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Mamercinus

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the Republican period in the families of the Aemilii ( Aemilius [I 18-26]) and Pinarii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 176.

Malleolus

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Arrow see Arrow Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Roman cognomen Cognomen (from malleus, hammer) in the family of the Publicii in the Republican period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 342.

Asellio

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Nickname (‘the donkey drover’) in the family of the Sempronians. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 323.

Licinus

(136 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Originally a rare praenomen, either of Etruscan origin or derived from the Latin adjective licinus (‘curved backwards’, Serv. Georg. 3,55); hence the gentile name Licinius. Later, it occurs as a cognomen, possibly with the meaning ‘hair combed backwards’ [1. 236; 2. 33], in the Republican period in the families of the Fabii and Porcii, in Imperial times with the Clodii (C. [II 6]), Larcii and Passieni. Also documented as a name for slaves, the most prominent of which is Caesar's freedman (C. Iulius) L., who in…

Buteo

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the goshawk’) amongst the Fabii (ThlL 2,2259). Legend of the adoption of the name in Plin. HN 10,21. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Gegania

(79 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] A Roman lady, who entered into a relationship with an ugly slave by the name of Clesippus and eventually made him her heir (probably in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC). After her death he called himself Clesippus Geganius and had built for himself an expensive tomb of which the inscription is still preserved (Plin. HN 34,11f.; ILLRP 696). This widespread story may underlie the character of Trimalchio in  Petronius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Bubulcus

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the oxen driver’) in the family of the Iunii (ThlL 2,2223). The first bearer of this name, according to Plin. HN. 18,10, received it because of his success in working with oxen ( bubus). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Bellinus

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] captured by pirates when he was praetor in 68 BC (?), (Plut. Pomp. 24,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Anneius

(24 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman gentilicium M., legate of Cicero in Cilicia 51-50 BC (Cic. Fam. 13,55 and passim; MRR 2,244). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Faberius

(107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman surname (Schulze, 161). F., private secretary ( scriba, γραμματεύς; grammateús) of Caesar; identical to the F. mentioned frequently by Cicero in spring 45 BC who had been given a loan by Cicero, the repayment of which involved irregularities that only Atticus could rectify (Cic. Att. 12-15). After the murder of Caesar, F. helped M. Antonius [I 9] to falsify the decrees of the dictator (App. B. Civ. 3,16; Cic. Att. 14,18,1). He probably died shortly afterwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography H. P. Benöhr, Fabianum negotium, in: ZRG 106, 1986, …

Cursor

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (‘runner, courier’) in the gens Papiria. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 361.

Carbo

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the ulcer’) of the most important plebeian branches of the  Papirii in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 183f. Kajanto, Cognomina, 341 Schulze, 314.

Quirinius

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of P. Sulpicius Q. ( cos. 12 AD). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Crus

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Nickname (‘lower leg’) referring to a peculiarity of the legs; cognomen in the family of the Cornelii ( Cornelius [I 50]) Lentuli. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3A, 1828 Kajanto, Cognomina 225.

Orestilla

(12 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Fabia [6] O. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Vidacilius

(68 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Italic nomen gentile. C. V. from Asculum was one of the rebelling Italici in the Social Wars [3] 91-89 BC (App. Civ. 1,181). He was in action initially in Picenum, then in Bruttium; in the winter of 90/89 he breached the siege of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo around Asculum, but committed suicide there because of the hopeless situation (App. Civ. 1,207-209; Oros. 5,18,21). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Figulus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Potter’), attested to in the fasti of the Republican period for the family of the Marcii and the writer P.  Nigidius Figulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 322.

Quirinalis

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, from residence on the Mons Quirinalis, first appeared in the Imperial era. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 184.

Barba

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Beard’) of the  Cassii,  Lucretii,  Sulpicii and other families (ThlL 2,1727f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Hostus

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Latin praenomen of unknown origin (in the sources commonly confused with Hostius),  Hostilius [3] and H. Lucretius Tricipitinus (consul in 429 BC) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Salomies, 30f.

Scaeva

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably originally a Roman personal name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed') e.g. in the Iunii Bruti (Iunius [I 17]) family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 17; 105; 243 2 Schulze, 419.

Creticus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (originally the epithet of a victor) in the family of the Caecilii Metelli ( Caecilius [I 23] and [II 16]) and of Mark Antony [I 8] C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Hostilia, Quarta

(50 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Wife in her second marriage of C. Calpurnius [I 9] Piso (consul 180 BC), condemned for allegedly poisoning her husband in office in order to help to the consulate a son of her first marriage, Q. Fulvius [I 11] Flaccus (Liv. 40,37,5-7). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Albanius

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] C., senator before 60 BC, father-in-law of P. Sestius (Cic. Sest. 6; MRR 2,487 [1]) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Two studies in Roman nomenclature, 21991, 5.

Silanus

(57 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (possibly from silus, 'snub-nosed'; according to the ancient interpretation from silanus, a gargoyle in the form of a head of Silenus), in the Republican period hereditary in the family of the Iunii (Iunius [I 28-35; II 29-41]); in the Imperial period also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 148  Kajanto, Cognomina, 237.

Martha

(81 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Syrian prophetess who came to Rome in 105 BC. Although M. had been banned from practising her art by the Senate, she gained access to members of the high nobility by correctly predicting the outcome of gladiatorial fights. In 102, Iulia [1] sent her to her husband C. Marius [I 1] in Gallia where she helped to lift the morale of the Roman troops who were fighting the Teutons (Plut. Marius 17,2-5 after Posidonius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Siculus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (describing origin: 'from Sicily', and epithet of victors; cf. Cloelius [4-7]; Herennius [I 10]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 52; 193.

Military clientela

(335 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Modern term (e.g. [1. 28]) for the Roman professional armies of the late Imperial period ( Roma I. D.), which had an especially close relationship to their commander and thus let themselves be detailed as his clientela ( cliens ) for his goals interior politics. This ‘militarization of home politics’ began with C. Marius [I 1] and L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, who used the professional army created by Marius to further their own power claims in the civil war of 88-81 BC. They had to promise the soldiers…

Crassus

(101 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen, first used as an epithet for abnormal tallness, occasionally with the implication of the figurative meanings ‘rough, uncouth, crude’, soon also used as a surname. In the republican period, the name was used by the Aquilii, Calpurnii, Canidii, Claudii, Licinii, Otacilii, Papirii, Veturii; in the imperial period by the Galerii, Iulii and Sulpicii. The most significant individuals of this name belonged to the Plebeian  Licinii Crassi (L. Licinius C., cos. 95 BC, the orator; M. Licinus C., cos. 70 and 55 BC, the triumvir). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliogra…

Flamininus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Roman cognomen, derived from flamen and designating the son of a flamen, in the Republican period it became hereditary in a branch of the patrician family of the Quinctii. The most important bearer of the name is T.  Quinctius Flamininus ( cos. in 198 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctius, RE 24, 1038 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 74.

Caudex

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (‘the ship's plank’) of Ap. Claudius C., cos. 264 BC; the original legend was passed down through Seneca (dial. 10,13,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tubero

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tuber, 'swelling'), Aelius [I 12-18]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 246.

Luscus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’), in the Republican period in the families of the Annii, Atilii, Fabii, Furri and Postumii, disappeared by the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 238.

Barbula

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Milksop’) of the Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). In addition, the name of the commander of M.  Antonius at Actium; B. was later pardoned by Octavian (App. B Civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Pulvillus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('small cushion') in the family of the Horatii (Horatius [5-6]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 348.

Calavius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Campanian family name, whose bearers were highly respected in Capua, and who in the Republican age were one of Rome's foremost enemies (ThlL, Onom. 71). [German version] [1] Calavii Arsonists in Rome, executed 210 BC were executed for arson in Rome in 210 BC (Liv. 26,27). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., Novius and Ovius Header of a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC They headed a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC, and after their exposure committed suicide (Liv. 9,26,7). Their father was perhaps Ofilius C., named in Livy (9,7,2-5) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boc…

Silo

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period of the leader of the Marsi Q. Poppaedius S., in the Imperial period in the Larcii and Pompeii families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 268  Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 237.

Ovius

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Oscan praenomen, also a rare Roman family name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Salomies, 82 2 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 35 3 Schulze, 37; 202; 431f. 4 Walde/Hofmann 2, 229.

Laeca

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, in the family of the Porcii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 358.

Veiento

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, originally indicating origin (Veii); Fabricius [II 2] and Perperna [5]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 189 f.

Geminus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [II] Cognomen (‘twin’) of the Tusculan  Maecius G.; in the fasti of the Republican period otherwise used by the Servilii and Veturii; widespread in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap. 145 Id., FCIR 253 Kajanto, Cognomina 294 Walde/Hofmann 1, 586f.

Duilius

(431 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian family that died out in the 3rd cent. BC; in inscriptions Duilius, in manuscripts Duillius (ThlL, Onom. 3, 266f.); mistaken etymology derived the name from duellum-bellum, in the form Duellius, Bellius (Cic. Or. 153; Quint. Inst. 1,4,15; cf. Pol. 1,22,1). [German version] [1] D., C. Cos. 260 BC, commander in the 1st Punic War Consul 260 BC with Cn. Cornelius [I 74] Scipio Asina. After Scipio was captured at Lipara, D. also took over command of the fleet at Messana; he provided its ships with portable boarding bridges ( corvus), and trained the fleet in their use. At M…

Cinna, [2]

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (meaning uncertain) in the families of the  Cornelii and the  Helvii. On the poet C. see Helvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto 106.

Labeo

(87 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived from labea, ‘lip’, originally denoting ‘the thick-lipped one’ (Plin. HN 11, 159); in the Republican period cognomen in families of the Antistii ([I 13]: the L. frequently mentioned in Cicero's correspondence [II 3] is the famous law expert), Atinii ([I 6 - 7]), Fabii ([I 20]) and Segulii; widespread in the Imperial period, among others nickname of the writer Cornelius [II 19] L. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 238 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilizia, 1956, 70 Walde/Hofmann 1, 738.

Aebutius

(340 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman nomen gentile, used since the 5th cent. BC. According to the fasti, members of the family of the Helvae served as consuls several times in the 5th cent. [German version] [1] Tribunus plebis (end of 2nd, beginning of 1st cent. BC) ) Probably tribunus plebis before 63 BC and after the Gracchi. Author of a lex Aebutia, which prohibited those proposing a law and their relatives from taking over a function created by the law (Cic. Leg. agr. 2,21 [1]). If A. still belongs to the second century, he may also be the author of a lex Aebutia about the introduction of formulaic procedure in trial …

Calvius

(45 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name (ThlL, Onom. 110). [German version] C. Cicero, C. People's tribune 454 BC, brought an accusation against the former consul Romilius (Liv. 3,31,5); probably a late annalistic invention [1. 448]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. M. Ogilvie, A commentary on Livy books 1-5, 1965.

Vibulanus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probably derived from an unknown place, common particularly in the Fabii (Fabius [I 37-39]) family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 209.

Lateranus

(49 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (originally ‘the one <from the residence> on the hill’); in the Republican period occurring in L. Sextius L. ( cos. in 366 BC), in the imperial period also in the families of the Claudii, Magii, Plautii and Sextii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 309.

Nobilior

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘especially noble’; nobiles ); prominent in the family of the Fulvii (Fulvius [I 15-17]), but also widespread elsewhere. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 72; 279.

Tuditanus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tudites, 'hammers'), prominent in the Republican period in the Sempronii family (Sempronius [I 22-24]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 22; 91; 108 f.; 343.
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