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Babylonian and Assyrian Religion

(1,214 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes
The civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, whose written traditions have come down to us in Sumerian and Akkadian, played an important role in the development of the Near East from the end of the fourth millennium b.c. onward. In the course of history, the peoples of Syria and Palestine, among them Israel and Judah, were particularly subjected to Mesopotamian influence (esp. in the first half of the first millennium). At the beginning of the fourth millennium the peoples of southern Mesopotamia lived in village settlements, supported by irrigation-based agricult…

Einleitung: Quellengrundlagen für die Rekonstruktion altorientalischer chronologischer Systeme

(6,902 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes
1. Schriftliche und archäologische Quellen Während für die sog. klassische Antike (Griechenland seit ca. 500, Rom seit Ende des 4. Jh. v. Chr.) und die mit ihr unmittelbar verbundenen Regionen eine absolute Datierung weitgehend zweifelsfrei gegeben ist, trifft dies für zahlreiche Regionen des Orients nicht allgemein zu. Sicherheit besteht nur da, wo direkte Anschlüsse an die Chronologie der klass. Welt gegeben sind. Dies gilt für Ägypten, Mesopotamien, die Achaimeniden (Achaimenidai), Arsakiden (Arsa…

Introduction: Sources for the reconstruction of ancient Near Eastern chronological systems

(7,716 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes
1. The textual and archaeological record A secure, absolute chronology can be given for most of the so-called classical period of Antiquity (in Greece from ca. 500 BC and in Rome from the end of the fourth century BC onwards) as well as for the regions that were in direct contact with it. By contrast, no such chronology is possible for many regions of the ancient Near East. Certainty exists only in those cases where direct links can be made with the chronology of the Graeco-Roman world. This is true for Egypt, Mesopotam…

Hammurabi

(440 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes
[German Version] Hammurabi, the most prominent ruler of the first dynasty of Babylon. His reign (1792–1750 bce) ¶ was dominated, first, by the successful struggle against Elam, which had claimed sovereignty over the states of Mesopotamia in order to gain control of the principal long-distance trade routes in the Near East. Second, his reign is also marked by numerous internal conflicts in Babylonia itself, especially in the context of the struggle for access to the waters of the Euphrates, which were of vital imp…

Einleitung der Herausgeber

(5,629 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter | Renger, Johannes
1. Ziele des Bandes Lange Reihen von Jahreszahlen und endlose Listen von Namen gehören gewiß nicht zu der Lektüre, die besondere Spannung oder gar Begeisterung erzeugt: Kaiser, Könige, Fürsten, Amts- und Würdenträger folgen einander, säulenartig angeordnet und begleitet von Zahlensäulen mit den Daten ihrer Lebens- und Wirkungszeit, eine »versäulte« Geschichte der Antike, auf den ersten Blick so leblos wie der Marmor antiker Säulen. Aber schon der zweite Blick zeigt, daß in diesen Säulen auch komprim…

Editors’ preface

(6,459 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter | Renger, Johannes
1. Aims of the present volume Long lists of dates and endless series of names hardly make for reading that is especially exciting or even interesting: emperors, kings, princes and holders of various offices follow one another, arranged in columns and accompanied by more columns with the dates of their lives and terms in office. The result: a ‘columned’ or compartmentalised history of antiquity that, at first sight, is just as lifeless as the marble of ancient columns. A second look, however, shows tha…