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Laco

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Etruscan origin in the families of the Cornelii (Cornelius [20] and lulii and of P. Graecinius L. A follower of M. Antonius [I 9] mentioned by Cicero in 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 2,106; Cic. Att. 16,11,3) bearing the name probably came from a family of the urban nobility of Anagnia, the Abbutii Lacones (ILS 6258). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 81; 153; 316.

Gratidius

(176 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman family originating from Arpinum (epigraphically also Grattidius) from a development of the name Grattius (Schulze 427). [German version] [1] Supporter of C. Marius, first victim of the Civil War In 88 BC, G. was supposed to take over the army of the consul Cornelius [I 90] Sulla on behalf of C. Marius and, therefore, was murdered by his soldiers (first victim of the civil wars; Val. Max. 9,7b,1; Oros. 5,19,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., M. Praefectus of M. Antonius [I 7] in the fight against pirates A relative of Cicero, died in 102 BC as the praefectus…

Habitus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Cluentii ( Cluentius [2]) and others. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tricipitinus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived from an unknown place name, occurring only in the Lucretii family in the Republican period (Lucretius [I 7; 9-12]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 210.

Aesillas

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably a gentilicium, not a cognomen. As quaestor and proquaestor, A. minted tetradrachmas in his name in Macedonia beginning in 94 BC (?). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauslaugh, Silver Coinage with the Types of A. the Quaestor, 2000.

Frugi

(56 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘capable’, ‘upright’, ‘honourable’, from frux [1]), within the Republican nobility among the Calpurnii ( Calpurnius [I 20-23];  [II 5;  24];  [III 1]) and M. Pupius Piso F. Calpurnianus, in the Imperial period also among the Licinii and other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1, 552. Degrassi, FCIR 252 Kajanto, Cognomina 68, 253.

Auruncus

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (designation of origin) used by Postumius  Cominius A. ( cos. 501 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tuscus

(43 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (meaning 'Etruscan') describing origin. Used in the Republican period by Aquillius [I 2], Siccius, in the Imperial period by Dasumius [4], Nummius [5], and Tullius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149  Id., FCIR, 271  Kajanto, Cognomina, 51; 188.

Siculus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (describing origin: 'from Sicily', and epithet of victors; cf. Cloelius [4-7]; Herennius [I 10]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 52; 193.

Military clientela

(335 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Modern term (e.g. [1. 28]) for the Roman professional armies of the late Imperial period ( Roma I. D.), which had an especially close relationship to their commander and thus let themselves be detailed as his clientela ( cliens ) for his goals interior politics. This ‘militarization of home politics’ began with C. Marius [I 1] and L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, who used the professional army created by Marius to further their own power claims in the civil war of 88-81 BC. They had to promise the soldiers…

Crassus

(101 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen, first used as an epithet for abnormal tallness, occasionally with the implication of the figurative meanings ‘rough, uncouth, crude’, soon also used as a surname. In the republican period, the name was used by the Aquilii, Calpurnii, Canidii, Claudii, Licinii, Otacilii, Papirii, Veturii; in the imperial period by the Galerii, Iulii and Sulpicii. The most significant individuals of this name belonged to the Plebeian  Licinii Crassi (L. Licinius C., cos. 95 BC, the orator; M. Licinus C., cos. 70 and 55 BC, the triumvir). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliogra…

Flamininus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Roman cognomen, derived from flamen and designating the son of a flamen, in the Republican period it became hereditary in a branch of the patrician family of the Quinctii. The most important bearer of the name is T.  Quinctius Flamininus ( cos. in 198 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctius, RE 24, 1038 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 74.

Caudex

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (‘the ship's plank’) of Ap. Claudius C., cos. 264 BC; the original legend was passed down through Seneca (dial. 10,13,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tubero

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tuber, 'swelling'), Aelius [I 12-18]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 246.

Luscus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’), in the Republican period in the families of the Annii, Atilii, Fabii, Furri and Postumii, disappeared by the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 238.

Barbula

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Milksop’) of the Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). In addition, the name of the commander of M.  Antonius at Actium; B. was later pardoned by Octavian (App. B Civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Pulvillus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('small cushion') in the family of the Horatii (Horatius [5-6]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 348.

Calavius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Campanian family name, whose bearers were highly respected in Capua, and who in the Republican age were one of Rome's foremost enemies (ThlL, Onom. 71). [German version] [1] Calavii Arsonists in Rome, executed 210 BC were executed for arson in Rome in 210 BC (Liv. 26,27). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., Novius and Ovius Header of a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC They headed a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC, and after their exposure committed suicide (Liv. 9,26,7). Their father was perhaps Ofilius C., named in Livy (9,7,2-5) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boc…

Silo

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period of the leader of the Marsi Q. Poppaedius S., in the Imperial period in the Larcii and Pompeii families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 268  Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 237.

Ovius

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Oscan praenomen, also a rare Roman family name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Salomies, 82 2 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 35 3 Schulze, 37; 202; 431f. 4 Walde/Hofmann 2, 229.

Laeca

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, in the family of the Porcii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 358.

Veiento

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, originally indicating origin (Veii); Fabricius [II 2] and Perperna [5]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 189 f.

Merenda

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and among the Cornelii Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and of the Cornelii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 340. [German version] [2] see Meals see Meals.

Laetorius

(319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin [1. 187; 200; 205]. The gens is attested firmly from the end of the 4th cent. BC; 5th century bearers of the name are annalistic inventions (the people's tribune 471 BC: Liv. 2,56, 6-15; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,46,1-48,5). Originally plebeian, the family was patrician from the time of Caesar or Augustus (Suet. Aug. 5,1; [2. 89f.]). [German version] [1] L., C. Curule aedile in 216 BC Curule aedile in 216 BC, propraetor in Gaul in 209, legate in Greece (?) in 205, in Upper Italy in 200, Triumvir at the foundation of the colony in Croton in 194 (Liv. 34,45,4). Elvers,…

Genucius

(698 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of an old family, perhaps immigrants from Etruria [1. 456f.]. One of the leading families of plebeian nobility in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC: G. [9] occupied the office of consul immediately after it was opened up to plebeians (in 367/6), G. [1] belonged to the first plebeian augurs. The historicity of the patrician name-bearers of G. [5]-[7] is contested [2. 111; 3. 12f.]. The family died out at the end of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] [1] G., C. One of the plebeian augurs 300 BC One of the first plebeian augurs appointed following the lex Ogulnia of 300 BC (Liv. 10,9,2). The cognomen Aug…

Hirtuleius, L.

(123 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably quaestor in 86 or 85 BC (introduction of the dual accounting system for debts under the lex Valeria, Cic. Font. 2), 79-75 BC proquaestor of the renegade Q.  Sertorius in Spain and his most capable officer. In 79 he defeated the governor M. Domitius [I 11] Calvinus at the Anas, in 78 the proconsul of Gallia Transalpina, L. Manlius (MRR 2, 83; 87). In 76 he was defeated by Q. Caecilius [I 31] Metellus Pius near Ilerda and fell shortly afterwards together with his brother near Segontia at the…

Braetius

(63 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman personal name (ThlL 2,2163). [German version] [1] B. Sura, Q. Legate in Macedonia, 87 BC Legate ( pro quaestore) of C.  Sentius Saturninus in Macedonia, successfully fought against Mithridates VI's troops in Boeotia in 87 BC (H. Gaebler, Die ant. Münzen v. Makedonia und Paionia 1, 1906, no. 225; name: IG IX 2,613; Plut. Sull. 11,6-8; App. Mith. 113-115). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cynegius

(137 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (Maternus Cynegius, ILS 1273). Probably born in Spain, Christian. Under  Theodosius I in AD 381 vicarius (?), 383 comes sacrarum largitionum, 383/ 384 quaestor sacri palatii. As praefectus praetorio Orientis 384-388, C. is said to have improved the state of the municipal curiae on behalf of the emperor (Lib. Or. 39,3). On two trips through the east of the empire (in 384 and 388) he intensively fought pagan religious practice (probably without explicit imperial permission) (Zos. 4,37; Chron. min. 1,244f. Mommsen) and in s…

Gallius

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin family name (Schulze 424), possibly originally denoting descent from a Gallus. [German version] [1] G., M. Supporter of M. Antonius 43 BC Praetor in 44 BC or earlier, served under M. Antonius at Mutina in 43 [I 9] and also fought against Octavian; in his will he adopted the later emperor Tiberius (Cic. Phil. 13,26; Suet. Tib. 6,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Q. Defended by Cicero for bribing voters Aedilis plebis in 67 BC, held magnificent games in 66, as praetor he chaired the trial against C. Cornelius [I 2] in 65 and was probably s…

Cossus

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen, maybe of Etruscan origin and probably initially a praenomen (Schulze, 158, 519; Kajanto, Cognomina 178). Nickname of one of the oldest branches of the Cornelii ( Cornelius [I 20-22]). Meaning as the nickname ‘woodworm’ is uncertain [1], in the early imperial period also a praenomen of some Cornelii Lentuli (Cornelius [II 26-27]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Dexter

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Widespread Roman cognomen in the families Afranius, Calpurnius, Cassius, Cestius, Claudius, Cornelius, Domitius, Egnatius, Nummius, Pomponius, Subrius, Turpilius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Rufillus

(44 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Fictitious Roman cognomen, affectionate form of Rufinus (as in Hor. Sat. 1,2,26 f.; cf. 1,4,92 for an overbred dandy). Rufilla was the name of an alleged lover of Octavianus (Augustus) (Suet. Aug. 69,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 27; 229.

Pansa

(78 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen; according to ancient tradition a reference to a ‘ flatfoot’ (Plaut. Merc. 640; Plin. HN 11,254; Quint. Inst. 1,4,25); very common in the Imperial period. Its most famous bearer was C. Vibius Pansa ( cos. in 43 BC); the addressee of Cato's [1] speech In Pansam is not known (ORF I4, fr. 205). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 261  Degrassi, FCap 147  Kajanto, Cognomina, 105; 241  H. Rix, Das etruskische Cognomen, 1963, 249f.  Schulze, 242; 365.

Chrysogonus

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Influential freedman of Sulla (therefore his full name L. Cornelius C.), who enriched himself significantly during the Proscriptions. He had Sex. Roscius retroactively placed on the Proscription list for the purpose of acquiring his property for little money. According to Cicero that is why he backed the patricide trial of the victim's son, Sex.  Roscius in 80 BC (Cic. Rosc. Am. passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Apustius

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian gentile name probably of Etruscan origin [1], inscriptions recorded up to the Imperial period (ThLL 2,294). [German version] [1] L. Legate 215 BC Legate 215 BC (Liv. 23,18,9; 11).…

Gegania

(68 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Römerin, die (wohl in der 2. H. 1. Jh. v.Chr.) ein Verhältnis mit einem häßlichen Sklaven namens Clesippus einging und ihn schließlich als Erben einsetzte. Er nannte sich nach ihrem Tod Clesippus Geganius und ließ sich ein aufwendiges Grabmal errichten, dessen Inschrift noch erhalten ist (Plin. nat. 34,11f.; ILLRP 696). Die weitverbreitete Geschichte liegt vielleicht der Figur des Trimalchio bei Petronius zugrunde.…

Barbula

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen (“der Milchbart”) bei den Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). Außerdem Name des Kommandanten des M. Antonius bei Aktium; B. wurde von Octavian später begnadigt (App. civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Ancharia

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Frau des C. Octavius, des Vaters des Augustus, Mutter der älteren Octavia (Suet. Aug. 4,1; Plut. Ant. 31,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Metellus

(18 words)

Regulus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cogn. (Diminutiv von rex, “König”), in republikanischer Zeit in den Familien der Atilii (Atilius [I 17-23]) und Livineii (Livineius [I 1-2]); in der Kaiserzeit auch in anderen Familien. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316 f.

Dives

(53 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen zur Bezeichnung des Reichtums, bei L. Baebius [I 7] D. und L. Canuleius [I 5] D.; erblich bei den Nachkommen des P. Licinius Crassus D. ( pontifex maximus 212 v.Chr.; vgl. Plin. nat. 33,133), aber dem Triumvirn M. Licinius Crassus (cos. 70, 55 v.Chr.) fälschlich zugeschrieben. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Labeo

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen, abgeleitet von labea, “Lippe”, ursp…

Hostilia, Quarta

(48 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] In zweiter Ehe Gattin des C. Calpurnius [I 9] Piso (Consul 180 v.Chr.); vergiftete angeblich ihren Mann im Amt, um ihrem Sohn aus erster Ehe, Q. Fulvius [I 11] Flaccus, zum Konsulat zu verhelfen, und wurde deshalb verurteilt (Liv. 40,37,5-7). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Heius

(66 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Lat. Eigenname (Schulze 459). [English version] H., C. Um 75 v.Chr. angesehener und reicher Bürger der sizilischen Stadt Messana. Aus seinem Besitz raubte Verres vier berühmte griech. Statuen und wertvolle Teppiche (Cic. Verr. 2,4,3-19; 27). Trotzdem trat er 70 im Auftrag seiner Gemeinde als Entlastungszeuge für Verres in Rom auf, belastete ihn jedoch im Kreuzverhör Ciceros (Verr. 2,2,13; 4,15-19; 150; 5,47). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Malleolus

(36 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] [1] s. Pfeil s. Pfeil Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] röm. Cognomen Cognomen (von malleus, “Hammer”) in der Familie der Publicii in republikanischer Zeit.…

Mucianus

(58 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen, zunächst die Adoption aus der Familie der Mucii bezeichend. Bes. verbreitet in der Familie der Licinii, dann auch bei weiteren gentes. Prominenteste Träger sind L. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives M. ( cos. 131 v.Chr.) und C. Licinius [II 14] M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 259…

Camillus

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen vermutlich etr. Herkunft (Schulze, 290, 322; ThlL, Onom. 120-122) wohl mit camillus zusammenhängend in der Bed. “edelgeborener unerwachsener Knabe”, dann “Opferdiener” (Fest. 38; 82L; Varro ling. 7,34 u.a.). In republikanischer Zeit ist C. Familienbeiname der Furii; berühmtester Träger ist M. Furius C., Eroberer von Veii 396 v.Chr. und Retter Roms nach der Gallierkatastrophe. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann 1, 147.

Figulus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen (“Töpfer”), in den Fasten der republikanischen Zeit für die Familie der Marcii und den Schriftsteller P. Nigidius F. bezeugt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, …

Folius

(137 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Röm. Gentilname (ältere Form inschr. Foslius, InscrIt 13,1,37, F. [3]), in der frühen Republik nur für die Familie der patrizischen Folii bezeugt, die Ende des 4. Jh. v.Chr. ausstarb; später geläufiger Eigenname nichtsenatorischer Familien. [English version] [1] Pontifex maximus, getötet von Kelten 387 v.Chr. Pontifex maximus, blieb bei der Einnahme Roms durch die Kelten 387 v.Chr. mit anderen Greisen in Rom und wurde getötet (Liv. 5,41,3).…

Imperios(s)us

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, designating excessive personal harshness, in the Republican period in the Manlii family ( Manlius) in the 4th cent. BC. Elvers, Ka…
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