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Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Tisicrates

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεισικράτης; Teisikrátēs). Bronze sculptor from Sicyon in the early 3rd cent. BC. There is literary evidence of portrait statues of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes, Peucestas [2] and an otherwise unknown Senex Thebanus ('elderly Theban man') and inscriptional evidence of others in Thebes, Eretria [1] and Oropus as well as a mythological group. T. and Piston created a chariot and pair (Plin. HN 34,89). None of his works survives; attempts to identify his Demetrius in copies are questionable. T.'s teacher was Euthycr…

Vulca

(132 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Etruscan terracotta sculptor from Veii. According to Plin. HN 35,157, V. made the clay cult image of Iuppiter Capitolinus in Rome commissioned by Tarquinius [11] Priscus (first half of the 6th cent. BC) for a temple which was not, however, dedicated until 509 BC. Ascribing to V. the rest of the building sculpture of this temple and that of the temple of Veii is hypothetical. A Hercules fictilis by V. in Rome (Plin. HN loc.cit.) is not more closely defined and is not identical with a statuette mentioned in Mart. 14,178. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography M. Pallottino …

Heraclidas

(115 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Atrax in Thessaly, active in the 4th cent. BC. Together with Hippocrates he signed a victory votive of the Pharsalians in Delphi, where it was set up in the mid 4th cent. BC. Because of the measures at the base, it may have been the bronze group of Achilles on horseback and Patroclus, which Pausanias (10,13,5) describes. However, because the base bears a rededication to Claudius there can be no certainty. Pausanias may not have seen the original work. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Daux, Pausanias à Delphes, 1936, 141-143 J. Marcadé, Recueil de…

Calamis

(634 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor; ancient sources praise his horses and female figures, refer to him as the sculptor who made the transition to the classical period. He endowed his works with both ‘hardness’ and ‘grace’. He is linked with  Onatas,  Praxiteles and  Scopas. Many researchers have tried to solve the chronological contradictions by assuming that there were numerous sculptors of the same name with various surviving works ascribed to them. Since no work can be sufficiently proven to originate from C., the extent of his work is not known. From the famous C. originated a stat…

Pasticcio

(587 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Italian for 'pie, hotchpotch'). The figurative meaning, which arose in the 17th cent., referred to works in which elements of style or motifs of different artists were imitated, as charming features or for purposes of deception. In figurative art, pasticcio first referred to the combination of ancient friezes with plaster-work on Roman palazzi of the 17th and 18th cents. Pasticcio thereafter described esp. modern combinations of various ancient fragments with new works. In archaeology, the term was used mostly pejoratively for eclectic wo…

Silanion

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σιλανίων; Silaníōn). Bronze sculptor from Athens. According to Plin. HN 34,51 he was the height of his career in 328-325 BC. S. created statues of the mythical figures Achilles, Theseus and Jocasta, and in Olympia the victor statues of the boxers Damaretus, Telestas and Satyrus. A 'sports instructor' ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. HN 34,82) ascribed to him can perhaps be interpreted as Connidas, Theseus' teacher. Of S.'s portraits a statue of Plato in the Athenian Academy is recognised has been reliably identified in Roma…

Zeuxiades

(86 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζευξιάδης/ Zeuxiádēs). Bronze sculptor, pupil of Silanion (Plin. HN 34,51). A base from Rome, recorded in the 19th cent. and since lost, was evidence that Z. had created a sculpture of the rhetor Hypereides, which can be dated on historical grounds to after 307 BC. The usual identification of this sculpture with a certain type of which only copies have survived must be rejected. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, 1350 Loewy, Nr. 483 Lippold, 303 P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1267 f. Richter, Portraits 2, 210 f.

Alexander Sarcophagus

(174 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Modern technical term for the most opulent of all Greek relief sarcophagi ( Relief;  Sarcophagi). Found in 1887 in the royal necropolis of Sidon, it is attributed to the local regent  Abdalonymus (333-312 BC). It belongs to the group of house sarcophagi with architectural decor and is famous for the relief images on which residues of painting have been preserved. It is usually believed that Alexander is the warrior with the lion's trophy in the battle against the Persians, and tha…

Micciades

(99 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μικκιάδης; Mikkiádes). Father of Archermus, of Chios. Pliny (HN 36,11) places him at the head of a Chian family of sculptors, erroneously giving him as the son of one Melas [4]. However, the source which Pliny misread (and which survives), a votive epigram from Delos, dated to approx. 550 BC, does not say that M. was a sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 314 Loewy, No.1 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, Vol. 2, 1957, 75 B. S. Ridgway, The Nike of Archermos and Her Attire, in: J. Boardman (ed.), Chios, 1986, 259-274.

Alxenor

(47 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Naxos. He signed a grave stele from Orchomenus to be dated around 500-490 BC, which shows the deceased in a standing pose with his dog. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography LSAG, 292 pl. 55 Lippold, 114 G. Richter, Archaic Greek Art, 1949, fig. 255.

Endoeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἔνδοιος; Éndoios) Sculptor in Athens in the late 6th cent. BC. He made statues of goddesses in ivory and wood for Ephesus, Erythrae and Tegea, the latter were later brought to the forum of Augustus in Rome. His seated marble figure of Athena, the dedicatory gift of a certain Nicias on the Athenian Acropolis, is identified as the statue Athens, AM Inv. No. 625 ( c. 520 BC). The suppletion of his signature on the votive relief of a potter is plausible, but the association of a signed base with the kore Athens, AM Inv. No. 602 is uncertain. The p…

Critius

(308 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Κρίτιος; in written sources: Κριτίας). Bronze sculptor in Athens. C. is always mentioned together with Nesiotes. His prime was in 448-444 BC, Pliny's date is too late. C. was a contemporary of  Hegias [1]. In antiquity his style was considered antiquated and dry. He became famous as the master of the  Severe Style (1st third of the 5th cent. BC) with his statues of  Harmodius [1] and  Aristogeiton, the Tyrannicide group, which in 477/6 BC was set up in the Agora to replace a grou…

Smilis

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σμῖλις/ Smîlis). Son of Euclides, a sculptor from Aegina, probably 6th cent. BC. Pausanias (5,17,1) saw S.' enthroned Horae in the temple of Hera at Olympia and gives an account of his cult image of Hera in Samos (7,4,4). A late source (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) ascribes to S. a cult image of Hera in Argos. Ancient tradition places him among the mythical artists of the period of Daedalus [1]; Plin. HN 36,90 ascribes architectural marvels to him. His name can be derived from  σμίλη ( smílē, ‘chisel’). Speculation on S.' technical inventions …

Eumares

(128 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐμάρης; Eumárēs). Painter in Athens. He was considered to be the inventor of the distinction between male and female figures, probably by means of the skin colour, and of a new flexibility of the bodies. If he can be correctly associated with this stage of development achieved around 600 BC, he cannot be equated with the bearer of this common artist's name who appears as the father in a signature of  Antenor and his brother and who himself placed his signature on a work on a base of the Acropolis around 520 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 295 Overbeck…

Theocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεοκλῆς; Theoklês). Son of Hegylus, sculptor from Sparta. T. was a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and thus was active in the mid-6th cent. BC. A representation in cedar wood of 'Heracles with the Hesperids' in the treasury of Epidamnus in Olympia were by him and his son; at the time of Pausanias the Hesperids were in the Temple of Hera (Paus. 6,19,8). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 328 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  H. Marwitz, Hegylos?, in: AA 1969, 106 f.  Fuchs/Floren, 215.

Archermus

(139 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios like his sons  Boupalus and Athenis. His active period falls into the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Pliny (HN 36,11-14) refers to works in Lesbos and Delos where a base with his initials was found. A winged Nike in the archaic kneeling-running ( Knielauf) pose, found nearby, was dated to 560-550 BC and justifiably connected to a note attributed to  Antigonus of Carystus (Sch. Aristoph. Av. 574), stating that A. had been the first to produce a Nike figure with wings. A later signature of A. was found on the Ac…

Pasiteles

(289 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πασιτέλης; Pasitélēs). Sculptor, from Magna Graecia, Roman citizen probably from 89 BC and according to the sources active there at the time of Cn. Pompeius Magnus in the middle of the 1st cent. BC. Of P.'s work nothing has survived apart from one signature on the base of a statue, but his significance in the artistic expression of late Republican Rome seems to have been great, not in the least because of his treatise on opera nobilia (mirabilia) totius orbis ('noble (wonderful) works of the whole world'), which is not preserved. Since P. is mentioned as t…

Archaism [II]

(694 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] II. Archaeology The definition and application of this term, which has been transferred by modern scholars from Hellenistic literary criticism (ἀρχαισμός/ archaismós, ἀρχαίζειν/ archaízein = 'to archaize') to the fine arts, are disputed. Archaism exists where works of art from the Classical period and later (from c. 480 BC) intentionally adopt aspects of the Late Archaic period (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC). Such aspects are especially hair and beard styles, garments (zigzag folds) and motifs of gesture (splayed fingers, mo…

Myrmecides

(94 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μυρμηκίδης; Myrmēkídēs). Sculptor in marble and toreutics . His creative period is not known, it probably lay in the 6th cent. BC. Mostly named in conjunction with Callicrates [2], he had a legendary reputation for producing microscopically small works in marble, iron and ivory. There are descriptions of a quadriga small enough to fit under the wings of a fly, a ship the size of a bee and a sesame seed enscripted with Homeric verses. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 293, 2168, 2192-2201  P. Mingazzini, s.v. M., EAA 5, 1963, 313-314.
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