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(103 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Παραίβιος; Paraíbios). Mythical slave or owner of a farm, whose story was told to the Argonautsby Phineus [1], thereby proving his visionary powers (Apoll. Rhod. 2,456ff. with scholia): P.' father had felled a tree, in spite of the pleas of the hamadryad who lived in it, thus bringing ill fortune on himself and his descendants. Phineus recognized the cause and placated the nymph with an altar, whereupon she became Phineus' friend and provider [1. 222f. n. 3]. On P. in art, see [2]. Dräger, Paul (Trier) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenistische D…


(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀνάγκη; Anánkē). The word attested in Homer as an abstract term (‘compulsion’) develops significance as a philosophical term from the pre-Socratics onwards [1. 5 ff.; 2. 147 ff.; 3. 103 ff.]: Thales (A 1, DK 71, 12 f.) preserves the oldest Greek speculation, ‘to bring to expression with ananke, i.e. natural necessity, the power which is active mechanically behind all phenomena and which compels the divine primal principle to appear in its multitudinous forms’ [1. 6]; ananke is frequently equated with εἱμαρμένη ( heimarménē) (e.g. Heraclid. A 5). The pe…


(175 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φρόντις; Phróntis). [German version] [1] Son of Phrixus and Chalkiope, daughter of Aietes Son of Phrixus and Aeetes' daughter Chalciope [2], brother of Argos [I 2], Melas [2] and Cytissorus (Hes. Cat. 255; Apollod. 1,83). On Phrixus’ death the sons return to Hellas (Apollod. 1,120; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1141ff.) or remain in Colchis (Val. Fl. 5,460ff.). Only in Apoll. Rhod. 4,70ff. does Ph. play a role, when Medea calls to him as the youngest of Phrixus’ sons to help her escape and he responds. Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Helmsman of Menelaus Son of Onetor, helmsman of Menelau…


(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…


(412 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινυάδες, Latin also Minyeïades/singular Minyeïas or Minyeïdes/singular Minyeïs). The three daughters of Minyas, whose names were Leucippe (Leuconoë), Arsippe (Arsinoë [I 2]) and Alcathoë [1] (Alcithoë). Their myth, which is missing in Apollodorus, is found with variants in Ov. Met. 4,1ff., 389ff., Plut. Mor. 299e-300a (Qu. Gr. 38), Antoninus Liberalis 10 and Ael. VH 3,42. According to Antoninus Liberalis, who follows Nicander (Heteroioumena, B. 4) and Corinna (fr. 665 PMG), the Minyade…


(1,282 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μήδεια/ Mḗdeia, Lat. Medea). Born in Aea/Colchis (M. Αἰαίη: Apoll. Rhod. 3,1136) as the daughter of Aeetes, who was the son of Helios and the brother of Circe, and the Oceanid Idyia (Hes. Theog. 956ff., 992ff., Apollod. 1,129) or Hecate (Diod. Sic. 4,45,3). Sister of Chalciope [2] and Apsyrtus [1] (Apollod. 1,83.132), betrothed to Styrus (Val. Fl. 5,257f.), wife of Jason [1] and by him the mother of Medeius (Hes. Theog. 1001) or Mermerus and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Subsequently s…


(158 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Συμπληγάδες sc. πέτραι; Symplēgádes, sc. pétrai: 'clashing sc. rocks'), also synormádes (Sim. fr. 546 PMG), sýndromoi (Pind. P. 4,208-211), Cyaneae [1] (Eur. Andr. 864 f.), syndromádes (Eur. Iph. T. 422) or Plēgádes (Apoll. Rhod. 2,596). Gateway of rocks in the myth of the Argonauts at the transition from the real world into the mythical one (return through the Planctae , with which they were often confused, e.g. Hdt. 4,85,1). The Argo is the first ship to successfully pass through, with Hera's (and Athena's) help, a…


(156 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τῖφυς/ Tîphys). Son of Hagnias, from Siphae, the port of Thespiae, Argonaut and helmsman of the Argo (Apollod. 1,111; Apoll. Rhod. 1,105-110 and 1,401 f.; Val. Fl. 1,481-483; Orph. A. 122-126). T. leads the launch (Apoll. Rhod. 1,381-393), urges departure ( ibid. 1,522 f.), steers safely out of harbour ( ibid. 1,559-562) and takes the ship unharmed into the Bosporus [1] ( ibid. 2,169-176) and through the Symplegades ( ibid. 2,573-606). After his death from illness among the Mariandyni, Ancaeus [2] (Apollod. 1,126; Apoll. Rhod. 2,854-898; Val. Fl…


(302 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινύαι; Minýai). Mycenaean-period tribe with a highly developed culture (domed tombs, palace, dyke works on Lake Copais [1. 127ff.]), living both in Boeotia (chief town Orchomenus [1], with the epithet Minyeïos, Hom. Il. 2,511; Hom. Od. 11,284; Hes. fr. 257,4; founded out of Iolcus: Apoll. Rhod. 3,1093ff.) and in southern Thessaly ([1. 139ff.; 2. 205ff.; 3. 243ff.] place name Minya, IG IX 2, 521; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μινύα; M. in Iolcus: Sim. fr. 540 PMG; founded by M.: Demetrios Skepsios fr. 51 Gaede; Strab. 9,2…

Calais and Zetes

(355 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κάλαϊς, Ζήτης; Kálaïs, Zḗtēs). Boreads, wind gods, the winged sons of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, brothers of Cleopatra and Chione [1]. Sent by their father from Thrace (Pind. Pyth. 4.179-183), they become members of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1.111; 3.199; Apoll. Rhod. 1.211-223; Ov. Met. 6.712-721). In Salmydessus they free the blind prophet  Phineus, who is married to Cleopatra, from the  Harpies. In the fight, C. and Z. were initially supposed to die, like the Harpies (Apollod. 1.122; 3.199 [1. 2291; 2. 104ff.]). However, divine intervention rescues both la…


(1,398 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἀργοναῦται; Argonaûtai). [German version] A. Participants Argonauts is the general descriptive term for the group of heroes (also called Minyae), mainly belonging to the pre-Trojan generation, who were sent by Pelias under Jason's leadership on the Argo to fetch the fleece of the ram on which Phrixus and Helle had once fled. Even the most ancient sources identify the Golden Fleece with the Argonauts myth, although originally the two groups of myths probably had nothing done with each other. Altogethe…


(294 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἶα). Mythical island of exploration in the Oceanus (in the land of the Aethiopeans: Mimn. fr. 5 Poetae Elegiaci Gentili/Prato), in which Helios has a thalamos for his rays, originally the goal of Jason (Mimn. fr. 10). In A. (etymologically, ‘Earth, Land’ [1. 22, 39]) is the city of Aeetes, the ‘husband of A.’ (Mimn. fr. 10, cf. Pherecyd. fr. 105). Knowledge that the Pontus is an inland lake resulted in A. being shifted to the river (Phasis) connecting it with the sea (Hes. fr. 2…


(157 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Χαλκιόπη; Chalkiópē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Chalcodon Daughter of Chalcodon (king of the Abantes: Hom. Il. 2,541) or of Rhexenor; second wife of Aegeus before Medea (Apollod. 3,207; Schol. Eur. Med. 673). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Sister of Medea Daughter of Aeetes and Idyia; sister of Medea, wife of Phrixus, mother of Argos, Mela, Phrontis and Kytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83; Herodor FGrH F 39; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1148ff.); in Pherecydes (FGrH F 25) she is called Euenia (also C. and Iophossa; cf. Hes. fr. 255 M-W; Ac…


(124 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κρηθεύς, as ke-re-te-u already Mycenaean). The son of  Aeolus [1] and Enarete (Apollod. 1,51), founder and ruler of  Iolcus. After the death of his first wife  Sidero, he married his ward Tyro, the daughter of his brother  Salmoneus and the mother of Pelias and  Neleus with Poseidon, with whom he begat  Aeson [1], Phere and  Amythaon (Hom. Od. 11,235ff.; Hes. fr. 30,29ff.; Apollod. 1,90ff.; 96); Val. Fl. 5,476ff. also makes  Athamas a son of C.; Pind. Nem. 5,26 speaks of a daughter…


(139 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἄκαστος). Son of Pelias and Anaxibia (cf. Apollod. 1,95), probably an Argonaut from the beginning (Apollod. 1,112). A. institutes games to commemorate his dead father and expels Jason and Medea from Iolcus (Apollod. 1,144), of which he becomes king (Apollod. 3,164; cf. Diod. 4,53,1; Hyg. Fab. 25,5). Absolves Peleus of the murder which Astydameia, wife of A. (in Pind. this is Hippolyte) is vainly trying to bring about, then slanders him to A.; A. leaves Peleus unarmed in Pelion, w…


(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μαχάων; Macháōn). In Homer, M., like his brother Podalirius, is the son of Asclepius and like him is a ‘good physician’ and commander of 30 ships from Tricca, Ithome and Oechalia (Hom. Il. 2,729ff.) in Thessaly [1. 47ff.; 2. vol. 2, 17ff.; 3. vol. 1, 225ff.]; he cures Menelaus, who has been wounded by Pandarus, with herbs that Asclepius obtained from Chiron (Hom. Il. 4,192ff.); M. himself is wounded by Paris with an arrow (ibid. 11,505ff.) and revived by Hecamede with a mixed drin…


(164 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἕλλη; Héllē). Daughter of  Athamas and  Nephele, fled with her brother  Phrixus on a golden ram from her stepmother Ino and drowned in the sea, which from then on has been called  Hellespont (Pind. fr. 189; Aesch. Pers. 69f.) (Apollod. 180-182; Ov. Fast. 3,851-876; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; her tomb on the Chersonesus: Hdt. 7,58,2). Valerius Flaccus (5,476ff.; 2,611) associates H. and Phrixus more closely with the  Argonauts, by making Athamas the son of  Cretheus, rather than his brother, a…


(190 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἰήτης; Aiḗtēs). King of Aea/Colchis, son of Helios and Perse(is), brother of Circe, Pasiphae and Perses. Spouse of Idyia or Asterodeia (or Eurylytes: Naupact. fr. 6-7 EpGF), father of Chalciope (whom he married to Phrixus), of Medea, of Apsyrtus/Phaethon (as well as of Circe and Aegialeus in Diod. Sic. 4,45,3 and Dion. Scyt. fr. 20 Rusten): Hom. Od. 10,138 f.; Hes. Theog. 956 ff.; Apollod. 1,83, 129, 147; Apoll. Rhod. 3,240 ff. A. tries to kill Jason for the Golden Fleece, since his power depends on its possession (Val. Fl. 5,236 ff. = Diod. Sic.…


(176 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀργώ; Argṓ). Ship which carried the Argonauts (Hom. Od. 12,70). A ship with space for fifty oarsmen, constructed out of spruce wood from Pelion (Eur. Med. 3 f.) by Argus the son of Phrixus under the guidance of Athena (Apollod. 1,110). Named after her builder (Apollod. loc. cit.; Pherecydes FGrH F 106) or her speed (Diod. Sic. 4,41,3). The A. was granted the ability to speak (Pherecydes FGrH F 111a; Aeschyl. fr. 20 TrGF 3) by means of a piece of Dodonian oak that Athena set into t…


(334 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Φρίξος/ Phríxos, Lat. Phrixus). Son of Athamas and Nephele [1], brother of Helle. When Athamas, incited by his second wife Ino (Leucothea), intends to sacrifice P. to Zeus on the basis of an oracle falsified by her, he flees with Helle on a ram with a golden coat sent by Nephele. Helle drowns; P, after his arrival in Aea (Colchis), sacrifices the ram to Zeus Phyxios and gives the fleece to Aeetes who hangs it up in the grove of Ares (as a guarantee of his rule: Diod. Sic. 4,47,6; Va…


(234 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἴδμων; Ídmōn). [German version] [1] Seer Son of  Asteria [2] (daughter of the Thessalian  Lapith Coronus) and of Apollo (Val. Fl. 1,228ff.), father of  Thestor, grandfather of  Calchas (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 108.). The Argive  Abas [1] is named as his human ‘father’ (Apoll. Rhod. 1,139ff.; Orph. A. 187ff.; Hyg. Fab. 14,11). As a seer with a telling name (‘the one who knows’), what is apparently the original version of the myth of  Argonauts he takes part in the expedition despite his foreknowledge tha…


(186 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὐρυνόμη; Eurynómē). Daughter of Oceanus; with Thetis she hid  Hephaestus for nine years after he had been expelled from Olympus by Hera (Hom. Il. 18,398ff.). In Hes. (Theog. 358), E. comes next to Metis in the catalogue of the  Oceanids (337; Apollod. 1,8 mother Tethys), next to Metis and Themis in the catalogue of the wives of Zeus as mother of the  Charites (907ff.; Apollod. 1,13), as which Call. (fr. 6 Pf.) calls her Τιτηνιάς ( Titēniás) (participant in the battle with the giants on the Pergamum Altar: inscr. from Pergamum 110). Like the Song of Orph…


(787 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κίρκη, Kírkē, Lat. Circe, Circa). Immortal (Hom. Od. 12,302) goddess, with the gift of language (ibid. 10,136) and a nymph (ibid. 10,543), daughter of Helios and of the  Oceanid Perse(is), sister of  Aeetes (ibid. 10,135ff.; Hes. Theog. 956f.; Apollod. 1,83), of  Perses (Apollod. 1,147) and  Pasiphae (Apollod. 3,7), by Odysseus, she is the mother of  Agrius and Latinus (Hes. Theog. 1011ff.) as well as  Cassiphone (Lycoph. 808 with schol.). According to Diodorus (4,45,3ff.), C. is …


(239 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τιτυός/ Tityós). Son of Zeus and Elara, the daughter of Orchomenus. In fear of Hera, Zeus conceals the pregnant Elara under the earth, which then 'gives birth' to T., with the result that he, because of his gigantic size, could also be called 'Earth-son' (Hom. Od. 7,324; 11,576), i.e. Gēgenḗs (cf. Gēgeneís ; Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 55), or Giant [1. 184 f.]. Since T. intends to assault Leto when she goes through Panopeus to Pytho (= Delphi [2. 302]), he is shot dead by Artemis (Pind. P. 4,90-92) and Apollo (Apoll. Rhod. 1,759-762). In Hades, where he is one …


(178 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Πλαγκταί sc. πέτραι/ Planktaí sc. pétrai, 'wandering rocks' or, from the pounding of the breakers, 'clashing rocks'). Designation (Hom. Od. 12,61) for mythical rocks made dangerous due to their smoothness, fire and surging waves; encountered by the Argonauts on their return journey; near the monsters Scylla and Charybdis. The Argo, assisted by Hera, is the only ship to have succeeded in navigating its way past the P. (Hom. Od. 12,59ff.; Apollod. 1,136; Apoll. Rhod. 4,924ff.); on Circe…


(310 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὔφημος; Eúphēmos). In older myth, the son of Poseidon and of the Boeotian Mecionice of Hyrie (Hes. fr. 253 M.-W.); husband of the sister of Hercules, Laonome, with the ability to walk on water (probably all in Hes. fr. 253), Argonaut (Apollod. 1,112), chariot victor at the funeral games for Pelias (Cypselus chest, Paus. 5,17,9), (illegitimate) progenitor of the Battiads whom he sired with an (anon.) Lemnian woman, i.e. first ancestor of the kings of Cyrene (cf. Βάττος ... Εὐφημίδ…


(392 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Εὐρύπυλος; Eurýpylos). [German version] [1] Suitor to Helen Son of Euaimon; a Thessalian and suitor to Helen (Apollod. 3,131), a warrior at Troy: leader of 40 ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.); wounded by Paris (11,575ff.), healed by Patroclus (11,809ff; 15,390ff.); stranded in Libya on the journey home (Lycoph. Al. 901f. with schol.). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Telephus, the son of Heracles Son of  Telephus son of Heracles; king of the Mysians; sent to the aid of Troy (Acusilaus FGrH F 40) by his mother  Astyoche, sister of Priam (Apollod. 3,…


(311 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Χάρυβδις; Chárybdis). Cliff with a dangerous whirlpool, which together with Scylla, situated opposite it, originally formed a rocky portal, that was part of the route of the Argonauts on their return journey between Sirens and Planctae (on which Thrinacia follows), and which the  Argo successfully passes (Apollod. 1,136; Apoll. Rhod. 4,922f.; cf. Ov. Met. 7,62ff.; Orph. A. 1253ff., where the Argo comes through the Pillars of Hercules and C. is already located in Sicily, whilst Scy…

Lemnian women, Hypsipyle

(433 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ὑψιπύλη, -λεια; Hypsipýlē, - leia). The myth that was originally perhaps autonomous [1. 235f.] and was then interwoven with the journey of the Argonautae and the Theban group of legends is as follows, according to Apollod. 1,114f. (cf. Apoll. Rhod. 1,609ff.; Ov. Pont. 6; Val. Fl. 2,82ff.; Stat. Theb. 5,28ff.; schol. Pind. Nem. hypothesis b): Because of the neglect of her cult, Aphrodite afflicts the Lemnian women (LW) with a bad odour [2; 3] so that the men of Lemnos live with capt…


(595 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φινεύς; Phineús). [German version] [1] Son of Phoenix and Cassiepeia Son of Agenor ’s[1] son Phoenix [1] and Cassiepeia [1] (Hes. Cat. 138; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 86; Antimachus fr. 70 Matthews); also son of Agenor himself (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 95; Apoll. Rhod. 2,237; Nonnus, Dion. 2,680) or Poseidon (Apollod. 1,120). Married first to Cleopatra [I 1], daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia, by whom he fathers two sons (Plexippus/Pandion; Parthenius/Carambis; Mariandynus/Thynus, and others); then to Idaea, the daug…


(327 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ὕλας; Hýlas). Son of  Theiodamas (Apollod. 1,117; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1212f.) and Menodice (Hyg. Fab. 14,11); local hero of  Cius. In a quarrel over food (for his son: Callim. Fr. 24),  Heracles kills Theiodamas (Apollod. 2,153; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1212-1219, where Heracles seeks a pretext for war against the Dryopians). Furthermore, according to Apollod. 1,117; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1153-1283, Heracles takes H. with him as his lover on the journey of the  Argonauts. In Mysia, H. is kidnapped by nymphs while fetching water (transformed into an…


(136 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Σιδηρώ; Sidērṓ), second wife of Salmoneus and, after his death, first wife of Cretheus , the ruler of Iolcus. She torments her stepdaughter Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus and his first wife Alcidice and Cretheus's niece, who grows up with them in Thessaly. Neleus [1] and Pelias, the exposed sons of Tyro and Poseidon, recognize and free their mother; Pelias kills S. on an altar to Hera; Cretheus marries Tyro (Apollod. 1,90-96). In Tragedy S. and Salmoneus in Elis together torment Tyro…


(287 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] ()̃Ηρ; Êr). From Pamphylia; the son of Armenius; subject of the eschatological myth in Plat. (Resp. 10,614b ff.): having fallen in war, E. was discovered undecayed after 10 days; when on the 12th day he was about to be burned on the pyre, he came back from the afterlife and, as he had been instructed, reported on his descent or katabasis to the Underworld, with the court of the dead, punishments and rewards, the spindle of Ananke, the casting of lots by Lachesis. Ancient tradition already associates the E. myth with the Orient: in Clem. Al…


(308 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Τάλως/ Tálōs). [German version] [1] Crete's iron guardian Myth of various versions in Apollod. 1,140 f.: T. was one of the bronze race or was given to Minos by Hephaestus (by Zeus to Europe [2]: Apoll. Rhod. 4,1643); he is a bronze man (triple giant: Orph. A. 1351) or a bull; he has a single vein from the neck to the ankles which is sealed at the end by a bronze nail (a membrane: Apoll. Rhod. 4,1647 f.); he runs all the way around Crete three times a day and keeps the Argonauts from landing by throwing…


(122 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀλκιμέδη, Alkimédē). Daughter of Phylacus and the (Eteo-)Clymene, with Pherecydes (FGrH F 104) wife of Aeson and mother of Jason (and Promachus). Valerius Flaccus (1,730) depicts a heroic Roman matron, who seizes the initiative for a joint death with Aeson through the blood of a bull; according to other versions she hangs (Apollod. 1,143) or suffocates herself (Diod. Sic. 4,50,2 = Dion. Scyt. fr. 35 Scaffolding). Other names: Amphinome (Diod. Sic.), Theognete (Andron FGrH F 5), Arne, Rhoeo, Scarphe (Tzetz. Chil. 6,979 f. and Lycophr. 872).  Aes…


(290 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἄτη; Átē). Verbal noun of ἀάω ( aáō), the etymology of which is unknown ([1]; wordplay in Hom. Il. 19,91;129). In most passages in Hom., A. originally refers to (e.g., Il. 19,270ff.; Od. 11,61) a cluster of ideas typical of early Greece, from which evidently as a secondary process specific meanings can be abstracted by a conceptual contraction process: the confusion of the senses sent by the gods -- the consequent misdeed and the damage that arises from it [2. 56ff.; 3. 1ff.; thus alrea…


(969 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Καλυψώ; Kalypsṓ, ‘salvager’, ‘rescuer’; Lat. Calypso). The entire C. myth can be traced back to the ‘Odyssey’ [1. 115] (Hom. Od. 1.50ff.; 5.55ff.; 7.244ff.; 12.447ff.; 23.333ff.): C., goddess and nymph, daughter of  Atlas [2] (only Hyg. Fab. praef. 16 mentions her mother  Pleïone), lives with maidservants on the island of  Ogygia. C. takes in  Odysseus who has been drifting on the sea for nine days (Hom. Od. 7,253ff.), makes him her lover and tries to win him over by tempting him …


(344 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Πελίας; Pelías). Legitimate king of Iolcus, son of Tyro and Poseidon, twin brother of Neleus [1] (Hom. Od. 11,241ff.; Hes. Cat. 30ff.), husband of Anaxibia or Phylomache, father of Acastus and several daughters ( Peliádes), including Alcestis (Apollod. 1,95). Tyro, unmarried and living with her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero, exposes the twins P. and Neleus at birth. After their rescue and recognition P. kills Sidero on an altar to Hera, bringing Hera's enmity on himself (Apollod. 1,90ff.; Soph. Tyro), so that he is considered a transgressor ( hybristḗs: Hes. The…


(238 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Νιρεύς; Nireús). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and Canace Son of Poseidon and the Aeolian Canace (Apollod. 1,53). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Second most beautiful Greek in the Trojan War Son of Aglaia [2] and Charops [3], the ruler of Syme; weakling and (after Achilles) the second most beautiful Greek in the Trojan War, in which he took part with three ships (Hom. Il. 2,671ff.). N. is killed by his Trojan opposite number Eurypylus [2], the second most beautiful Trojan (Hom. Od. 11,522), (Quint. Smyrn. 6,3…


(206 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (‘the little Maas’, diminutive of Mosa [1]). Lefthand, 545 km long tributary of the Rhine, today the Moselle. Its source was on the Vosegus in the territory of the Leuci, it flowed in the land of the Treveri through the provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania superior, and its mouth was near Confluentes (Koblenz). Situated on the M. were Divodurum, Augusta [6] Treverorum and Rigodulum (cf. Tac. Ann. 13,53; Tac. Hist. 4,71; 77). The legate of Germania superior, L. Antistius Vetus,…


(178 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἄμυκος; Ámykos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Bithynian nymph Melia Son of Poseidon and the Bithynian nymph Melia; king of the Bebryians, who sacrifices all foreigners to Poseidon (Val. Fl. 4,99) or challenges them to a boxing match with leather gloves (he is credited with their invention) and kills them (schol. Pl. Leg. 7,796a). Defeated during the Argonaut journey by Polydeuces, the son of Zeus and, according to Apollod. 1,119 and Apoll. Rhod. 2,1, killed (according to Theoc. 22,17 ff.; 131 ff , allowed to live after swearing an oath). Dräger, Paul (Trier) …


(276 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Αἶα). Mythisches Wunderland am Okeanos (im Land der Aithiopen: Mimn. fr. 5 Poetae Elegiaci Gentili/Prato), in dem Helios einen Thalamos für seine Strahlen hat, urspr. Ziel Iasons (Mimn. fr. 10). In A. (etym. “Erde, Land” [1. 22, 39]) liegt die Stadt des Aietes, des “Mannes von A.” (Mimn. fr. 10, vgl. Pherekyd. fr. 105). Die Erkenntnis, daß der Pontos ein Binnensee ist, verlegte A. dann an einen Verbindungsfluß (Phasis) zum Meer (Hes. fr. 241; Hekat. fr. 18a; Pherekyd. F 100; Pin…


(348 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Εὐρύπυλος). [English version] [1] Freier der Helena Sohn Euaimons, Thessaler, Helena-Freier (Apollod. 3,131), Troja-Kämpfer: Anführer von 40 Schiffen (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.), von Paris verwundet (11,575ff.), von Patroklos geheilt (11,809ff; 15,390ff.); auf der Heimfahrt nach Libyen verschlagen (Lykophr. Al. 901f. mit schol.). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [English version] [2] Sohn des Herakles-Sohnes Telephos Sohn des Herakles-Sohnes Telephos, König der Myser, den seine Mutter, die Priamosschwester (Apollod. 3,146) Astyoche, von Priamos mit dem goldenen We…

Lemnische Frauen, Hypsipyle

(368 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Ὑψιπύλη, -λεια). Der urspr. vielleicht selbständige [1. 235f.], dann in die Fahrt der Argonautai und den theban. Sagenkreis verflochtene Mythos lautet nach Apollod. 1,114f. (vgl. Apoll. Rhod. 1,609ff.; Ov. Pont. 6; Val. Fl. 2,82ff.; Stat. Theb. 5,28ff.; schol. Pind. N. hypothesis b): Wegen Vernachlässigung ihres Kultes behaftet Aphrodite die l.F. mit üblem Geruch [2; 3], worauf die Männer von Lemnos mit erbeuteten Thrakerinnen zusammenleben. Die Lemnierinnen töten deshalb alle M…


(186 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Αἰήτης). König von Aia/Kolchis, Sohn des Helios und der Perse(is), Bruder Kirkes, Pasiphaes, des Perses. Gatte Idyias oder Asterodeias (bzw. Eurylytes: Naupakt. fr. 6-7 EpGF), Vater der Chalkiope, die er Phrixos vermählt, Medeias, des Apsyrtos/Phaethon (sowie Kirkes und des Aigialeus bei Diod. 4,45,3 und Dion. Skyt. fr. 20 Rusten): Hom. Od. 10,138 f.; Hes. theog. 956 ff.; Apollod. 1,83, 129, 147; Apoll. Rhod. 3,240 ff. A. will Iason wegen des Goldenen Vlieses, an dessen Besitz seine Macht hängt (Val. Fl. 5,236 ff. = Diod. 4,47,2 und Dion. Sky…


(131 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Ἄκαστος). Sohn des Pelias und der Anaxibia (vgl. Apollod. 1,95), wohl von Anfang an Argonaut (Apollod. 1,112). A. veranstaltet Leichenspiele für seinen Vater und vertreibt Iason und Medeia aus Iolkos (Apollod. 1,144), dessen König er wird (Apollod. 3,164; vgl. Diod. 4,53,1; Hyg. fab. 25,5). Entsühnt Peleus vom Mord, um den A.' Frau Astydameia (bei Pind. Hippolyte) vergeblich wirbt und ihn dann bei A. verleumdet; A. läßt Peleus waffenlos im Pelion zurück, wo Chiron ihn rettet (Ap…


(386 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Ἀνάγκη). Das bei Homer als Abstraktum (“Zwang”) belegte Wort bekommt seit den Vorsokratikern als philos. Begriff Bedeutung [1. 5 ff.; 2. 147 ff.; 3. 103 ff.]: Bei Thales (A 1, DK 71, 12 f.) liegt die älteste griech. Spekulation vor, ›die Kraft, die hinter allen Erscheinungen mechanisch wirkt und das göttliche Urprinzip zu seiner vielfachen Ausgestaltung zwingt, mit A., d. h. der Naturnotwendigkeit...zum Ausdruck zu bringen‹ [1. 6]; häufig wird A. mit εἱμαρμένη ( heimarménē) gleichgesetzt (z. B. Herakl. A 5). Die Personifizierung der A. als göttl.…

Kalaïs und Zetes

(308 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Κάλαϊς, Ζήτης). Boreaden, Windgötter, d.h. Söhne des Boreas und der Oreithyia, Brüder der Kleopatra und Chione [1]; mit Flügeln ausgestattet. Vom Vater aus Thrakien gesandt (Pind. P. 4,179-183), nehmen sie am Argonauten-Zug teil (Apollod. 1,111; 3,199; Apoll. Rhod. 1,211-223; Ov. met. 6,712-721): In Salmydessos befreien sie den mit Kleopatra verheirateten blinden Seher Phineus von den Harpyien. Beim Zusammentreffen müssen, wie diese, urspr. auch K. und Z. sterben (Apollod. 1,122; 3,199 [1. 2291; 2. 104ff.]). Später rettet beide eine göttliche Inte…


(119 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Κρηθεύς, als ke-re-te-u schon myk.). Sohn des Aiolos [1] und der Enarete (Apollod. 1,51), Gründer und Herrscher von Iolkos; er heiratet nach dem Tod seiner ersten Frau Sidero sein Pflegekind Tyro, die Tochter seines Bruders Salmoneus und Mutter von Pelias und Neleus durch Poseidon, mit der er Aison [1], Pheres und Amythaon zeugt (Hom. Od. 11,235ff.; Hes. fr. 30,29ff.; Apollod. 1,90ff.; 96); Val. Fl. 5,476ff. macht auch Athamas zum Sohn des K.; Pind. N. 5,26 kennt eine Tochter Hipp…


(152 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Πλαγκταί sc. πέτραι, “Irrfelsen” oder vom Anschlagen der Brandung “Prallfelsen”). Bezeichnung (Hom. Od. 12,61) für mythische, durch ihre Glätte, Feuer und Wogen gefährliche Felsen auf der Rückfahrt der Argonautai, in der Nähe von Skylla und Charybdis. Der Argo gelang als einzigem Schiff die Vorbeifahrt mit Heras Hilfe (Hom. Od. 12,59ff.; Apollod. 1,136; Apoll. Rhod. 4,924ff.); Odysseus meidet die P. auf Kirkes Rat und fährt zwischen Skylla und Charybdis hindurch. Die für Zeus Am…
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