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Madrid

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Spain Norman A. Stillman

Skikda

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Philippeville (Skikda) Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Luṭf, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Luṭf Norman A. Stillman

Anti-Judaism and Judaism in medieval Islam

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Polemics (general) Norman A. Stillman

Filibe

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Plovdiv (Filibe) Norman A. Stillman

Bitola

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Monastir (Bitola, Manastir) Norman A. Stillman

Yunus Nadi

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nadi, Yunus Norman A. Stillman

Cave Sect

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Maghāriyya, al- (The Cave Sect) Norman A. Stillman

Pallache, Samuel b. Isaac I

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Pallache Family Norman A. Stillman

El Fassia, Zohra

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Club National Israélite (Beirut and Damascus)

(236 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Although preceded by a number of Jewish cultural and youth organizations with a modern Hebrew and Zionist orientation in the cities of Greater Syria (e.g., the Maccabee League, the Kadima Club, and the Hebrew National Schools for Boys and Girls), the Club National Israélite (Ar. al-Nādī al-Qawmī al-Isrā'īlī) was the first self-described Syro-Lebanese Zionist organization. It was founded on June 3, 1924 by Toufic (Tawfīq) Mizrahi, a journalist and advertising agent, in cooperation with former chief rabbi Salomon Tagger in Beirut and seven provisionary committee members in…

Dades

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Florida

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Assaka

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Ben Nūrīʾel, Bābāʾī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāʾī ben Nūrīʾel Norman A. Stillman

Henna

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up; Marriage Norman A. Stillman

La Esperanza

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see La Buena Esperansa, Izmir, 1874-1917, La Buena Esperansa, Izmir, 1842 Norman A. Stillman

Milan

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Beni Hayoun

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dra’a Norman A. Stillman Bibliography : S

Great Britain

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United Kingdom Norman A. Stillman

Karasu

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Carasso Norman A. Stillman

Seattle

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Manastir

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Monastir (Bitola, Manastir) Norman A. Stillman

Mendes, Alvaro

(15 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Yaʿesh (also Ibn Yaʿish or Abenæs), Solomon Norman A. Stillman

Yosef ben Isaac Ben Nayim

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Rav ha-Kolel

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Sābāwī Yūnis al-

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Farhūd Norman A. Stillman

Ezekiel's Tomb (al-Kifl)

(707 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The traditional tomb of the biblical prophet Ezekiel is situated in the village of al-Kifl (coll. Ir. Ar. al-Chifl) on the Euphrates River, 32 kilometers (20 miles) south of the town of Hilla in central Iraq. The name of the town is from Ezekiel’s epithet of Dhū ʾl-Kifl (the Guarantor) in Islamic lore (Ezekiel, Ar. Ḥizqīl, is not mentioned in the Qurʾān). The first known mention of the tomb is in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon ( Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaʾon) in the tenth century. Benjamin of Tudela visited the shrine around 1170 (Adler ed., pp. 67-68). His account notes that “people come f rom a distanc…

Mahdiyya, al-

(520 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Al-Mahdiyya is a coastal city in present-day Tunisia, 200 kilometers (124 miles) south of Tunis, founded by the first Fatimid caliph, ʿUbayd Allāh al-Mahdī (r. 909–934), to be his capital in place of Qayrawan. The establishment of a capital on the coast represented a singular break with Islamic tradition, which since the time of the conquests in the seventh century was to build new urban administrative centers inland away from the Byzantine Sea (as the Mediterranean was called). Al-Mahdiyya did not replace Qayrawan …

Tujjār al-Sultān

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Essaouira (Mogador); Morocco Norman A. Stillman

Blood libels

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism; Damascus Affair (1840) Norman A. Stillman

Sharḥ (pl. Shurūḥ)

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bible Translations Norman A. Stillman

Maqāma (- āt) (poetic form)

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music, al-Ḥarīzī, Judah ben Solomon (c. 1166-1225) Norman A. Stillman

Ḥoter b. Solomon

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dhamārī, Manṣūr Sulaymān (Ḥoter ben Solomon) Norman A. Stillman

Alroy, David

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Rūjī, Solomon and Menahem, al Norman A. Stillman

Bougie

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Béjaïa (Bougie, Bijāya) Norman A. Stillman

Rome

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Court Jews

(3,572 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
As throughout Diaspora history, there were Jews in the Islamic world from the Middle Ages up to and including the modern era who served as officials and retainers at the courts of Muslim rulers. They served in much the same capacities as their coreligionists who served at courts in medieval Western Europe and in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Central Europe as physicians, advisers, bankers, and purveyors of goods and services to the ruler. Like their European counterparts, they often acted as intermediaries (Eur. Heb. shtadlanim) with the authorities on behalf of their br…

Ibn Shortmeqash

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn (al-)Muhājir Norman A. Stillman

New York

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Ibn ʿAṭṭār Judah b. Jacob

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben ʿAṭṭār (or Ibn ʿAṭṭār) Family Norman A. Stillman

Tekinalp, Munis

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Kohen, Moise (Tekinalp) Norman A. Stillman

Abū Naẓẓāra Zarqā' (Abu Naddara) (Cairo)

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Ṣanūc, Yacqūb Norman A. Stillman

LICA (La Ligue Internationale contre l'Antisémitisme Allemand)

(448 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
LICA was the acronym of La Ligue Internationale contre l’Antisémitisme Allemand Formée par Toutes les Oeuvres et Institutions Juives en Egypte. It was founded in April 1933 under the name of La Ligue Contre l’Antisémitisme Allemand Formée par Toutes les Oeuvres et Institutions Juives en Egypte in conjunction with mass protests organized by the B'nai B'rith lodges in Cairo and Alexandria to counter increasing Nazi activity and propaganda in Egypt. The league was headed by a committee of important Jewish public figures. One of the founders was Léon Castro, a lawyer, journalist, and Wafd P…

Duwayk, Shaul

(15 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Al-Andalus

(10,143 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name throughout the Middle Ages for the Iberian Peninsula, including what is today both Spain and Portugal, although with the progress of the Reconquista, the name al-Andalus came to be limited to Muslim-ruled territory, which eventually was only the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. The name al-Andalus (Ar. al-Andalīsh) has been connected to the Vandals, who had given the name Vandalacia to the former Roman province of Baetica. Arabic-speaking Jews used the term, and Moses Maimonides, even years after he had immigrated to Egypt, wo…

Daniel, Jean

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Hellenistic sources

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sefer Josippon Norman A. Stillman

Hakham Bashi

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Haham Başı (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Hulli

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Culi (Hulli), Jacob Ben Meir Norman A. Stillman

Ibn ʿAṭṭār, Ḥayyim

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben ʿAṭṭār, Ḥayyim Norman A. Stillman

Qalʿat Banī Ḥammād

(515 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Qalʿat Banī Ḥammād (also known as Qalʿat Ḥammād and Qalʿat Abī Ṭawīl) was the capital of the Hammadid dynasty in the Central Maghreb (today Algeria) during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The fortified town, which today lies in ruins, sits in the Maadid Mountains and dominates the Hodna Plain 500 meters (1,640 feet) below. The site was chosen by Ḥammād ibn Buluggīn in 1008 as his stronghold when he broke from the authority of his nephew, the Zirid ruler in Qayrawan, Bādīs ibn al-Manṣūr (r. 996–1016). At first, the population of the town was mainly made up of Ḥammād’s fel…

Majlis

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Polemics (general) Norman A. Stillman

Ragusa

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dubrovnik (Ragusa) Norman A. Stillman

Chief Rabbi

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Reinette l’Oranaise

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Daoud, Reinette Sultana Norman A. Stillman

Alexandria

(2,461 words)

Author(s): Miriam Frenkel | Norman A. Stillman | Tomer Levi
1. Medieval Alexandria (Ar. al-Iskandariyya), on the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the western edge of the Nile Delta, is the principal port city of Egypt and was the capital until the Arab conquest, when it was replaced by Fustat.  There was a substantial Jewish community in the city from the third century B.C.E.  (According to Josephus, Jews already settled there at the time of Alexander's founding of the city.)  Alexandria became the principal center of Hellenistic Jewish culture in Antiquity.  It was there that the Bible was translated into Greek (the…

Ratti-Menton, Benoît Ulysse-Laurent-François, Count de

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Damascus Affair (1840) Norman A. Stillman

Hayatizâde Mustafa Efendi

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Abravanel, Moses ben Raphael Norman A. Stillman

Onomastics

(18 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Names and Naming Practices - Kurdistan Names and Naming Practices - Yemen Norman A. Stillman

Heqdesh (Qodesh, Waqf, Ḥabs)

(990 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Charity and social welfare have since ancient times been an integral part of the Jewish communal ethos. Already in biblical times, funds and property could be consecrated to the needs of the Temple (Bet ha-Miqdash) in Jerusalem (e.g., see II Kings 12:5–17; Mishna Temura 7:2, Sheqalim 4:7). The term for dedicated property was heqdesh (consecrated). The Talmud forbade the dedication of heqdesh property in the biblical sense following the destruction of the Temple, since the misappropriation of such property would have constituted sacrilege (Heb. meʿila). But in the Middle Ages bo…

North Africa

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Maghreb Norman A. Stillman

Turin

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Nāʾib

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nagid Norman A. Stillman

Rio di Janeiro

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Brazil Norman A. Stillman

Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism

(12,562 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman | İlker Aytürk | Steven Uran | Jonathan Fine
1. Traditional anti-Judaism in the Islamic World A historical survey of Islamic attitudes toward and treatment of Jews must take into account the facts that Islam is (1) a religion with a corpus of doctrines, beliefs, and practices that have evolved over fourteen hundred years and have been subject to widely varying manifestations and interpretations; (2) a body politic, united at first, but becoming more divided over time; and (3) a civilization that despite local and regional differences has neverthe…

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Ephraim

(493 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Ephraim ben Israel Anqāwa (fl. late 14th to early 15th century), known to his devotees simply as Rab (Heb. master), was a Sephardi rabbinical scholar, philosopher, and physician who became a leading saint in the Maghrebi Jewish pantheon of holy men (Heb. ṣaddiqim). His tomb in Tlemcen became an important site of pilgrimage (Ar. ziyāra). Ephraim was born in Toledo, where his family had lived since the twelfth century and had their own synagogue, established by his great-uncle Abraham ben Samuel, who was murdered in 1341. Ephraim’s father, Israel ha-Qadosh (Heb. the martyr), was the …

Identité et Dialogue

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Azoulay, André; Assaraf, Robert; Berdugo, Serge Norman A. Stillman

Cizye (Poll Tax)

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Taxation Norman A. Stillman

Izhakova, Barno

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Aben Danan

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn Danan Norman A. Stillman

Salom

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Shalom Norman A. Stillman

Ghardaia

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Mzab Norman A. Stillman Bibliography 750

Sanua, James

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ṣanūʿ (Sanua), Yaʿqūb (James) Norman A. Stillman

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Raphael

(429 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Raphael ben Mordechai Anqāwa (Raphaël Encaoua and also Ankaoua in the usual French transcription) was a leading Moroccan halakhic authority. The scion of a distinguished Sephardi rabbinical family, he was born in Salé in 1848. He was a pupil of Issachar Assaraf, the chief rabbi of Salé, whose daughter he married. At the relatively young age of thirty-two, he was appointed dayyan in Salé. His reputation for judicial acumen spread his name throughout Morocco. In 1910, he published his collection of responsa Qarne Reʾem (The Horns of the Buffalo) in Jerusalem, which enhanced his …

Ladino

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Judeo-Spanish Literature Norman A. Stillman

Arabia

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see ; Aden; Bahrain (Bahrayn); Hadramawt;Hijaz; Yemen Norman A. Stillman

Haketia

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Judeo-Spanish - Haketia Norman A. Stillman

Wargla

(461 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Wargla (Warglān; Fr. Ouargla) is an oasis town in the Algerian Sahara located 659 kilometers (410 miles) southeast of Algiers. It was once an important way-station on the caravan route to Timbuktu and West Africa. Nothing is known about the town before the Islamic period. The Muslims of medieval Wargla were adherents of the Kharijite Ibāḍī sect, which was generally tolerant of Jews. The Jewish community in Wargla during the Middle Ages was apparently a Karaite center and is noted as such by Abraham ibn Ezraand Abraham Ibn Da’ud. In his commentary on Exodus 12:11, Ibn Ezra ment…

Geniza

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Cairo Geniza Norman A. Stillman

Mangūbī, Shabbetay Elijah

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Barqa

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Benghazi Norman A. Stillman

Duwayk, Jacob Saul

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Ghriba Synagogues

(550 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Ghrība (Coll. Ar. wondrous, unique) is the name given to seven supposedly ancient synagogues in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria which are considered to be holy places and have become pilgrimage sites. The most famous of the Ghrība synagogues is the one in the village of Dighet near Hara Seghira on the island of Jerba. The others are located in Yefren and Mʿanin (actually between Mʿanin and al-Qsir) in the Jebel Nafusa region of Libya, in Le Kef in southern Tunisia and Ariana on the northeastern coast, and in Bône (Būna) and Biskra in Algeria. Many of the Ghrība shrines are in places that …

Bône (Būna)

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Annaba (Bône) Norman A. Stillman

Lyon

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Farhād, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Farhād Norman A. Stillman

Women

(23 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah; Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up; Education; Life Cycle Practices; Marriage; Prostitution; Polygyny; Veiling Norman A. Stillman

Academic Study of Islamicate Jewry

(12,763 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Prior to the second half of the twentieth century, much of the research devoted to the Jews of the Islamic world followed in the paths established by the Wissenschaft des Judentums scholars of the nineteenth century and dealt with the history, literature, and thought of the medieval period. Judeo-Arabic civilization was one of the major foci of Wissenschaft scholarship, as too were aspects of Hispanic Jewish history and culture—but only for the classical Islamic Middle Ages (ca. 850–1250) in the…
Date: 2014-09-03

Tiferet Yisrael School (Ar. al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya)

(384 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Tiferet Yisrael (Glory of Israel) School in Beirut, known in Arabic as al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya (The Jewish National School), was established by Ḥakham Zakī Cohen and his son Salīm in 1874. It was one of the first and more successful indigenous attempts to create a modern Jewish religious school in the Arab world. Due to financial difficulties, the school closed after one year, but it reopened as a boarding school in 1878 and attracted students from Damascus, Aleppo, Jaffa, and even as far away as Istanbul and Izmir. By 18…

Isaac Ben Na'im

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Mustaʿrab

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Toshavim Norman A. Stillman

Ioannina

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Yanina (Yanya, Ioannina) Norman A. Stillman

Qajar Dynasty

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iran/Persia Norman A. Stillman

Proverbs

(2,754 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman | Galit Hasan-Rokem | Ora Schwarzwald
1. Judeo-Arabic As in many traditional cultures, Arabic-speaking Jews drew upon a rich lexicon of proverbs, maxims, and aphorisms in both oral and written expression. These gnomic expressions, in addition to being original creations, derived from a variety of sources. The specifically Jewish sources included biblical and rabbinic literature, and the principal non-Jewish source was the local Arab milieu. Specifically Muslim dicta from the Qur’an and ḥadīth rarely entered Judeo-Arabic usage. Rather,…
Date: 2015-09-03

Tamnougalt

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dra’a Norman A. Stillman

Francos

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italian Jews (Benei Roma); Leghorn (Livorno) Norman A. Stillman

HaLevi

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see also Levi Norman A. Stillman

Paris

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman
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