator could only leave so many legacies as allowed the heir to remain with a quarter of the inheritance ( quarta Falcidiana) (Dig. 35,2; Gai. Inst. 2,227). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kaser, RPR 2, 756f.

Pictor

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('painter'), inherited in the Fabii family (Fabius [I 31-35]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 321.

Tremulus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('trembling, tremulous'); Q. Marcius [I 28] T. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Numidicus

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Victor over the Numidians’), victory epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus N. ( cos. 109 BC); also used to denote origin. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 206.

Hospes

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the Iulii and Vettii ( Iulius, Vettius) families in the Imperial Fasti. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 255.

Turullius

(134 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (T., D. according to coin legends; T., P. according to Cass. Dio 51,8,2). Quaestor in 44 BC and one of Caesar's assassins. He then went with L. Tillius [2] Cimber to Bithynia and supported him in equipping a fleet. After the Battle of Philippi in 42 he remained with the still unbeaten fleet, then crossed to the side of M. Antonius [I 9]. To build the latter's fleet he (probably with the rank of praef.) had some of the trees of the Grove of Asclepius on Cos lumbered and in 31 he minted coins for him (RRC 545). After Antonius' defeat in 30 he was deliv…

Pollio

(45 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probably derived from the nomen gentile Pollius; in the Republican period only in the Asinii family (Asinius [I 4]; [II 12]); common in the Imperial period [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 37; 164 2 D. Reichmuth, Die lateinischen Gentilicia, 1956, 69.

Regillus

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (diminutive of rex, 'king'); in the Republican era, a byname of the family of the Aemilii (Aemilius [I 35-36]); in the Imperial era, also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316.

Ancharia

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Wife of C. Octavius, of the father of  Augustus, mother of the elder  Octavia (Suet. Aug. 4,1; Plut. Ant. 31,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Messalinus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Originally, a cognomen in the family of the Valerii ( Valerius), from them it passed over to the family of the Aurelii (Aurelius [II 13]); epithet of C. Prastina Pacatus M. ( cos. AD 147). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Naso

(53 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘large-nosed’), which does not, however, occur in distinguished families of the Republican period; the family of some of its bearers cannot be determined. The most prominent figure to bear the name was the poet P. Ovidius Naso. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 237 2 Walde/Hofmann 2, 146.

Denter

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (cf. Dentatus) of the Caecilii [I 25] and M.  Livius D. (cos. 302 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 224.

Vitulus

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('young bull') with Mamilius [6-7]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 329.

Laevinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen for the Valerii in the Republican era, no longer attested in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 243.

Scipionic inscriptions

(379 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Term referring to the nine extant sarcophagus inscriptions of the so-called 'Tomb of the Scipios', the burial place of the Cornelii Scipiones from c. the mid 3rd cent. to the end of the 2nd cent. BC (CIL I2 6-16, ILLRP 309-317). The earliest texts are the eulogies for L. Cornelius [I 76] Scipio Barbatus ( cos. 298) and his son L. Cornelius [I 65] Scipio ( cos. 259), each consisting of a painted name followed by a chiseled poem in saturnian metre (most scholars date the eulogy to the father later than the one to the son; for a contemporaneous creation [7]). Other than…

Capitolinus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probably originally an indication of the bearer's or his family's place of residence. For the early Republican Age, it is transmitted for the families of the Maelii, Quinctii, and Tarpei, and prominent with the Manlii; in the Imperial Age, it was widespread. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 166f. Kajanto, Cognomina, 183 H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctii Capitolini, RE 24, 1010.

Get(h)a

(49 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Getan’), in the Republican period of C. Licinius G. ( cos. in 116 BC) and C. Hosidius G., in the Imperial period ─ in the form Geta ─ also among the Hosidii and Septimii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 253 Kajanto, Cognomina 204.

Scipio

(36 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('gnarled stick, staff') in the Cornelii family (Cornelii [I 65-85] Scipiones); a representation of a staff was also used as the family emblem. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 19 f.; 91; 345.

Ravilla

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('grey-eyed'), byname of L. Cassius [I 17] Longinus R. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 228.

Bellienus

(130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman proper name (also Billienus; Schulze 429; ThlL 2,1816; 1989). [German version] [1] see Annius [I 10]  Annius I 10 B. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Billienus, C. Praetor around 107 BC praetor around AD 107 (MRR 1,551), then legate and praetor pro consule (of Asia?, IDélos 1710; 1854; cf. MRR 3,34f.). According to Cic. Brut. 175, he did not receive the office of consul towards the end of the 2nd cent. because of C.  Marius' superior position. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] B., L. Praetor 105 BC in Africa praetor in 105 BC in Africa (Sall. Lug.…

Axilla

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘armpit’) used by the Sempronii, older form of  Ahala (Cic. Orat. 153). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Isauricus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victory epithet (‘Victor of the Isauri’) of P.  Servilius Vatia (consul in 79 BC), bequeathed to his son P. Servilius I. (consul in 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Mallius

(209 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gens name (in manuscripts commonly confused with Manlius and Manilius). [German version] [1] M. Maximus, Cn. Homo novus, consul in 105 BC Homo novus (Cic. Planc. 12), praetor at the latest in 108 BC, consul in 105 together with P. Rutilius Rufus. The war against the Cimbrians ( Cimbri) in the Rhone area was assigned to him. Because his predecessor, proconsul Q. Servilius Caepio, did not want to obey his supreme command and provoked the Cimbrians to attack, their two armies were severely beaten at Arausio; M. last…

Atilia

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of an (Atilius) Serranus, first wife of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), who separated from her in the early 60s BC (Plut. Cat. Min. 7,3; 24,6; family tree in [1. 333]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Münzer.

Arvina

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (from arvina, ‘bacon’) in the families of the Cornelians and Papirians. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 91, 340.

Canuleia

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] According to Plutarch (Numa 10,1), one of the first Roman Vestals installed by king Numa. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Rutilus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('red haired') found in several noble families (Cornelii, Marcii, Nautii, Sempronii, Verginii) in the Republican Period. It became very common in the Imperial Period in the fuller form Rutilianus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 230.

Aviola

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from avis) used by the Acilii and the Calpurnii amongst other families (ThLL 2,1431). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Mus

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman Cognomen (‘Mouse’) in the family of the Decii (Decius [I 1-3]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 328.

Thorius

(234 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Th., Sp. People's tribune in the period after the death of C. Sempronius [I 11] Gracchus in 121 BC and author of an agrarian law (Agrarian laws) which brought to an end the work of the Gracchian commission for distributing the ager publicus . The identification and dating of the author and the precise content of the law are unclear: according to Cicero (Brut. 136, cf. De or. 2,284), T. freed the a ger publicus "from leasehold by means of a damaging and worthless law" or "with a lease by means of a damaging and worthless law". According to Appian (B C…

Cloelius

(386 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman patrician clan (also Cloulius, RRC 260, 332 and Cluilius) that was reputed to have moved to Rome (Liv. 1,30,2) after the destruction, by King Tullus Hostilius, of Alba Longa, of which a C.C. had sovereignty (Liv. 1,22,3f.). According to later tradition, the clan was descended from a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 48) and was accorded particular respect in the earliest Republic. The connection between this family and the bearers of this name in the later Republic is unclear. [German version] [1] Commander of the Volscians in 443 BC Commander of the Volscians in 443 BC, def…

Regillensis

(47 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Postumii (Postumius [I 13-15]); tradition has it that it was granted to the first Postumius to bear it for his victory in the battle at Lacus Regillus in 496 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 183.

Tadius

(73 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian family name, in inscriptions also Taddius. There is literary evidence in the Republican period only of P. T., a businessman and the legate of C. Verres in Sicily 73-71 BC (Cic. Verr. 2,2,49; 2,5,63) - perhaps identical with the acquaintance of T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 1,5,6; 1,8,1) - and Q. T., his relative (brother?), who also had business with Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,1,128; 2,1,130; 2,4,31). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Fidenas

(66 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘victor over Fidenae’), transmitted for the Sergii and Servilii of the early Republican era (5th/4th cents. BC); the dictator Q.  Servilius Priscus allegedly captured the town of Fidenae in Latium in 435 and subsequently was given the epithet (Liv. 4,45,5). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 181 F. Münzer, s.v. Servilius, RE II A 2, 1789f.; 1803f. W. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 55.

Plancus

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('wide-footed'), hereditary in the family of the Munatii (Munatius [I 2-5], [II 6]); fem. form Plancina (Munatia Plancina). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 241.

Lamponius, M.

(131 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the Lucanians in the Social Wars [3] 90 BC, and one of the twelve praetors of the league (App. B Civ. 1,181). Under the command of Pontius Telesinus, L. fought successfully against P. Licinius [I 15] Crassus (App. B Civ. 1,184; cf. Frontin. Str. 2,4,16). L. continued the fight until 87 in Bruttium, and then allied himself with the Marians. In 82, he and others vainly attempted to free C. Marius (cos. 82), who had been surrounded in Praeneste by L. Cornelius [I 90] Sull…

Magulnius

(49 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Name of one of the leading families of Praeneste until 82 BC, only attested in inscriptions (CIL I2 188-191 et passim). The famous Ficoronian Cista was given by a Dindia Magcolnia (= ‘ ‘wife of M. ’) to her daughter (ILS 8562). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Mugillanus

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Papirii, probably denoting origins in Mugilla. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 182.

Cocles

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] ‘The one-eyed’ (Enn. Scaen. 67f. V.2 in Varro, Ling. 7,71; Plin. HN 11,150), used as a nickname. Cognomen of  Horatius C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3A, 1828.

Cicereius

(92 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Rare Roman family name. [German version] C., C. Initially the scribe of Scipio Africanus Maior, in 173 BC after a prior, voluntarily withdrawn application he became praetor with Sardinia as his province. After the victory over the Corsicans he triumphed in 172 in monte Albano against the will of the Senate; in 168 he dedicated a temple to Juno Moneta. In 167 a member of the commission for the reorganization of Illyria. (MRR 1,408; 435). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography E. Badian, The scribae of the Roman Republic, in: Klio 71, 1989, 584.
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