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Philoxenus

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Φιλόξενος; Philóxenos). [German version] [1] Name of several officers under Alexander the Great Several officers with the name P. are mentioned in the sources about Alexander  [4] the Great. They cannot always be distinguished with certainty. One P. was appointed by Alexander in 331 BC (incorrect [1]) ' to collect tribute on this side of the Taurus'(i.e. in Asia Minor) (Arr. An. 3,6,4). This cannot be correct. Arrian must, as often, have expressed himself imprecisely, as this duty had already been entrusted to somebody else. It can also hardly be th…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Lacon

(84 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λάκων; Lákōn). Otherwise unknown epigrammatical poet (Sicilian origin has been suspected, cf. Theoc. Eidyllion 5), to whom a single votive poem (Anth. Pal. 6,203) is attributed; it may alternatively be the work of Philippus [32] of Thessalonica, the author of the Garland: eleven iambic trimeters, describing the miraculous healing of an old, limping woman in the hot springs of the river Symaethus on Etna. The woman dedicates her stick to the nymphs. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II 2, 369.

Geminus

(723 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γέμινος; Géminos) [I]. [German version] [1] Astronomer and mathematician Astronomer and mathematician from the school of Posidonius. Almost nothing is known about his life. The height of his creativity was around 70 BC. It is generally accepted that he lived in Rhodes. The only fully extant treatise by G. is the ‘Introduction to Astronomy’ (Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὰ φαινόμενα). It is in the tradition of  Eudoxus and  Aratus [4]. Similarly to the later writing by  Cleomedes, it is an elementary textbook on astrono…

Poseidippus

(953 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ποσείδιππος/ Poseídippos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Cassandrea, c. 290 BC Comic poet from the Macedonian city of Cassandrea [1. test. 1, 2], said to have begun performing plays in the third year after the death of Menander [4] (291/0 BC) [1. test. 1], four-time victor at the Dionysia [1. test. 7] and honoured with statues [1. test. 10. 11]. His Ἀποκλειομένη ( Apokleioménē, 'The Woman Shut Up [or Shut Out]') was revived several times in the 2nd cent. BC [1. test. 8, 9]. Of the 'up to 30' plays [1. test. 1] by P., 18 titles survive; along with th…

Theosebeia

(91 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θεοσέβεια; Theosébeia). Poet, of whose work only one epigram is recorded (Anth. Pal. 7,559): Acestoria (personification of medicine) mourns the death of the physician Ablabius (presumably aptonym: ἀ-βλάβη/ a-blábē, 'preventer of harm'). Her identification with the alchemist Zosimus' sister of the same name (3rd cent. AD, cf. [2]) is chronologically hard to reconcile with her membership of the kýklos of Agathias [1]. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography 1 Av. and A. Cameron, The Cycle of Agathias, in: JHS 86, 1966, 8 2 R. C. McCail, The 'Cycle' of Ag…

Hermodorus

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἑρμόδωρος; Hermódōros). [German version] [1] Critic of his fellow citizens in a fragment of Heraclitus In a fragment of the philosopher  Heraclitus [1] of Ephesus, the latter criticizes his fellow citizens because they had banished H., the ‘most estimable man’ among them, with the justification that among them ‘no one should be the most estimable’ (Diels/Kranz 22,121 = Str. 14,1,25; Cic. Tusc. 5,105). According to later tradition, H., who went into exile in Italy, was involved in the drawing up of the Twelve …

Nicodemus

(296 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος; Nikódēmos). [German version] [1] Prosecutor of Demosthenes, probably died after 349 BC Athenian from Aphidna, prosecutor of Demosthenes [2] (Aeschin. 2,148), friend of Meidias [2] and of Eubulus [1], was killed by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12) in 352 BC: [2]; (according to [1. 112] and [3. 9-12] the preferred date is more likely after 349 BC), for which deed Meidias held Demosthenes responsible (also [1. 102-105]; Aristot. Rh. 1397b 7 see [2]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Schäfer, vol. 2 2 H.E. Stier, s.v. Nikodemos (2), RE 1…

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Thymocles

(67 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θυμοκλῆς; Thymoklês). Epigrammatist from the Garland of Meleager [8]. A single poem survives (from the style probably 3rd cent. BC), assigned without obvious reason to the part of the Anthologia Palatina dedicated to pederasty (Anth. Pal. 12,32): a rebuke to the beloved person (once rejecting advances, but now robbed of the bloom of youth). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I.1, 196; 2, 552.

Cometas

(210 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κόμητάς; Kómētás) [German version] [1] Poet of epigrams Writer of epigrams, probably to be identified with the grammatikós of the same name in the middle of the 9th cent. in Constantinople. Four poems survive: in the poems Anth. Pal. 15,36-38 (the latter consisting of seven dodecasyllables) C. claims to have restored Homer's verses by punctuating them and rescuing them from ‘useless rot’, only to be mocked for it by the scholiast J (cf.  Constantinus [2] of Rhodus), in a marginal note (in trimeters) to the 57 hexameters in which C. acclaims the rising of Lazarus (Anth. Pal. 15,40). Albiani,…

Lucillius

(268 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λουκίλλιος; Loukíllios). Epigrammatist, lived in Rome under the patronage of Nero, to whom he dedicated the second book of his epigrams in gratitude for his financial support (Anth. Pal. 9,572). The identifications with the grammarian Lucillus of Tarrha and Lucilius [II 4], Seneca's friend, are baseless. About 120 epigrams are extant (also probably a good part of the 52 poems attributed to ‘Lucianus’; cf. [1]). These are of an often remarkable quality and are almost all satirica…

Marianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
I Greek [German version] [1] Poet c. AD 500 Early Byzantine poet, contemporary of emperor Anastasius I (AD 491-518). According to Suda s.v. M., he originally was a descendent of a Roman family of senators, emigrated to Eleutheropolis in Palestine with his father and was a patríkios under Anastasius, composed iambic paraphrases of the works of Hellenistic authors ( Theocritus; Apollonius [2] Rhodius' ‘Argonautica; Callimachus' ‘Hecale, ‘Hymns, ‘Epigrams; Aratus [4]; Nicander's‘Theriaka). Possibly identical with M. [2]. Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 J. Geffcken,…

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Palladas

(329 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Παλλαδᾶς; Palladâs). Important exponent of pre-Byzantine epigrammatic poetry and probably the author of a collection of mostly satirical epigrams (cf. Anthology E.); he lived in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD in Alexandria (numerous allusions to an Egyptian context in P,. whose name appears on several occasions with the ethnikon Ἀλεξανδρεύς/ Alexandreús). Dating is made possible by Anth. Pal. 11,292 (attack on Themistius, in 384 praefectus urbi of Constantinople); 10,90 (presumably written after the destruction of the Serapeum in 391, cf. 9,37…

Secundus

(301 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Common Roman cognomen, originally designating the second-born child. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Saturninius S. Salutius Praef. praet. Orientis 361-365 and 365-366 ( iterum), from a non-senatorial family in Gallia, a non-Christian. Between 324 and 350, he held several offices at court as well as governorships in the western part of the empire. In 355-359, he held the quaestura sacri palatii at the court of Caesar Iulianus [11] (CIL VI 1764 = ILS 1255) in Gallia who came to trust S. and, upon his rise to Augustus after the death of Co…

Polystratus

(387 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος/ Polýstratos). [German version] [1] Wealthy Athenian, councillor 411 BC Wealthy Athenian, frequent office-holder, member of the boulḗ in 411 BC. After the oligarchic coup, he took part in the selection of the 5,000 citizens to whom political rights would in future be restricted. He was wounded in the naval battles against the Spartans off Eretria. After the fall of the Four Hundred (Tetrakosioi), P. was fined heavily; he was prosecuted again c. 410/409 at age 70, probably for his political activities. Parts of his defence survive in the 20th speech of t…

Cyrus

(2,651 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Κῦρος; Kŷros, Lat. Cyrus). [German version] [1] C. I. (the Elder) Grandfather of  Cyrus [2] (the Great), known from the cylinder inscription of his grandson (TUAT I 409,21). Here he is given the title ‘great king, king of Anšān’ ( šarru rabû šar Anšān;  Anshan) and called ‘descendant’ ( liblibbu) of  Teispes. The genealogical link C. (I.) ─ Cambyses (I.) ─ C. (II.) is also mentioned in Hdt. 1,111. C. the Elder may accordingly be interpreted as a petty king of Persian descent, ruling over (a part of (?) the formerly Elamite) Fārs in the 7th/…

Theophanes

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Θεοφάνης/ Theophánēs). [German version] [1] T. of Mytilene Close confidant and historiographer of Pompey (Pompeius [I 3]). As a recently-discovered inscription [1. 377-383] shows, T., the son of Hieroitas, was already active as prytanis at Mytilene (FGrH 188 T 1) before making the acquaintance of Pompey, whom he accompanied on the campaign against Mithridates [6] in 67 BC (T 2). He received Roman citizenship from Pompey in 62 BC (cf. Cic. Arch. 24 = T 3a) at an army gathering, and he therefore appears in IG XII 2, 150 as Cn. Po…

Gabriel

(320 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] (Archangel) Archangel In the Jewish tradition, the angel G. (‘man of God’) is one of the six archangels, together with Uriel, Rafael, Raguel, Michael, and Sariel (1 Enoch, 20:1-7; for seven archangels cf. Tob 12:12-15; for four archangels: 1 Enoch 9-10; 40:9f.). In the biblical tradition, G. appears already together with Michael in the role of angelus interpres, who interprets the seer's visions (Dan 8:16; 9:21), and who announces the births of John the Baptist and Jesus (Lc 1:19.26). According to 1 Enoch 20:7, G. is placed above the…

Numenius

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νουμήνιος/Noumḗnios). [German version] [1] Author of didactic poems from Heraclea, c. 300 BC N. from Heraclea, physician and poet, end of the 4th cent. BC. He was a pupil of the physician Dieuches [1] (Ath. 1,5), wrote on cookery and composed didactic poems on fishing (Ἁλιευτικόν/ Halieutikón, SH 568-588), on the theriac (Θηριακόν/ Thēriakón: SH 589-594), on medicinal prescriptions (SH 595) and ‘On Banquets (Δείπνων ἀναγραφαί/ Deípnōn anagraphaí: Ath. 1,5a). He may be the source on Nicander [4] (cf. schol. Theriakon 237; 257; 519; 637) and Archigenes. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibl…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Musicius

(81 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Μουσίκιος; Mousíkios). Epigrammist whose existence is uncertain (the name is not found elsewhere: [2] suspects a corruption of Μούκιος ( Moúkios), i.e. Q. Mucius [I 10] Scaevola, author of Anth. Pal. 9,217); the poem Anth. Pal. 9,39 (a lively dispute between Cypris and the Muses containing an abundance of colloquialisms) has been attributed to him (Diog. Laert. 3,33,  however, attributes it to the philosopher ‘Plato’). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography 1 FGE 165f. 2 R. Reitzenstein, Epigramm und Skolion, 1893, 182.

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Gallus

(209 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[I] (Γάλλος; Gállos). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia River in Bithynia, modern Mudurnu Çayı, rises near Modrene (modern Mudurnu) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,3,7; [2], differently [1]) and flows into the lower course of the  Sangarius. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] [2] Small river through Pessinus Small river that originally flowed through  Pessinus to the  Sangarius [3]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. G., RE 7, 674 2 S. Şahin, Stud. über die Probleme der histor. Geogr. Kleinasiens, in: EA 7, 1986, 125-151 3 Belke, 165f. …

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Piso

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (derived in popular etymology from pisere, 'trample', Plin. HN 18,10), hereditary within the family of the Calpurnii (Calpurnius [I 8-23; II 12-24]) and transferred to the Pupii (Pupius); in many other families in the Imperial Period. Also the name of an Aquitanian prince who fell fighting for Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,12,3-6); his father or grandfather may have taken the name from L. Calpurnius [I 17] P. ( cos. 112 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 262. [German version] [2] Epigrammatist Otherwise…

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Xenocritus

(409 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ξενόκριτος/ Xenókritos). [German version] [1] Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC from Locri (in lower Italy). In the generation after Terpander he, Thaletas and Xenodamus took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. loc.cit.), which were also classed as dithyrambs (Dithyrambos) in Antiquity because of their mythical and heroic subject matter (Plut. De musica 10,1134e; [1. 41], cf. [2. …

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Moiro

(147 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Μοιρώ; Moirṓ) from Byzantium. Epic, elegiac and melic poet, mother of the tragedian Homerus [2] (flourished in the years 284/281 BC) and wife of the otherwise unknown Andromachus, called philólogos (cf. Suda s.v. Μυρώ). Meleager [8] places her alongside her contemporary Anyte and immediately before Sappho (Anth. Pal. 4,1,5; cf. Antipater [9] of Thessalonica Anth. Pal. 9,26,3f.) and claims to have collected ‘many lilies of M.’ in his ‘garland’: the only works preserved are Anth. Pal. 6,119 and 189 (two clear…

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Gaetulicus

(122 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [I] (Γαιτουλικός; Gaitoulikós). Epigrammatist, to whom ten poems are ascribed in the Anthologia Palatina (not authentic, however, Anth. Pal. 7,245 and perhaps 6,154), which in style and topics (but not by their arrangement) bear resemblance to the ‘Garlands’ of Meleager or Philippus; however, 11,409 originates from the Anthologion of Diogenianus [2] of Heraclea. The identification with the poet Cn.  Cornelius [II 29] Lentulus Gaetulicus, who was cos. in AD 26 and executed by Caligula in 39, is controversial. G.'s poetry is without originality. I…

Peritas

(61 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Περῖτας; Perîtas). Otherwise unknown epigrammatic poet, to whom two distichs about Priapus, the protector of the garden, are attributed (they are alternatively ascribed to Leonidas [3] of Tarentum): Anth. Pal. 16,236 (cf. 16,261 by the same Leonidas), possibly the model for 16,237 by Tymnes and certainly for Priap. 24). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I 2, 385.

Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist Greek epigrammatist; dating uncertain (Neronian/Flavian era? [2; 4]; 2nd cent. AD? [3]; late 4th cent. AD? [1]); origin unknown (Anth. Pal. 5,9: residence in Ephesus). 37 erotic poems are extant, all in Anth. Pal. 5,2-103 (on this so-called Sylloge Rufiniana, perhaps also from the 4th cent. AD, cf. [5]). With the exception of the paederastic poem 28 (cf. also 19), R.' epigrams, in which 13 women's names are mentioned (two further fictitious ones in 44,1), tr…

Crinagoras

(225 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Κριναγόρας) of Mytilene. Born about 70 BC, he probably did not die before AD 11 (Anth. Pal. 7,633, cf. 9,283). C. was an influential man in his native town. His participation in several delegations from his town to Rome is attested in inscriptions: in 48 or 47 and in 45 (IG XII 35a; 35b), in 26/25 to Tarragona in Spain (to Augustus, IG XII 35c). He was also highly regarded in Rome where he belonged to the circle around Octavia, the sister of Augustus. C. is one of the significant…

Tryphon

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Τρύφων/ Trýphōn). [German version] [1] The usurper Diodotus of Casiane, 2nd cent. BC Name assumed by the usurper Diodotus from Casiane near Apamea [3] (Str. 16,2,10). As strategos of Demetrius [7] I, D./T. went over to the pretender to the throne Alexander [II 13] Balas, betrayed Antioch [1] on the Orontes to Ptolemaeus [9] VI, occupied Apamea [3] and Chalcis, but then did not switch over to Demetrius [8] II, instead raising Alexander's [13] son to king as Antiochus [8] VI in 145 BC. He defeated Demetrius and allied with…

Hegesippus

(950 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἡγήσιππος; Hēgḗsippos). [German version] [1] Athen. rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Hegesias from Sunium, Athenian rhetor and envoy from a wealthy family. In 357/6 BC he spoke in the ekklesia as a champion of aid for Eretria (IG II2 125 = Tod, 154), in 356/5 of the Athenian symmachy with Phocis (Aeschin. In Ctes. 118; Dem. Or. 19,72-74 with schol.) and between 346 and 340 of further decrees for foreign policy (Dem. Or. 18,75). In the year 345 he defended Timarchus against  Aeschines [2] (Aeschin. In Tim. 71) together with his br…

Parmenion

(607 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ax, Wolfram (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παρμενίων/ Parmeníōn). [German version] [1] General under Philippus [4] II Son of Philotas from Upper Macedonia, born in 400 BC, successful general under Philippus[4] II (cf. Plut. Mor. 177c); involved in 346 in the peace treaty with Athens (Dem. Or. 19,69; Philocrates [2]). After Philippus' marriage to Cleopatra [II 2], the niece of Attalus [1], P. gave him his daughter, shared with him command of the troops in Asia in 336 and then had him killed at the command of Alexander [4] the Great (Curt. 7,1,3). Thus he established his Hausmacht. Under Alexander he was the leader of the w…

Leontius

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος; Leóntios). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic commander of Seleucid Pieria, late 3rd cent. BC Ptolemaic commander of Seleucea Pieria; in 219 BC, he surrendered the city to Antiochus [5] III after initial resistance in a hopeless position. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] General of peltasts, 3rd cent. BC Macedonian, named general of peltasts by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will. Together with Megaleas, L. opposed the pro-Achaean politics of Philippus V and his mentor Aratus [2]; after inciting the elite troops against the k…

Zenodotus

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος/ Zēnódotos). [German version] [1] Of Ephesus, Alexandrian philologist Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus ( c. 325-260 BC; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] I. Life Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus Z. was employed as tutor to the royal princes at the Ptolemaic court before his appointment in 285/4 BC as the first director [1. 147-148] of the library (II B 2.a) in Alexandria [1]. In addition to a classification of Greek poetry (most notably epic and lyric works), Z. developed in …

Thomas

(669 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | G.KA.
(Θωμᾶς; Thōmâs). [German version] [1] One of the twelve disciples of Jesus The Apostle T. is 'one of the twelve' disciples of Jesus. T. is presented individually only in Jo: he called on the other disciples to emulate Jesus until their death (Jo 11:16). In response to his questions, Jesus is revealed as 'the path, the truth and the life' (14:5f.). After Easter, he first misses the appearance of the resurrected and does not want to believe ('unbelieving T.') until he has touched him. Upon Jesus' appearance, …

Synesius

(476 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Συνέσιος; Synésios) [German version] [1] S. of Cyrene Neoplatonist philosopher and bishop, c. AD 400 Neoplatonist philosopher and bishop ( c. AD 370 - c. 413). S., of a leading family at Cyrene (Libya superior), first studied at Alexandria [1] with the Neoplatonist philosopher Hypatia. From 399 to 402 (or 397-400; S.' chronology is disputed) he went to the court at Constantinople at the bidding of his home city to obtain tax relief. He then travelled to Alexandria (where he married a Christian) and subsequently retire…

Helladius

(460 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑλλάδιος; Helládios). [German version] [1] From Antinupolis/Egypt, grammarian, 4th cent. AD H. of Antinupolis in Egypt. Grammarian of the 4th cent. AD, author of a Chrēstomatheía (‘Things worth knowing’) in iambic trimeters. Photius, the only biographical source, took extracts from it (Cod. 279, 529b 25-536a 22), but also knew of a prose epitome (cf. [4. 99; 6. 16]). The encyclopaedic work includes grammatical, etymological, historical and mythological information; on the literary genre cf. [6. 24-26]. Neither a crite…

Maecius

(755 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Italian family name [1. 185; 469], with an uncertain connection to the Roman tribus Maecia. M. is encountered first among Rome's Latin neighbours (Liv. 10,41,5), from the 2nd cent. BC on, also in inscriptions from Delos (ILS 9417; SEG 1,334) and Lucania (ILS 5665). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Geminus Died in 340 BC in a duel with Torquatus From Tusculum, challenged T. Manlius [I 12] Torquatus to a duel and fell during the Latin War in 340 BC, according to legend (Liv. 8,7,2-12). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] M. Tarpa, Sp. Designed the game plan in 55 B…
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