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Abbreviations and Foreword

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
  FOREWORD David Thomas Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical History 6 ( CMR 6) continues the history of relations between Christians and Muslims as recorded in original sources in the period 1500-1600, following the same general approach as the earlier volumes in the series.  CMR 6 focuses on works from the 16th century in the countries of Western Europe, and shows that, while many of the preoccupations that dominated the Middle Ages were still prominent, particularly issues of political and religious relations between Christianity…

Front Matter

(1,818 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
CONTENTS   Foreword List of illustrations List of maps Abbreviations   Luis Bernabé Pons, Introduction:  Empires, wars, and languages. Islam and Christianity in 17th-century western and southern Europe Manuel Lomas, Trade and religious dogma José Maria Perceval, Attraction and repulsion of the other. The case of Muslim descendants in the Spanish kingdoms   Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1600-1700 Iberia France Italian states German states Central Europe   Index of names   Index of titles   FOREWORD David Thomas Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical history vo…

 Al-muntaqā min kitāb al-ruhbān

(254 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Selections from The Book of Monks Abū Bakr ʿAbdallāh ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿUbayd ibn Abī l-Dunyā Date: Before 894 Original Language: Arabic Description The surviving text comprises 24 selections, each reported in the name of an individual, including Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. 728 or 732), all of them brief, and many containing aphoristic comments or answers to questions by monks. A number are framed on recognizable sayings of Jesus. Ibn Abī l-Dunyā selected them from an earlier unknown work on monks. The exact nature of this work, and of Ibn Abī l-Dunyā’s work in which th…

Front Matter

(1,513 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
FOREWORD David Thomas This volume of Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical history ( CMR 11) is one of the four that make up the history of relations between Christians and Muslims in the period 1600-1700, according to the original sources. CMR 11 focuses on works from South Asia, South-East Asia, China and Japan, Africa south of the Sahara and the Americas. They were all written by authors who professed Christianity or Islam, accepted the teachings of one or other faith and generally expressed the attitudes that emanated fro…

Front Matter

(1,497 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
CONTENTS   Foreword List of illustrations List of maps Abbreviations   Claire Norton, Introduction Eugenia Kermeli, Christian communities under the Ottomans in the 17th century Dariusz Kołodziejczyk, Christians in the Safavid Empire Aurélien Giraud, European missionaries in the Levant   Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1600-1700 The Ottoman Empire The Safavid Empire   Index of names   Index of titles   FOREWORD David Thomas This volume of Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical History ( CMR 10) is one of the four that make up the history of relations betwe…

Front Matter

(2,126 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
  Christian-Muslim Relations A Bibliographical History Volume 16. North America, South-East Asia, China, Japan and Australasia (1800-1914)     Contents Foreword List of illustrations List of maps Abbreviations North America David D. Grafton, Introduction James A. Toronto, Interreligious discourse of Protestants, Mormons, and Muslims, 1830-1918 Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1800-1914 Asia and Australasia Peter Riddell and Douglas Pratt, Introduction Stuart Vogel, Christian missionaries and the Muslim community in China in the 19th century James Harry Morris, Christ…

Front Matter

(3,366 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Christian-Muslim Relations A Bibliographical History Volume 13. Western Europe (1700-1800) CONTENTS Foreword  List of illustrations  List of maps  Abbreviations  Clinton Bennett, Introduction: Western Europe and Islam in the  long 18th century. Demonisation to dialogue Jan Loop, Islam and the European Enlightenment Avner Ben-Zaken, Intellectual, scientific and technological relations between Christian and Muslim civilisations 1580-1822 Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1700-1800  North-west Europe British Isles  Edward Pococke Junior           Nabil Mata…

Front Matter

(1,774 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
                                              CONTENTS Foreword List of illustrations List of maps Abbreviations                              The Ottoman and Persian Empires Umar Ryad, Introduction: the Ottoman and Persian Empires in the 18th century Charbel Nassif, Ottoman and Arab influences on Melkite art in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries Ines Aščerić-Todd, Religious diversity and tolerance in Ottoman guilds Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1700-1800: Ottoman and Arab World Persia Armenia and Georgia                                  South Asia, South-East Asia, China and Japan Douglas Pratt, Introduction: Sout…

 Tuḥfat al-mujāhidīn

(1,474 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Tuḥfat al-mujāhidīn‘Gift to those fighting in the way of God’ Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī; Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm II Date: 1577 Original Language: Arabic Description Tuḥfat al-muhājidīn fī baʿḍ akhbār al-Burtughāliyyīn (‘Gift to those fighting in the way of God, on elements of reports about the Portuguese’; this also appears as  Tuḥfat al-muhājidīn fī baʿḍ aḥwāl al-Burtughāliyyīn, ‘Gift to those fighting in the way of God, on elements of the circumstances of the Portuguese’) is the earliest Muslim detailed account of the arriva…

Christian religion (premodern Muslim positions)

(2,981 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The attitudes of Muslims towards Christianity and Christians are strongly influenced by what they find in the Qurʾān. The details that the first generations of Muslims derived from encounters with Christians led them to believe that Christians had lost the pristine purity of their faith and fallen into serious doctrinal errors based on corrupt readings of their scriptures or, more often, corrupt transmission of the scriptural text. It fell to Muslims themselves, as the guardians of revealed truth, to…
Date: 2020-06-10

Apologetics

(2,997 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
A systematic argumentative discourse in defense of a religion or doctrine. In the history of encounters between Muslims of differing opinions and between Muslims and members of other faiths, the Qurʾān has usually been central as a guide and source in debates and has often been a significant topic in these discussions. Within the Qurʾān itself there are arguments defending both its proclamations and its own status. Its fundamental emphasis that God is one and distinct from all other beings is most emphatically asserted in q 112, which is generally thought to have been delivered …

Conversion

(2,300 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Spiritual and moral transformation attended by a sincere change of belief. The concept of conversion is represented in the Qurʾān by a group of teachings which together stress the importance of admitting God's lordship, accepting the guidance he gives, following the way he has established and conforming to his will (see belief and unbelief; lord; obedience; islam). It is essentially a matter of reverting to a norm perceptible to all and to which one is able to conform by one's own efforts. The initiative for the movement of restoration lies with God,…

Trinity

(2,409 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The distinctive Christian doctrine of one God in three persons, directly alluded to three times in the Qurʾān. The overwhelmingly powerful assertion in the Qurʾān that God is absolutely one rules out any notion that another being could share his sovereignty (q.v.) or nature (see god and his attributes ). The text abounds with deni-¶ als that there could be two gods ( q 16:51) and that he could have partners (e.g. q 6:163; 10:18, 28-9; 23:91; see polytheism and atheism ) or relations ( q 6:100; 16:57; 17:111; 25:2; 112:3) and explicitly repudiates the idea that he took Jesus (q.v.) as his son ( q 4:…

Sayf ibn ʿUmar

(142 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Biography Nothing is known about the life of Sayf ibn ʿUmar al-Tamīmī, except that he is associated with southern Iraq, and was a writer of historical works. These were used as a main source by Abū Jaʿfar al-Ṭabarī for his Taʾrīkh al-rusul wa-l-mulūk, although their accuracy and objectivity were doubted from early times. Primary Sources of Information Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist, p. 106 Secondary Sources of Information E. Landau-Tasseron, ‘Sayf ibn ʿUmar in medieval and modern scholarship’, Der Islam 67, (1990), 1-26 M. Hinds, ‘Sayf b. ʿUmar’s sources on Arabia’, in Studies on the history …

 Al-burhān fī maʿrifat ʿaqāʾid ahl al-adyān

(547 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘The proof, on awareness of the beliefs of the followers of the faiths’ Al-Saksakī Date: Unknown; before 1284 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-burhān fī maʿrifat ʿaqāʾid ahl al-adyān is a brief descriptive account of religious groups and sects inside and outside Islam. At a mere 95 pages of text in al-ʿAmūsh’s edition, its descriptions are very brief and to the point. Within Islam, the book describes sects of the Khawārij, the Murjiʾa, the Muʿtazila and the Rāfiḍa (Shīʿa), numbering 73 in all, and outside it describes seven groups: the Barāhima, D…

Ḥumayd ibn Saʿīd ibn Bakhtiyār

(282 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Ḥumayd ibn Bakhtiyār Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, possibly mid-9th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography Ibn al-Nadīm lists Ḥumayd ibn Saʿīd among theologians who may have been Muʿtazilī or Murji'ī. Since many of these died in the early 10th century, Ḥumayd would appear to have died at the same time. However, Van Ess ( TG iv, p. 132) identifies him as the Ḥumayd ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥumayd ibn Baḥr who is mentioned by Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī as being imprisoned under the Caliph al-Wāthiq (842-47), which means that he may have lived half a century earlier than the F…

 Kitāb al-Shāmil fī uṣūl al-dīn

(824 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
The complete book on the principles of religion Al-Juwāynī Date: Uncertain; before 1085, and possibly after 1063 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-Shāmil fī uṣūl al-dīn is presented as an exposition of al-Bāqillānī’s (q.v.) commentary on al-Ashʿarī’s (q.v.) Kitāb al-luma ʿ, though its relationship with its predecessors, and particularly the Luma ʿ, is loose. It is, in fact, a systematic theology in its own right, one of the fullest known from the Ashʿarī school. Its date is not known, though it must pre-date the Irshād, which is a summary of it. Allard, Attributs divins, pp. 379…

 ʿUyūn al-munāẓarāt

(487 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘Choice disputes’ Al-Sakūnī Date: Unknown; before 1317 Original Language: Arabic Description ʿUyūn al-munāẓarāt is a history of disagreements in matters of religion, comprising 160 sections (in the printed edition divided into 416 numbered sub-sections, used as references here), from the first dispute between the angels and Iblīs over God’s command to venerate Adam, and continuing up to the author’s own time. It is concerned mainly with disagreements among Muslims themselves, but it also includes the views …

Unknown author

(43 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Ḥadīth Wāṣil al-Dimashqī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography - Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Ḥadīth Wāṣil al-Dimashqī David Thomas

Al-Sakhāwī

(374 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Shams al-Dīn Abū l-Khayr Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sakhāwī Date of Birth: 1427/28 Place of Birth: Cairo Date of Death: 1497 Place of Death: Medina Biography Al-Sakhāwī was active in scholarly circles in Cairo in the late 15th century. His family originated in the village of Sakhā in the Nile Delta, and had migrated to the capital in the late 14th century. He studied under Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī (d. 1449), together with Abū l-Ḥasan Ibrāhīm al-Biqāʿī (d. 1480; q.v.), whose enemy and unrelenting critic he was to become. Al-Sakhāwī specialized in the qur’anic sciences, and was…
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