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Munatius

(2,051 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
[German version] A. (Roman) Name of a Roman plebeian family, of which the branch of the Planci acquired political significance in the 1st century BC. Its most prominent member is M. [I 4], cos. in 42 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Flaccus, L. Took part in an attempt on the life of Cassius Longinus in 48 BC From Hispania Baetica; he escaped after a failed attempt on the life of the Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, a follower of Caesar's, in Corduba in 48 BC (Bell. Alex. 52,3f.). In 46/5 as a follower of the younger…

Laberius

(821 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen gentile of Etruscan origin, more frequent references only towards the end of the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Military tribune 258 BC Military tribune during the First Punic War, in 258 BC he secured the retreat of consul A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus (Claudius Quadrigarius fr. 42 HRR) near Camarina. All 400 legionaries of L. were killed, he himself survived badly wounded, but nevertheless was celebrated as ‘The Leonidas of Rome’ (Gell. NA 3,7,21). O…

Minucius

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens. The patrician bearers of the name from the 5th and 4th cents. BC that have come down to us are of disputed historicity, in any case the early family history has been embellished in the late Republic.  It is these Minucii that later membesrs (from the 3rd century BC) trace themselves back to. A prominent cognomen is Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] and [I 5 and 6]), deriving from the first plebeian augur M. [I 7], applie…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG…

Marathon running

(402 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] The marathon as an agonistic discipline is an invention of the modern age. Longer foot races than the dólichos (max. 24 stadia = c. 4∙6 km) were not known to antiquity. Just as the

Numerius

(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions:

Nasidienus Rufus

(57 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] Ridiculed by Horace (Hor. Sat. 2,8) as the nouveau riche host of a dinner for Maecenas [2] and his poet friends that, for all its opulence and refinement, ends in banal mishap. (The nomen gentile is attested in only …

Norbanus

(761 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from the Latin city of Norba [1] (‘man from Norba’). The family first attained Roman citizenship with N. [I 1], owing its advancement to Caesar and Augustus, and then disappeared. In the Imperial period N. was also a cognomen. I. Republican period [German version] …

Hortensia

(75 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] Daughter of the famous orator Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus. She is praised for having inherited the abilities of her father (Val. Max. 8,3,3; Quint. Inst. 1,1,6). In 42 BC, H. appeared successfully in the forum as a spokesman for prosperous Roman women against an exceptional war tax imposed by the triumvirs (App. B Civ. 4,135-146). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography M. H. Dettenhofer, Frauen in polit. Krisen, in: Id. (ed.), Reine Männersache?, 1994, 140f.

Pheidippides

(176 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] (Φειδιππίδης; Pheidippídēs). Courier ( hēmeródromos) from Athens, who after the Persians' landing at Marathon (490 BC) was sent to the Lacedaemonians with a request for support troops (Hdt. 6,105f.; Persian Wars); haunted by a vision of Pan on Mount Parthenium in Arcadia, he reached Sparta on the second day (Hdt. 6,105f.). P. is encountered in the later tradition as Latin Phidippus (Nep. Miltiades 4,3) or Philippides (as in poorer manuscripts of Hdt. [1]; Plin. HN 7,84; Plut. Mor. 862a-b; Paus. 1,28,4; 8,54,6; Poll. 3,148; Solin. 1, 98; Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías) and u…

Memmius

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian gens name, whose bearers may have originated from the territory of the Volscians and who rose to prominence (in several branches) during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. They rose to consular rank only with M. [I 4]. The descent of the gens from the Trojan Mnestheus (Verg. Aen. 5,117) is a late-Republican construction. An aedile called M. supposedly instituted the Cerealia (before 211 BC; RRC 427). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4] (427) when it was besieging the coast of Megara [2], against Tanagra (426), Corinth (425), and the island of Cythera (424). In 425 after spirited debate in the …

Nasidius

(205 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] [1] N., L. Cnaeus Pompey's fleet commander in 49 BC Cnaeus Pompeius's fleet commander. In 49 BC he was sent out with a squadron from Dyrrhachium to Massalia to support L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus (Caes. B Civ. 2,3,1f.. Once there he shirked from a sea battle against D. Iunius [I 12] Brutus Albinus and made his way to Spain without a fight (Caes. B Civ. 2,4,4f.; 7,1f.). After active service in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Bell. Afr. 98,1; Cic. Att. 11,17a,3), N. died in North Africa in 46 BC together with the supporters of Pompeius. MRR 2, 271. Frigo, Thom…

Mettius

(681 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
The praenomen Mettus is known for only two people in the e…

Porcius

(3,528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family from Tusculum. In the belief that the family had been pig-breeders, in antiquity their name was derived from porcus  (Varro Rust. 2,1,10 etc.). From the middle of the 3rd century BC, the Catones and Licinii branches belonged to Rome's leading class and at the beginning of the 2nd century, they attained the consulship with  Cato [1] (Censorius) and P. [I 13]. The exact blood relationship between the most prominent bearer of the name, Cato [1], and his great-grandson, P. [I 7] Cato (Uticensis), is not completely clarified. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic…

Mescinius

(95 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Röm. Gens, aus der in spätrepublikanischer Zeit einige Namensträger - u.a. im griech. Raum (CIL I2 2247) - greifbar sind. [English version] [1] M. Rufus, L. Quaestor 51 v. Chr., dem Cicero in Cilicia zugeteilt In Cilicia 51 v.Chr. dem Proconsul Cicero als Quaestor zugeteilt. Spätestens die Differenzen in ihren Rechenschaftsberichten trübten das Verständnis zwischen beiden (Cic. Att. 6,3,1; 4,1; Cic. fam. 5,20). Diese Verstimmung wollte Cicero überspielen (Cic. fam. 5,21,1; 13,28,2), als er M. nach 49 auf den Kurs der Caesargegner einzustimmen trachtete. MRR 2,242. Frigo, Thomas (…

Laelius

(1,266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name einer vielleicht aus Campanien stammenden Familie. Die mil. Erfolge von L. [I 1] im 2. Pun. Krieg (218-201 v.Chr.) und die Verbindung zum Älteren Scipio verschafften ihr wohl das röm. Bürgerrecht und den Aufstieg in die Noblität. Eine jüngere Linie (Praenomen D.) gelangte erst unter Augustus zum Konsulat (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L., C. Cos. 190 v. Chr., Altersgenosse des Scipio Africanus Geb um 235 v.Chr., gest. um 160; den polit. Aufstieg verdankte L. der engen (und sprichwörtlich gewordenen…

Nasidius

(158 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[English version] [1] N., L. Flottenkommandant des CN. Pompeius 49 v. Chr. Flottenkommandant des Cn. Pompeius. 49 v.Chr. mit einem Geschwader zur Unterstützung des L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus von Dyrrhachion nach Massalia entsandt (Caes. civ. 2,3,1f.); dort entzog sich N. einem Seegefecht gegen D. Iunius [I 12] Brutus Albinus kampflos gen Spanien (Caes. civ. 2,4,4f.; 7,1f.). Nach Einsätzen im Tyrrhenischen Meer (Bell. Afr. 98,1; Cic. Att. 11,17a,3) endete N. 46 mit den Pompeianern in Nordafrika. MRR 2, 271. Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [English version] [2] N., Q. ab 38 v. Chr. Mar…

Naevius

(1,683 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Ital. Personenname, vielleicht vom Praenomen Gnaivos ( Gnaeus, Cn.) abgeleitet, volksetym. von naevus, “Muttermal” hergeführt (Arnob. 3,14). Für das hohe Alter des Namens in Rom, der auch inschr. weit verbreitet ist, spricht die Bezeichnung porta Naevia in der servianischen Stadtmauer (Varro ling. 5,163; vgl. Liv. 2,11,8). Die Familie selbst trat polit. erst im 2. Jh. v.Chr. hervor. Bedeutendster Namensträger ist der Dichter N. [I 1]. Elvers, Kar…

Labienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Nomen gentile of Etruscan origin; the family, which belonged to Rome's equestrian class, came from northern Picenum (Cic. Rab. perd. 22; Caes. B Civ. 1,15,2). [German version] [1] L., Q. Slain in the Curia c. 100 BC Uncle of L. [3], supported L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus in 100 BC and was slain at his side in the Curia on the Forum Romanum (Cic. Rab. perd. 14; 18; 20-22; Oros. 5,17,9). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [2] L. (Parthicus), Q. Commander in Asia Minor and Armenia c. 40 BC Son of L. [3]. At the end of 43 BC he undertook treaty negotiations at the behest of the murderers of Caesar with the Parthian king Orodes [2] II, at whose court L. also stayed after the disaster of Philippi (42; Vell. Pat. 2,78,1). Together with the Parthian prince Pacorus, L. ran a very su…
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