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Bostar

(180 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdstart; Βώσταρ; Bṓstar i.a.). [German version] [1] Cartaginian strategos in 1st Punic War Carthaginian strategos in the 1st Punic War; he shared command with  Hasdrubal and Hamilcar in 256 BC against M.  Atilius Regulus, fell prisoner to the Romans at the battle of Adis and died in Rome (Pol. 1,30; Diod. Sic. 24,12) [1.20]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carhaginian sub-commander in 2nd Punic War Carthaginian sub-commander in Spain in the 2nd Punic War; in 217 he fell back from the Romans to Saguntum, where he let himself be duped into r…

Zarzas

(76 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Libyan zrbts? [1. 26490]). Prominent Libyan, leader beside (and with equal authority with?) Mathus and Autaritus in the  Mercenaries' War [2. 108 f.; 112 f.; 3. 31-33], e.g. in the battle on the Bagradas and with Spendius in the pursuit of Hamilcar [3]; [1. 26964; 264]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 Huss 2 L. Loreto, La grande insurrezione libica contro Cartagine del 241-237 a.C., 1995 3 W. Huss, Die Libyer Mathos und Zarzas und der Kelte Autaritos als Prägeherren, in: SM 38, 1988, 30-33.

Autaritus

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Αὐτάριτος; Autáritos). Celtic mercenary in  Hamilcar Barca's army in Sicily; leader in Libya from 241 BC of the largest contingent (2,000 Celts) in the Mercenaries' War against Carthage; he escaped the defeat at Bagradas, urged the massacre of  Gescon and other captured Carthaginians and was the negotiator of the surrender at the foot of the Prion, in a hopeless position. As guarantor of the treaty, he was executed in Tunes with  Spendius and  Zarzas following the breaking of the treaty by the insurgents in 238 (Pol. 1,77-86). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliograph…

Thearidas

(226 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θεαρίδας/ Thearídās). [German version] [1] From Megale polis, father of Lycortas From Megale polis, father of Lycortas, who negotiated over his conquered home city with Cleomenes [6] III in 222 BC (Syll.3 626; Plut. Cleomenes 24) [1. 194; 199 f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas, grandson of T. [1], administrator of Messene [2] c. 182 BC (IvOL 46,6). As the elder brother of the statesman and later historian Polybius [2], who was deported by the Romans, after 167 T. seem…

Geskon

(295 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Carthaginian name (*Grskn = ‘protégé of Skn’; Γέσκων, Γίσκων, Γίσγω; Géskōn, Gískōn, Gísgō; Lat. Gisgo, Gisco). [German version] [1] Father of Hannibal [1], exiled after 480 BC Son of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1]; after 480 BC he lived as an exile in Selinus, as did probably also his son Hannibal [1] for a while (Diod. Sic. 13,43,5) [1. 30f.; 2. 40]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander 343-339 BC Carthaginian commander in 343-339 BC in the war against  Timoleon, for which he had been recalled from exile (Diod. Sic. 16,81,3; Poly…

Taurion

(103 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ταυρείων; Taureíōn). Macedonian, phílos (Court titles B.) of Antigonus [3] and Philippus [7] V, when as their governor in the Peloponnese T. was acting on behalf of the Achaei (Pol. 4,6,4; 10,2; 10,6; 19,7 f.; 80,3; 5,92,7; 95,3; 95,5). In 219/8 BC T. was affected by the Apelles [1] affair (Pol. 4,87,1 f.; 4,87,8 f.; 5,27,4) and in 217 was probably one of the peace negotiators at Naupactus [1. 112]; T.'s negative influence on Philippus (Pol. 9,23,9) and his complicity in the death of Aratus [2] (Plut. Aratus 52,2-3) are questionable. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munic…

Rhodopis

(133 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ῥοδῶπις/ Rhodôpis, 'of rosy appearance'). Legendary hetaera in Naucratis (1st half of the 6th cent. BC), Thracian (?), slave of Iadmon of Samos, then taken by the Samian Xanthus to Egypt, where Charax, brother of  Sappho, is supposed to have bought her freedom (Hdt. 2,134,3; 135,1 f.); her identification with Doricha, the object of Charax' fatal love (Sappho fr. 26,11 Diehl; cf. fr. 7 Lobel/Page), is unclear (Hdt. 2,135,5; Str. 17,1,33; contra: Ath. 13,596b-d). R. acquired a fortu…

Lasthenes

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λασθένης; Lasthénēs). [German version] [1] Cavalry commander of the Chalcidians, 4th cent. BC L. of Olynthus, hípparchos (‘cavalry commander’) of the Chalcidians; in 348 BC L. with Euthycrates [1] betrayed his home town to Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,66; 19,265; Diod. Sic. 16,53,2). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Cretan mercenary leader, 2nd cent. BC Cretan mercenary leader, from 147 BC onwards influential adviser at the court of Demetrius [8] II ( syngenḗs, patḗr; Court titles B.3.); possibly stratēgós of Coele Syria (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,86; 126f.; 1 M…

Himilco

(674 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(*[ʾ]hmlkt = ‘brother of Mlkt’, Ἰμίλκων; Imílkōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander, relative of Hannibal, strategos Carthaginian commander, son of a Hanno, great-grandson of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1] and a relation of  Hannibal [1], whom he accompanied to Sicily in 407 BC as (fleet?) strategos and after whose death H. took over the supreme command (Diod. Sic. 13,80; Iust. 19,2,7). H. besieged, conquered and destroyed  Acragas in 406/405, then  Gela and  Camarina, but soon after, in 405, failed in his siege of  Syracuse because…

Mercenaries' War

(420 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern term (‘Libyan War’, for instance in Pol. 1,13,3; Diod. 26,23) for the uprising of the mercenaries employed by Carthage in the 1st Punic War (241/0-238 BC). It plunged Carthage into a serious crisis as the revolt of the mercenaries from various ethnic origins who still had to be paid despite the emptiness of the state coffers also provoked rebellion among the Libyans under the leadership of Mathus. The general Hanno [6] who had already fought against rebels in the Carthagini…

Megaleas

(93 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλέας; Megaléas). A Macedonian, appointed by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will as head of the chancery ( epì toû grammateíou) of Philippus V in 222 BC (Pol. 4,87,8). Together with Apelles [1] and Leontius [2] M. opposed the anti-Aetolian western policy of the young king and in the year 218 physically attacked Aratus [2], for which he was condemned by court martial. Released on Leontius's bail, M. fled to Thebes, where he took his life before being extradited (Pol. 5,2,8; 15f.; 25,1f.; 26-28) [1. 170]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 Errington.

Sophoni(s)ba

(187 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σοφονί(σ)βα/ Sophoní(s)ba, Punic * Spnbl = 'Baal has pronounced judgment', other Greek forms of the name: Diod. Sic. 27,7; Zon. 9,12 f.). Daughter of Hasdrubal [5], married c. 205 BC to Syphax, from whom she vehemently demanded a pro-Carthaginian policy (cf. Pol. 14,1,4; 14,7,4-7; Liv. 29,23). S. is supposed to have previously been betrothed to Massinissa (Diod. Sic. 27,7, [1. 200, note 1195; 2]), who married her after his victory over Syphax in 203 in the conquered city of Cirta and forced her to take p…

Megalophanes

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλοφάνης/ Megalophánēs; properly: Demophanes, Δημοφάνης/ Dēmophánēs [1. 228-233]), from Megalopolis. A pupil of Arcesilaus [5] like his friend Ecdemus. Together they established a liberal constitution in Cyrene in c. 250 BC [2. 431] and later became Philopoemen's teachers. M.'s and Ecdemus' reputation for remorseless enmity towards tyranny was not merely academic: it resulted from their participation in the assassination of Aristodemus [6] ( c. 253) and in the overthrow of Nicocles [4] of Sicyon in league with Aratus [2] (Pol. 10,22,2f.; …

Tisippus

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τείσιππος/ Teísippos, Τίσιππος/ Tísippos) from Trichonium. Stratēgós of the Aetolian League (Aetoli) in 163/2 (?) and possibly also in 156/5 BC (IG IX2 1,1,101-103; [1. 435 f.]), who during the third of the Macedonian Wars had manifested himself together with Lyciscus [3] as an unscrupulous extremely pro-Roman politician: in 168 at the massacre in Arsinoe [III 2] of 550 Aetolians, in 167 as an envoy of congratulation to L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in Amphipolis (Pol. 30,11,5; 30,13,4; Liv. 45,28,6-8; [2. 192 f.; 3. 89-91]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Biblio…

Theoxenus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεόξενος; Theóxenos). Achaean from Leontium, father of Callicrates [11]. In 197 BC , as stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaei) he defeated a Macedonian army at Alabanda in support of the Rhodeans (Liv. 33,18,5 f.). His corresponding votive gift in Delos is recorded there in the lists of inventories for the years 194-179 [1. 1356; 2. 1374]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 M. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques, vol. 2, 1987 2 J. Deininger, Der politische Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.

Menalcidas

(135 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεναλκίδας/ Menalkídas). Spartan, of radically pro-Roman disposition. He had been taken into custody in 168 BC at Alexandria for property offences, but was pardoned because he was a favourite of C. Popillius Laenas (Pol. 30,16,2). In 151/0, as strategos of the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map), during the corruption case concerning the Achaean commitment to Oropus, he betrayed Callicrates [11], bribed Diaeus and, condemned to death in the escalating Achaean-Spartan conflict, fle…

Aristotimus

(92 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Elis, son of Demaratus, in 271/70 BC tyrant in Elis, propped up by (Oscian?) mercenaries and the protection of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas; his reign of terror caused 800 citizens to flee to the Aetolians and abandon their families to the madman. It came to an end during Cyllon's conspiracy (cf. Syll.3 423) when A. was murdered in the temple asylum and his entire family was extinguished (Paus. 5,5,1.6; 14,11; Plut. Mor. 250f-253f; Just. Epit. 26,1,4-10) [1. 403-404, 713]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Hamilcar

(877 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Carthaginian name Hmlk = ‘grace is to mlk’; Gk. Ἁμίλκας/ Hamílkas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander about 500-480 BC Son of Hanno and a Syracusan woman (Hdt. 7,165), grandson of  Mago [1. 36,183f.], father of  Geskon [1]; Carthaginian commander in c. 500-480 BC, whose role in his brother Hasdrubal's campaign against Sardinia remains unclear (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. It is seriously disputed whether he was king, or rather suffete [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. In 480, H. undertook a military expedition against  Himera, whi…

Carthalo

(395 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Punic *Qrthls = ‘(Ml)qrt has saved’; Greek Καρθάλων; Karthálōn). [German version] [1] Son of Malchus (6th cent. BC), Carthaginian priest of Melqart Son of  Malchus (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC?). As the Carthaginian priest of  Melqart he was entrusted with presenting the tithe of the booty to the god in  Tyrus but on his return refused to support his father's rebellion and was executed by him (Just. Epit. 18,7,7-15) [1. 23f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian nauarch in 1st Punic War in 256/5-248/7 BC In the First Punic War the Carthaginian nauarc…

Agesilochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos) (also: Hagesilochos; Hegesilochus). Rhodian, son of Hagesias,   prytanis 171 BC (Pol. 27,3,3; Liv. 42,45,3-4). 169 envoy to Rome (Pol. 28,2; 16,5.8) and 168 to Perseus and  Aemilius Paullus (Pol. 29,10,4; Liv. 44,35,4-6). A. represented the Rhodian Rome politics of the ‘tertia’ pars [1. 185-190]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.
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