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(143 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥoreymela), a town in Arabia in the north of Riyāḍ [q. v.], the capital of Ned̲j̲d, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) on the borders between the latter and the province of ʿĀriḍ, the birthplace of the founder of the Wahhābī sect, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. It is surrounded by strong fortifications and in 1861 had, according to Palgrave, 10,000 inhabitants. Inside the town on an elevation is a large fortified citadel of architectural importance, which was erected along with the other citadels in Ned̲j̲d after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] by the Egyptians under ¶ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Durin…


(244 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(plural Ḥawas̲h̲ib), a tribe in South Arabia, of pure Ḥimyarite descent. Their land lies roughly between 44° 45′ and 45° 5′ East Long. (Greenw.) and between 13° 11′and 13° 30′ North Lat. and is bounded in the south by Laḥd̲j̲ (Laḥed̲j̲) [q. v.], in the west by the land of the Ṣubaiḥī (Šobēḥī) [q. v.] and of the Ḥud̲j̲rīyā [q. v.], in the north by the land of the Ḏj̲aʿda [q. v.] and in the east by the lower Yāfiʿ. The climate is tropical, the land fertile, producing wheat, coffee and cotton. Among…


(312 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲arīn), a town in Ḥaḍramūt on the d̲j̲ebel of the same name, S.W. of Mes̲h̲hed ʿAlī [q. v.] on the Wādī Dawʿān (Dōʿan) situated in extremely picturesque country. It is surrounded by extensive palmgroves and reminds one of many mediaeval castles on the Rhine. As a centre of traffic between the coast and the interior of Ḥaḍramūt it is of importance. The houses of the town are built of bricks and are large but the streets are narrow and dirty. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], who are represented in it by a member of their family, who bears the title naḳīb and lives in a splendid p…

Ḥās̲h̲id and Bakīl

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large confederation of tribes in South Arabia. The genealogy of the Ḥās̲h̲id is given by the Arabs of South Arabia at the present day as Ḥās̲h̲id al-Aṣg̲h̲ar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Nawf b. Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Hamdān. Bakīl is held by them to be the son of Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar. Their land, called by Niebuhr Balad al-Ḳabāʾil “land of the tribes”, lies near Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] and stretches eastwards to Maʾrib [q. v.].and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and northwards right up to the desert as far as eastwards of Ṣaʿda [q. v.]. The Ḥās̲h̲id, who number 22,000 warriors, are divided into three main g…


(610 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a North Arabian tribe, an inportant branch of the Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.]. Their ancestor ʿId̲j̲l b. Lud̲j̲aim was notorious for his stupidity and the expression “more stupid than ʿId̲j̲l” was proverbial (cf. Goldziher, Muh. Stud., i. 48, n. 3). During the heathen period they formed a portion of the so-called Lahāzimgroup, which included the Ḏh̲uhl and Yas̲h̲kur. Some of them professed Christianity. Abū Nad̲j̲m, the rad̲j̲az poet, belonged to the ʿId̲j̲l. They lived in al-Yamāma (al-Ḵh̲iḍrima, al-Ḵh̲aḍārim, also called Ḏj̲aww al-Ḵh̲iḍrima) and in the country between K…


(697 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haras, Harras, Harrāz), a high mountain range in South Arabia, lying to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is composed of basalt and is over 8500 feet high. The following mountains belong to the Ḥarāz: ¶ Lahāb (with Ḏj̲ebel Mebʾar, Ḏj̲ebel Med̲h̲erre, Ḏj̲ebel S̲h̲ukruf, Ḏj̲ebel Lakama), Hawzan of the South Arabian inscriptions, with the Ḏj̲ebel Ḳārad and Kāhil) and S̲h̲ibām, Masār and joined to the latter, Ṣaʿfān. Of places in Ḥarāz we may mention the large town of Manāk̲h̲a (southeast o…


(470 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(ʿĀmir), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, now ʿĀmir land, also called S̲h̲afel, lies to the west of the land of the Yāfiʿa [q. v.] and is for the most part mountainous. The soil is fertile in the north and produces dates with a little coffee and tobacco. The largest Wādī is the W. Nūra, into which flows the W. Dabāb. Near the latter lies the Ḏj̲ebel Arḍ T̲h̲awba, on which stand three ancient Himyarite castles. The chief town is Ḏh̲alaʿ (also called Blad S̲h̲afel) with about iooo inhabitan…


(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Demin. Fudaik), a town in Arabia not far from Ḵh̲aibar [q. v.] and like the latter inhabited by Jews. In the year 6 = 627 Muḥammed sent ʿAlī, afterwards Caliph, against Fadak as he had learned that the people of the latter town were going to support the Jews in Ḵh̲aibar. When Ḵh̲aibar was taken in the following year, the Jews of Fadak also submitted and agreed to give up half of their possessions. Muḥaiyiṣa b. Masʿūd conducted the negotiations between the Prophet and the people of Fadak and was …


(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḏh̲iēb, “wolf”) a South Arabian tribe. Their land lies between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [q. v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the Ḏh̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are mostly occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairielike pasture land. In the east of the district is a mountain of some size, the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥamrā (over 4000 feet high). The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The Ḏh̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of robbers and are th…


(903 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hofuf, Foof), a town in Arabia, capital of the province of Ḥasā (Ḥaṣā [see al-aḥsā. The town, which is surrounded by extensive gardens and datepalm groves, is divided into three parts; 1. the Kōt (fortress) in the northeast); 2. the Rafʿīya (Refeyʾīya, “eminence” so called on account of its rising ground, in the northwest and west); 3. the Naʿāthar (in the south and west). The Kōt, a large fortress with very high, thick walls and towers (about 16 on each side with winding stairways) is about 500 yards long a…


(809 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hwēṭāt, Haweiṭāt, Ḥowētat, Howeytat, Howadat, Howahtat; sing. Ḥuwaiṭī), an Arab tribe in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz and on the Sinai peninsula; their settlements in the Ḥid̲j̲āz reach southwards from al-ʿAḳaba to beyond al-Wad̲j̲h; they are neighbours of the Balī. [q. v.] and Ḏj̲uhaina [q. v.] with the latter of whom they are on bad terms. Formerly the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām [q. v.] occupied their settlements. There is a large settlement of the Ḥuwaiṭāt on the Wādī Maḳnā, where they have many huts and thick palmgroves; they only stay here during the date-harvest. Between …


(448 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, (Hogriyia, Hödsyerīe), the name of a tribe in South Arabia. Their land lies to the north of the land of the Sobēḥī (Subaiḥī, [q. v.]) between 43° 40′ and 44° 42′ East Long. Greenw. and 13° 5′ and 13° 15’ North. Lat. and is entirely mountainous. The climate is tropical; the principal product is coffee. Among the mountains we may mention Ḏj̲ebel Ṣabr (Ṣabir [q. v.]) which is described by Hamdāni in his Ḏj̲azīra as a very high mountain, among wādīs, the Wādī Warazān which joins the Wādī Tubban, the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], and belonged in Hamdānī’s time to the Sakāsi…


(458 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sg. ʿAwlaḳî, Beduin Mawweleḳ and Mawleḳî), dynastic name of a group of tribes ¶ in South Arabia. Their country is bounded in the South by the Arabian. seq, in the West by Dat̲h̲īna (in the southern part), by the land of the Awādil (in the centre) and by that of the Razāz (in the northern part); in the Northwest by the Kaṣâb (Gazāb), in the Northeast and the upper part of the East by the land of the upper Wāḥidī and in the lower (southern) part of the East by the land of the Ḏh̲īabi (Ḏh̲iēbi). The whole coun…


(197 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, on the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyarī Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rays̲h̲ān. In Hamdānī’s time the latter was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque (called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir) on its summit, S̲h̲āhir. It was popularly believed (also according to Hamdānī) that not fa…


(497 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, puissante tribu arabe originaire du Yémen, et établie au Ḥid̲j̲āz entre la Mekke et Médine. Elle se divise en deux grandes branches: les Banū Sālim et les Muṣrūḥ. Aux B. Salīm appartiennent entre autres les sous-tribus suivantes: al-Hamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (ne pas confondre avec la grande tribu bien connue), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); aux Muṣrūḥ, appartiennent entre autres: Saʿdī (Saʿadì), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Les localités des B. Sālim (entre Médine et Yanbuʿ et sur…


(534 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), ville du Mahra [ q.v.], située à l’Est de Mirbāṭ [ q.v.], à 17° 21′ de lat. Nord et 55° 23′ de long. Est, au pied de la haute montagne de Nūs (Lūs); c’est le ‘Aσίχων du Périple de la mer Erythrée. Devant la ville, se trouve ce qu’on appelle la «baie aux herbes» (Ḏj̲ūn al-ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), la baie de Ḥāsik (Raʾs Ḥāsik), nommée aussi baie de Kuria et de Muria d’après deux îles situées en face (Ḵh̲aryān et Maryān chez al-Idrīsī). Al-Idrīsl dit que Ḥāsik est une petite ville fortifiée, à quatre journées de marche à l’Est de Mirbāṭ, ave…


(180 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, localité située sur le littoral du Ḥaḍramawt, à environ 25 km. au Nord-est de S̲h̲iḥr [ q.v.], près du Raʾs S̲h̲arma, dans une contrée très pittoresque et très fertile. Elle appartient, de même que Makalla et S̲h̲iḥr, aux Ḳuʿayṭis de S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] et possède, comme son nom l’indique, des sources thermales (sulfureuses) à la température de l’eau bouillante. Les maisons de cette petite ville sont bâties en argile et basses; au milieu de la ville et sur la plage se trouvent deux ḥiṣnṣ importants. La plupart des habitants sont pêcheurs; S.B. Haines prétendait en 1839 que leur …


(199 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, haute montagne de l’Arabie du Sud appartenant à la chaîne d’al-Maṣāniʿ du groupe d’al-Sarāt, sur le Wādī Surdud, près de Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. Elle est souvent citée par al-Hamdānī, en même temps que la grande montagne voisine de Milḥān (qui doit son nom au Ḥimyarite Miḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik, et dont le nom réel était Rays̲h̲ān). A l’époque d’al-Hamdānī, cette dernière ne possédait pas moins, dit-on, de 99 sources et portait à son sommet, qui s’appelait S̲h̲āhir, une grande mosquée (Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir). D’après la croyance p…

Banū ‘l-Ḥarit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb

(873 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, tribu arabe appartenant au groupe yéménite et appelée ordinairement Balḥārit̲h̲. La généalogie des Balḥārit̲h̲ est la suivante: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). Ils habitaient le territoire de Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.] et étaient voisins des Hamdān. Parmi les localités qui leur appartenaient, on cite entre autres: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿĀd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲uhāb, Ḏh̲ū l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ (pl Afrāṭ, entre Nad̲j̲rān et le Ḏj̲awf), Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā). ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (entre le Ḥid̲j̲āz et la Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥ…


(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf ) and town in South Arabia, south of Ṣanʿā, on the Ṣanʿā-ʿAdan road, near the fortress of Hirrān. The district of D̲h̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens, and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertility it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of D̲h̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of D̲h̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and D̲h̲amūrān (…
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