Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Eder, Walter" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Eder, Walter" )' returned 296 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Wahlen

(1,359 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] Im staatlich-polit. Bereich dient die W. der Bestellung von Organen (Einzelpersonen oder Gremien), die meist auf Zeit von der Mehrheit der Wahlberechtigten mit der Vorbereitung und Durchführung gemeinschaftlicher Aufgaben betraut werden; in monarchischen Systemen hat die polit. W. keine Bed. Über den Bestellungsmodus von Funktionsträgern (für mil. Aufgaben oder in der Rechtssprechung) in frühen Aristokratien liegen keine Nachrichten vor, doch dürfte die Auswahl eher in Konsensver…

Triumph, Triumphzug

(939 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
Ritual der Kriegsbeendigung in Rom, zugleich Einzugsritus des Heeres in die Stadt und höchste erreichbare Ehrung für den Feldherrn. [English version] I. Name und Entstehung Der lat. Begriff triumphus leitet sich vom Festruf io triump(h)e ab, der aus dem griech. Ruf θριάμβε/ thriámbe im Kult des Dionysos (Varro ling. 6,68; Serv. Aen. 10,775) gebildet und ursprünglich eine Bitte um Erscheinen des Gottes war, vergleichbar mit dem 5fachen triumpe im Kultlied der Arvales fratres [8. 38-55; 7. 223]. Die Herkunft des T. aus einem Neujahrs- und Inthron…

Akropolis

(327 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] (ἀκρόπολις, “Hochstadt”), hochgelegener ( ákros = “an der Spitze befindlich”) Teil einer griech. Siedlung; in Griechenland und der Ägäis häufig, in sizilischen und unterital. Kolonien selten mit eigenen Mauern (Befestigungswesen). Die urspr. Bezeichnung dieser Höhensiedlungen als pólis (zu den myk. Wurzeln des Wortes s. Polis I.) lebte in der Bezeichnung der A. von Athen als pólis bis in das 5. Jh. v. Chr. weiter (Thuk. 2,15,6; vgl. Aristoph. Nub. 69; Paus. 1,26,6). Mit der Erweiterung der Siedlungen an den Berghängen seit dem 8. Jh.…

Skytalismos

(114 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] (σκυταλισμός). Die Tötung von 1200 (Diod. 15,57,3-58,4; bei Plut. mor. 814B: 1500) reichen Bürgern in Argos (Herbst 370 v. Chr.) durch Keulenschläge ( skytálē: “Stock”, “Keule”). Anlaß war der Versuch einer oligarchischen Gruppe, mit Hilfe von Söldnern die Macht zu gewinnen, wohl um nach der Niederlage Spartas bei Leuktra (370 v. Chr.) eine Radikalisierung der Demokratie in Argos zu verhindern. Der Versuch wurde verraten (Ain. Takt. 11,7-10), 30 angesehene Bürger wurden hingerichtet; dann folgte in aufgewühlter Atmosphäre der s., dem schließlich auch die…

Latinerkriege

(525 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] werden die mil. Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Rom und dem Latinischen Bund (Latini D.), dem Rom nicht angehörte, oder einzelnen latin. Städten genannt, die vom Beginn der Republik (um 510 v. Chr.) bis zur Auflösung des Bundes durch Rom im J. 338 v. Chr. sporadisch stattfanden. Der erste L. ist als Versuch der Latiner zu sehen, die dominante Stellung Roms in Latium zu beenden. Rom hatte sich v. a. unter den Königen Servius Tullius [I 4] und Tarquinius [12] Superbus zur Vormacht der Latiner entwickelt (vgl. Liv. 1,52) und …

Zwölfstädtebund

(417 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] Der Zusammenschluß von 12 Städten oder Stämmen zu einem Bund war eine alte und verbreitete Erscheinung im Mittelmeerraum und weit darüber hinaus (vgl. die 12 Stämme Israels). Die Zahl 12, die symbolische Bed. hatte, betonte die innere Geschlossenheit und zugleich die Abgrenzung nach außen. Polit./mil. Ziele im Sinne einer Wehrgemeinschaft oder einer Föderation zur Absprache gemeinsamer Politik sind bei keinem der ant. Z. zu erkennen, aber für die schlecht erschließbare frühe Phas…

XI. Late-antique Germanic Kingdoms

(10,179 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin | Eder, Walter
This section includes the states of a number of Germanic peoples that emerged from the early fifth century AD onwards on the territory of the late Roman Empire and on its borders. The Huns (Hunni) were admittedly not a Germanic nation (Germani), but they certainly belong in the survey below as their sudden expansion triggered the so-called migrations of the Germanic peoples. Moreover, the rapid collapse of Hunnish rule after the death of Attila led to a recovery of imperial power only in the Eas…

Tirocinium fori

(151 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ('period of recruitment for the forum', in distinction to a military one; Tiro [2]) describes both the public presentation in the forum of a young man from the upper classes after his donning the toga virilis ( deductio in forum: Suet. Aug. 26,2; Suet. Tib. 54,1; Suet. Nero 7,2) and the ensuing approximately one year period of education for famous politicians, orators and lawyers (Cic. Lael. 1,1: cf. Cic. Brut. 89,306). The instruction did not happen systematically, but rather by constant accompaniment and observatio…

Xiphares

(121 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξιφάρης/ Xiphárēs). Son of Mithridates [6] VI and Stratonice [7], who was killed by his father in 64 BC in revenge for the betrayal of his mother (App. Mithr. 502-505). In 64 Stratonice - without knowing that X. was with his father - had handed over a fortress (Sinoria?) which had been entrusted to her by Mithridates after losing a battle against Pompeius [I 3] in 66 ( Mithridatic Wars C), together with all its treasures to Pompeius [III 1] who promised in return to spare X. if he should fall into Roman hands (Plut. Pompeius 36,6; Cass. Dio 37,7,5). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Biblio…

Q.

(75 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman first name Quintus; in the formula SPQR ( SenatusPopulusQueRomanus) for Que (= postpositive 'and'); in inscriptions frequently for the relative pronoun qui, quae, quod (e.g. Q[ui] I[nfra]S[cripti]S[unt] = 'the undersigned') and for q uaestor . Rare on coins, mostly for Quinquennales, the five-year celebration of an emperor's rule. In MSS, Q stands as the numeral for 500,000. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography H. Chantraine, s. v. Q, RE 24, 1963, 621-623.

Elections

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Within the sphere of state and politics, elections serve to appoint organs (individuals or committees), who were generally entrusted for a set period of time by the majority of qualified voters with the preparation or execution of community tasks; in monarchic systems, political elections are of no importance. There is no information regarding the appointment of functionaries (for military tasks or within the jurisdiction) in early aristocracies, but it is likely that selection wa…

Ataulfus

(228 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Brother-in-law of Alarich ( Alaricus [2]), AD 410-415 king of the West Goths. Probably by order of Alarich active as army commander in Pannonia, A. was summoned by him in 408, reached Italy in 409 and was named comes domesticorum equitum by the usurper  Attalus [11]. After the death of Alarich in 410 he gave up Alarich's African plans and in 412 on the advice of Attalus travelled to Gallia to the usurper  Iovinus. A. soon came into conflict with him and in 413 handed him over to Dardanus, the Gallic praefect of the Emperor Honorius. A treaty with Honorius was not honoured: grain deliveries did not occur, the permanent colony in Aquitania was made dependent on the release of the emperor's sister Galla Placidia (since 410 prisone…

Struggle of the orders

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the confrontation between the patricians ( patricii ) and plebeians ( plebs ) at Rome, which began in 494 BC with the foundation of the people's tribunate and ended in 287 BC with the recognition of the decisions of the plebs ( plebiscitum ) as generally binding laws ( lex, leges ) (but s. [1], who puts the end only as late as 217/6). Only the relatively homogenous patriciate should here be understood as an 'order'. The plebs was highly fragmented both socially and economically, and moreover the plebeian clientes of the patricians were …

Potter's oracle

(234 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Prophetic oracle, fragments transmitted in three Greek papyri of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD (texts in [1. 195-209]; partly translated in [4. 412-415]; on Imperial Period interest in the PO see [3. 194-199]). On the 'Island of the Sun' a potter sent by Thot unfolds, in the presence of a (fictional) king Amenophis (as spokesman of Chmun the god of pottery? [1. 184 f.]), a terrible portrayal of the physical and moral decline of Egypt and its inhabitants [2. 168-170] in a period of foreign ru…

Ramnes

(275 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Ramnes, Titi(ens)es and Luceres (as in Liv. 1,36,2, but in 1,13,8 and Cic. Rep. 2,20,36: R(h)amnenses) are the  Etruscan (Varro Ling. 5,55; see also [1. 218, 581]) names of the three tribus established by Romulus [1] (according to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,14,2 and Gell. NA 15,27: organised by families) which were each divided into 10 curiae and thus formed the primary structuring of the Roman people and army (30×10 equestrians, 30×100 infantry: Varro Ling. 5,89; Liv. 1,13,8). Ennius's derivation of the term R. from Rom…

L.

(55 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman praenomen Lucius. In the Roman numbering system, L denotes the value 50 and probably developed from the bisection of the Greek aspirate Θ (via the form , which found no use as a letter in the early Latin alphabet). Italy, alphabetical scripts; Numerical systems Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Amali

(250 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The A. form the royal dynasty of the East Goths and, with regard to reputation, stand above the royal dynasty of the West Goths, the  Balthi. The family tree of the A., which was developed by Iordanes (died 79) in AD 551 and began with Gaut, indicates godly origin; the eponym of the tribe, Amal, stands only in the fourth place. Iordanes relies upon Cassiodorus, who outlined shortly after the death of the Amal Theoderic the Gr. (526) in his (lost) history of the Goths an origo Gothica, which, in turn, took up an already-existing gentile tradition that had been cultiv…

Ager Romanus

(297 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] As distinct from the ager peregrinus, the 'foreign territory', ager Romanus (AR) was the area of the state of Rome inhabited by Romans (including the city). It consisted of privately owned real estate ( ager privatus) and public lands ( ager publicus ). Parts of the ager publicus could be transformed into ager privatus through the settlement of Roman citizens ( assignatio viritim, 'man by man'; or in closed citizens' colonies, cf. coloniae C) or could be completely divided from the AR to become ag er peregrinus when colonies with their own state areas were establis…

Topos

(215 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Sarmaticus

(154 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] A victory title assumed by Roman emperors to indicate a military success over the Sarmatians (Sarmatae). After AD 175, Marcus [2] Aurelius and his son Commodus were the first to bear the epithet Sarmaticus following the peace treaty with the Iazyges. Maximinus [2] Thrax and his son Maximus bore the title Sarmaticus maximus from AD 236. Although Sarmatian tribes continued to threaten the Danube border, Diocletianus was the first to accept the title Sarmaticus maximus again in AD 285 (three more times from then on). After Diocletian, all the Augusti of the…

Prison sentence

(108 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Neither Greek nor Roman law is familiar with prison sentences as punitive detention in the modern sense (otherwise [1]). As a rule, until the trial the accused remains free (in Rome a kind of pre-trial confinement is permissible for political crimes), a convicted criminal only stays in prison until the execution of the sentence. Also, private detention of a debtor for a creditor, precisely regulated in Rome from the time of the Law of the Twelve Tables onwards, is not to punish but rather to force payment. Addictus; Carcer; Desmoterion Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography 1 …

Amyrtaeus

(173 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ἀμυρταῖος; Amyrtaîos). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sais, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC of Sais, joined the Aegean rebellion begun by the Libyan  Inarus and supported by Athens (Thuc. 1,109) against the Persian king  Artaxerxes I and held the Nile delta after the victory of the Persians (again supported by Athens; Thuc. 1,110,4; Plut.…

Social Wars

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Wars within or between ancient alliance systems (Socii; Symmachia; Symmachoi). The term does not include punitive expeditions by the leading power against individual alliance members. The following wars were already called SW (πόλεμος συμμαχικός/ pólemos symmachikós, bellum sociale) in Antiquity: [German version] [1] War by Athens against allies of the 2nd Athenian League, 357-355 BC The war by Athens against seceded allies of the Second Athenian League from 357-355 BC, which put Athens into serious military and financial difficulties (Symmoria). Du…

Thesmophylakes

(118 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (θεσμοφύλακες /thesmophýlakes, from thesmós = 'law, ordinance' and phyláttein = 'to guard'). 'Guardians of ordinances', a rarely recorded collegium in Classical Greece (for Elis: Thuc. 47,9) with scarcely identifiable powers. Recorded in the Hellenistic period in Boeotia (IG VII 3172,178; cf. Plut. Mor. 292d thesmophylákios nómos) and on Ceos (IG XII 5,595B) as an authority which saw to the enforcement of judicial punishments and (on Ceos) brought law suits against officials. In Ptolemaic Egypt (recorded for Alexandria [1], thesmophylakes were the leaders …

Pleminius, Q.

(116 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Propraetor. Legate of Cornelius [I 71] Scipio in Locri [2] after it was regained in the war with Hannibal in 205 BC (second of the Punic Wars). In 204 the Locrians' complaint in the Roman Senate about P.' despotism, which was tolerated by Scipio, and about the pillage of the sanctuary of Persephone was used by Q. Fabius [I 30] in his motion to relieve Scipio of his command (Liv. 29,19,6). A senatorial commission, friendly to Scipio, established his innocence in Locri, however, and brought P. to Rome, to be put on trial by the people's tribunes for

Audoin

(173 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] From AD 540/41 held the regency for Walthari (the minor son of King Wacho) and after Walthari's death (in 547/48) became king of the  Langobards. He led the Langobards to Pannonia, where they were settled by Justinian and probably entrusted with the task of securing the Danube border against the Franks. In the battles against the neighbouring Gepids he was insufficiently supported by Justinian, although A. sent a large army to  Narses in Italy in 552. Nevertheless, he achieved vic…

Governor

(586 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The modern term 'governor' merges numerous designations of regular officials and functionaries in the ancient Near East and Graeco-Roman antiquity into one. The common factor of all these positions was the fulfilment of military and administrative duties (i.e. 'governing') far from the centre of rule, in clearly geographically defined areas (Eparchia; Provincia; satrapy, s. Satrap) and by order of and in the place of the actual political ruler. Representatives and deputies of the …

People

(355 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Like the modern term 'people' (in the sense of population, broad masses, lower social class, ethnic group, nation among others) the ancient terms which were used for 'people' (δῆμος/ dḗmos [1] and populus ) were not clearly defined. But dḗmos and populus never meant 'population' since both referred only to citizens with political rights (Citizenship; Census). Dḗmos could mean all of the citizens of a country, but also only the lower classes, the 'masses', who were also called οἱ πολλοί/ hoi polloí ('the many'), πλῆθος/ plḗthos ('mass') and ὄχλος/ óchlos ('rabble', 'mo…

Editors’ preface

(6,459 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter | Renger, Johannes
1. Aims of the present volume Long lists of dates and endless series of names hardly make for reading that is especially exciting or even interesting: emperors, kings, princes and holders of various offices follow one another, arranged in columns and accompanied by more columns with the dates of their lives and terms in office. The result: a ‘columned’ or compartmentalised history of antiquity that, at first sight, is just as lifeless as the marble of ancient columns. A second look, however, shows tha…

Quaesitor

(127 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ('examiner') can, in general Latin usage, mean any chairman of a jury ( quaestio ) in criminal proceedings; however, the chairman selected for an individual trial is usually meant, in contrast to the permanent chairman appointed for a year ( praetor, iudex quaestionis) [1, vol. 2. 2234; 2. 48-50]. He also did not have a vote [2. 1629] and was bound by the decision of the committee which he led. A juristic connection of the quaesitor to the ancient quaestores parricidii ( parricidium

Puer, pueri

(274 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In Latin puer is used: (1) to describe male slaves of any age (like the Greek παῖς/ paîs); (2) to distinguish a free male child from a female one ( puella); and (3) to indicate a stage of life (Dig. 50,16,204). According to Festus (307), 'the ancients' ( antiqui) named their slaves Marcipor, Quintipor, etc., to express the master-slave relationship of Marcus or Quintus to each por = puer. A slave remained a puer until freed because his physical development, unlike that of a free child, would not lead to legal majority (Sen. Ep. 47,7). Latin lacks a ter…

Amalaricus

(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Son of Alaricus [3] II and a daughter of Theoderic the Great. After Alaricus' death (507), his half-brother Gesalech ruled instead of the c. five-year-old A. (Gesalicus; Procop. Goth. 5,12,43; differently Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,37). After 511 Theoderic took over rulership for A., who had been nominally named ki…

Ardabur

(456 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius, cos. 427 AD Flavius, of Alan descent, father of Aspar A. Consul in AD 427. As magister utriusque militiae, he led a successful campaign against the Persian commander Narses in AD 421-422. In AD 424, he was, as magister utriusque mil. (praesentalis?), sent to Italy by Theodosius II, together with his son, against the usurper Iohannes who had seized power after the death of Honorius in AD 423; however, he was already captured during the crossing and held in Ravenna as Iohannes' prisoner, but freed by his son in AD 425 (PLRE 2, 137 f., A. 3). Eder, Walter (Berlin) …

B (Number)

(56 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In Greek numerical systems, β (beta) designates the number 2 in the ‘alphabetic’ system. In the same system, it can also designate the number 2,000 when prepositioned with a diacritical symbol ('β, ,β). In the ‘acrophonic’ system, β' is the symbol for the fraction 2/3.  Arithmeti…

Census

(641 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The ancient census had its origins in the effort to establish the military potential of a community, and was thus at first restricted to the part of the population that was capable of and qualified for military service, i.e. adult male citizens. Because the prevailing principle of self-provision of equipment made military service as cavalryman, heavy infantryman ( hoplitai ), light inf…

Zilath

(206 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (also zilat, zilach, zilac). Name of an office in Etruscan cities, known from inscriptional evidence from the 4th cent. BC onwards; most of the evidence is from the territory of Tarquinii, more from Vulci, Volsinii, Volaterra and Clusium [1. 246 f.]. The zilath seems (to some extent with other officials also described as zilath but charged with other duties) to have been at the apex of the city administration which evolved after the dissolution of the kingdom and the decline of aristocratic power in Etruria (Etrusci). Zilath also appears in connection with mechl rasnal…

Attila

(394 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Son of Mundzuk, from AD 434 together with his brother Bleda king of the Huns as successor to his uncle Rua. After the murder of Bleda in 445, A. is until 453 sole ruler of a Hun empire reaching from the Rhine to the Caucasus, which also includes Iranian and Germanic tribes. The strict central organization of the Hunnish tribes, begun already by Rua, increasingly replaces the earlier, looser federation. Probably after the model of the Roman Empire but not with the goal of its destr…

Civil War

(927 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Acropolis

(374 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (ἀκρόπολις/ akrópolis, 'upper city'), the highest part ( ákros = 'located at the top') of a Greek settlement, in Greece and in the Aegean area often with fortification walls, rarely so in the colonies of Sicily and Lower Italy (Fortifications). The original reference to these elevated settlements as pólis (on the Mycenaean roots of the word s. Polis I) was preserved in the designation of the Acropolis of Athens as pólis up into the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,15,6; cf. Aristoph. Nub. 69; Paus. 1,26,6). When settlements began to extend down the slopes begi…

Sacrosanctus

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] According to Festus (318, s. v. s.) s. described objects or persons who were protected by oath ( Sacramentum ) in such a way that by harming them the culprit came under the threat of the death penalty. As examples Festus gives the tribune of the plebs ( Tribunus plebis ) and, incorrectly, also the plebeian aediles. From their inception (in 494 BC; Struggle of the orders), the people's tribunes were protected by the lex sacrata (Liv. 2,33,1 and 3;  Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,89,2-4; Cic. Rep. 2,58), i.e. by an oath of the plebs to have every injury to a tribu…

Squeeze

(125 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] 'Squeeze' (German abklatsch, French estampage) is the term for a negative impression of an inscription on paper or a latex sheet. After the inscribed surface has been cleaned, soft paper is pressed with a firm brush, or a thin film of liquid latex is poured, on to the inscription. After drying the squeeze can be detached and transported at will; under suitable lighting it can often be read better than the original. Large collections of squeezes can be found in the Akademie der Wissens…

Bouleuterion

(45 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Building where the  boule met. Attestable from the archaic period, from the 4th cent. BC the bouleuterion was regularly one of the public buildings at or in the vicinity of the  agora. On function and construction  assembly buildings. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Prytaneion

(140 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (πρυτανεῖον/ prytaneîon). Official building of the prytáneis , usually near the bouleuterion in the centre of a Greek polis (Agora; cf., e.g., Athens; Messene; Priene) and ostensibly of great age (cf. Thuc. 2,15,2). As the location of the state hearth, often with a constantly burning flame, the prytaneîon was the sacred centre of the polis and at the middle of numerous cult activities (Hestia). After the Persian Wars the 'contaminated' fires had to be extinguished and rekindled by Delphi in the prytaneîon (Plut. Aristides 20,4 f.). Participation in meals in the prytaneî…

S.

(125 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman forenames Sextus and Spurius (also Sp.). S stands also for senatus in the formula SPQR, as S.S. for the Senate's resolution ( S[enatus] S[ententia]) and as S.C. on coins that were minted on behalf of the Senate ( [ex] S[enatus] C[onsulto]; s enatus consultum ). Very often to be found on inscriptions instead of the possessive pronouns of the 3rd person suus, sua, suum (in all the oblique cases), such as S(ua)P(ecunia)P(osuit) ('built with one's own money'). On coins, frequently used within imperial propaganda for s alus ('health'), s ecuritas

Coriolanus

(168 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Marcius C., Cn, received the epithet C. for his deeds of heroism in the capture of Corioli in 493 BC (Liv. 2,33,5). The unyielding patrician's proposal to exploit a famine in order to render the plebs submissive led to his banishment in 491, and to his attempt to return home at the head of the Volsci enemy. According to tradition (Liv. 2,39-41; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,14-36), his mother Veturia and wife Volumnia persuaded him to turn back before the gates of Rome, and this cost him…

Catualda

(75 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Marcomannian noble who had fled from  Marbod to the Gothic Gutones. At the instigation of Drusus he invaded the kingdom of Marbod in c. AD 18 with the help of the Gutones who wanted to free themselves from Marcomanni subjugation and drove him into exile in Ravenna. Shortly afterwards he himself was driven out by the Hermundurian Vibilius and fled to Forum Iulii (Fréjus) (Tac. Ann. 2, 62-63). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Teispes

(136 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τείσπης; Teíspēs). According to the testimony of a cylinder inscription of Cyrus [2] II (TUAT I 409,21) an ancestor of his grandfather Cyrus [1] I and hence probably, like him, of Persian descent and a ruler in Fars (Persis) in the 7th cent. BC. The genealogical connection with the Achaemenids [2] in Hdt. 7,11, who puts into the mouth of Xerxes I a family tree with a T. as the son of Achaemenes [1] and another T. as great-great-grandson, can presumably be traced to Darius [1]. The…

Balthi

(226 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The B. (‘the Bold’) are the royal line of the Visigoths, which is held in lesser esteem than the  Amali line of the Ostrogoths. Although the B. are also considered to be a line of ‘kings and heroes’, in contrast with the Amali, the memory of divine descent was lost. The historical descent of the royal family also remains obscure, because the relationship of the first identifiable Balthi prince, Alaric I ( Alaricus [2], died AD 410), to the three Terwingian judges of the 4th cent. …

Tullianum

(217 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Part of the Roman state prison ( carcer ) for prisoners sentenced to death by strangulation, including the fellow conspirators of Catilina and the leaders of subjugated people paraded in triumphs (Triumph/Triumphal procession, with map). The name Tullianum led ancient authors to suppose that it was built by Tull(i)us Hostilius[4] or Servius Tullius [I 4] (Varro, Ling. 5,151; Fest. 490), but modern scholars think that it may have originally been a spring house (cp. Fest. 492: tullios = 'wellsprings'). Liv. 1,33,8 ascribed the construction of the carcer itself to An…
▲   Back to top   ▲