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Pratinas

(722 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Πρατίνας) aus Phleius (Peloponnes), nach der Suda π 2230 (TrGF I 4 T 1) “Erfinder” des Satyrspiels; Sohn eines Pyrrhonides oder Enkomios (sprechende Namen: Sohn des “Rothaars” bzw. des “Mitglieds eines - dionysischen - Komos”; zu den roten Haaren und Bärten von Satyrn vgl. Dioskorides, Anth. Pal. 7,707,3 oder Soph. Ichn. 358). Zwei Lebensdaten sind bezeugt: 499/496 trat er im tragischen Agon gegen Aischylos [1] und Choirilos [2] an (T 1). Das J. 467 ist terminus ante quem für seinen Tod, da in diesem J. sein Sohn Aristias [2] mit Stücken des P. (‘Perseus…

Kommos

(353 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] [1] Hafen auf Kreta Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Dunkle Jahrhunderte | Kolonisation (Κόμμος). Hafenort an der Südküste Kretas, nahe Matala und Phaistos gelegen. In min. Zeit diente das um 2000 v.Chr. gegründete K. wohl bis zu seiner Zerstörung um 1200 v.Chr. als Hafen der Palastanlage von Phaistos. Nach ca. 200jähriger Verödung erfolgte um 1000 v.Chr. eine vermutlich auf phöniz. Impuls zurückgehende Neuansiedlung, die bis zum 4. Jh.v.Chr. zunehmend gräzisiert w…

Monodie

(322 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (μονῳδία). M. und das Verb μονῳδεῖν ( monōideín) finden sich bereits im 5. Jh.v.Chr. als t.t. zur Bezeichnung von Solo-Arien von Schauspielern im Drama (Aristoph. Pax 1012; Aristoph. Thesm. 1077; Aristoph. Ran. 849; 944; 1330). Gelegentlich findet sich eine Gleichsetzung mit Threnos, da ein auffallender Bestandteil der Arien, die Klage (vgl. Aristoph. Vesp. 317-323), auf das gesamte Strukturelement übertragen wurde, wie dies auch bei Wechselgesängen (Kommos [2], Amoibaion) der Fall ist. M. sin…

Phainippos

(313 words)

Author(s): Rathbone, Dominic (London) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φαίνιππος). [English version] [1] att. Gutsbesitzer, um 320 v. Chr. Das Landgut des Ph., Sohn des Kallippos, ist in einer attischen Gerichtsrede aus der Zeit um 320 v.Chr. beschrieben (Ps.-Demosth. or. 42). In dem antídosis -Verfahren verlangt der Kläger, daß Ph. an seiner Stelle auf die Liste der dreihundert reichsten Athener Bürger, die am stärksten mit Liturgien belastet wurden, gesetzt werden sollte (ebd. 42,3f.). Der Besitz des Ph. war aus zwei Gründen außergewöhnlich: Einerseits war Ph. der einzige Erbe seines Vaters und zugleich seines Großvaters müt…

Euphantos

(48 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] aus Olynthos (TrGF 1, 118; FGrH 74), Ende 4., Anf. 3. Jh. v.Chr.; nach Diog. Laert. 2,110 Lehrer des Antigonos [2] Gonatas, dem er eine Schrift ‘Über die Königsherrschaft (Περὶ βασιλείας) widmete. Verf. einer Gesch. über die Diadochenzeit und mehrerer erfolgreicher Tragödien. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Philinos

(563 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker Athener. Ph. schlug vor, alle Theten unter die Hopliten ( hoplítai ) aufzunehmen (Antiph. fr. 61 aus der Rede Katá Philínu). 420/419 v.Chr. wollte er ein gegen ihn eingeleitetes Verfahren wegen Veruntreuung öffentl. Gelder verhindern, indem er unmittelbar vor dem Prozeß einen Philokrates dazu bewog, gegen den Ankläger wegen unabsichtlicher Tötung Klage zu erheben. Bei Annahme der Klage durfte der Ankläger des Ph. keine gehegten Stätten, auch keine Gerichtsstätten ( nómima) mehr betreten (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfri…

Didaskaliai

(671 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(αἱ διδασκαλίαι). [English version] I. Griechisch Abgeleitet von dem Verb διδάσκειν, bedeutet didaskalía (Sg.) allg. “Unterricht”, “Unterweisung” (Pind. P. 4,102; Xen. Kyr. 8,7,24), speziell “Einstudierung eines Chores” (Plat. Gorg. 501e); im Plur. ist d. t.t. für die Listen von Dramen- und Choraufführungen mit den relevanten Informationen: Aufführungsjahr (Archon), Dichter, Titel, Fest, Chorege, Schauspieler. Die Daten wurden wohl in den Archiven der spielleitenden Behörden gespeichert (so jedenfalls in Athen). Aristoteles sam…

Pleias

(110 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Πλειάς). Das “Siebengestirn” der griech. tragischen Dichter zur Zeit des Ptolemaios Philadelphos (285-246 v.Chr.). Die Namenslisten divergieren (wie bei den Sieben Weisen oder den Sieben Weltwundern): Als feste Namen erscheinen Alexandros [21] Aitolos, Lykophron [5] aus Chalkis, Homeros [2] aus Byzantion, Philikos aus Kerkyra, Sositheos aus Alexandreia; dazu kommen Sosiphanes aus Syrakus, Aiantides, Dionysiades aus Tarsos und Euphronios. Mit der Liste wird dem…

Amoibaion

(488 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] Allg. Wechselgesang (Theokr. 8,31), auch Dialog in der Tragödie (Plat. rep. 394b), h. terminologische Festlegung auf Wechselgesang im Drama. In der Aufzählung der Bauteile der Trag. in der ›Poetik‹ (12,1452b 22)unterscheidet Aristoteles als bes. Fälle Bühnenlieder (τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς) und kommoí. Während im ersten Fall nur die Schaupieler beteiligt sind (Monodien, Duette), ist bei den kommoí die Mitwirkung von Schauspielern und Chor entscheidend. Da jedoch bei weitem nicht alle Wechselgesänge zwischen Chor und Schauspieler(n) als Klage…

Kleainetos

(46 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Κλεαίνετος). Tragiker (TrGF I 84), belegte an den Lenäen 363 v.Chr. den 3. Platz; von Alexis als nicht anspruchsvoll (Fr. 268 PCG), von Philodemos (84 T 3 TrGF I) als schlechterer Dichter als Euripides verspottet. Als Titel ist ‘Hypsipyle bezeugt. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Philokles

(802 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Köln) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς). [English version] [1] Athen. Demagoge Athenischer Demagoge. Ph. wurde 406/5 v.Chr. zum stratēgós nachgewählt und mit der Flotte zu Konon [1] nach Samos entsandt. Beide kommandierten dann die Flotte im Hellespont. Zum Strategen wiedergewählt, verschuldete Ph. 405 die Niederlage bei Aigos potamos mit, wurde gefangen und von Lysandros [1] hingerichtet, weil er die Besatzungen von zwei erbeuteten spartan. Trieren hatte ins Meer werfen lassen (Xen. hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysandros 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Griechische Komödie

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG [English version] A. Antike und Mittelalter (RWG) Im Unterschied zur griech. Trag., bei der Wiederaufführungen seit 386 v. Chr. offiziell zugelassen waren, sind inschr. Wiederaufführungen “alter” K. erst seit 339 v. Chr. bezeugt. Wie es scheint, wurden jedoch nicht K. des 5. Jh., sondern Stücke zeitgenössischer Autoren oder von Dichtern der jüngsten Vergangenheit, also aus der Phase der Mittleren oder Neuen K., wieder aufgeführt. Die Alte K. des 5. Jh. mit der für s…

Epeisodion

(108 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (τὸ ἐπεισόδιον, von dem Adj. ἐπεισόδιος, “eingeschoben”). Nach Aristot. poet. 12,1452b 20f. Teil einer Trag., der zw. zwei ganzen Chorpartien (d.h. zw. Parodos und erstem Stasimon oder zw. zwei Stasima) steht. Der Begriff E. findet sich als t.t. nur in der Poetica, andere Autoren sprechen von méros oder mórion. Aristoteles verwendet den Terminus E. in der Poetica auch im allgemeineren Sinn für “Abschnitt”, “Episode” (z.B. 17,1455b 13Aristot. poet. 17,1455b 2.15.18.27.). In der Alten Komödie läßt sich oft der zweite Teil der Stücke in …

Karkinos

(541 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basel) | Visser, Edzard (Basel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Καρκίνος). [English version] [1] verstirnter Krebs Zum Tierkreiszeichen verstirnter Krebs, der Herakles auf Geheiß der Hera in den Fuß beißt, als er mit der Hydra kämpft (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 11). Danach der alexandrinische Monatsname Karkinon (Καρκινών). Walde, Christine (Basel) [English version] [2] Epiker aus Naupaktos, archa. Zeit K. aus Naupaktos, ep. Dichter der archa. Zeit. Bei Paus. 10,38,11 wird mit Verweis auf Charon von Lampsakos K. als Verf. der Ναυπάκτια ἔπη ( Naupáktia épē) genannt, offenbar einer Gesch. dieses am Eingang in den Korinthischen Golf …

Nothippos

(28 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Νόθιππος). Athen. Tragiker (TrGF I 26), von dem Komiker Hermippos in den Moírai (aufgeführt wohl 430 v.Chr.) erwähnt (Fr. 46 PCG). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Protarchos

(253 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter aus Thespiai, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Komödiendichter aus Thespiai, der im 1. Jh. v. Chr. einmal an den Soteria von Akraiphia siegte und Sohn oder Vater des Ependichters Protogenes war; sonst ist nichts bekannt. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [English version] [2] Epikureer aus Bargilia, 2. Jh. v. Chr. P. aus Bargilia. Lehrer des Demetrios [21] Lakon (Strab. 14,20; 2. Jh. v. Chr.), vielleicht in Milet. Daß er epikureisches Schuloberhaupt des “Gartens” ( kḗpos ) war, ist unwahrscheinlich. Dorandi, …

Neophron

(145 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Νεόφρων) aus Sikyon. Tragiker, 2. H. 5. Jh. v.Chr., nach der Suda (TrGF I 15 T 1) Verf. von 120 Stücken, der als erster Pädagogen und die Folterung von Sklaven auf die Bühne gebracht haben soll. Nach der auf peripatetischer Trad. beruhenden Hypothesis zu Euripides' [1] ‘Medea soll das euripideische Drama von N. abhängig sein. Die erh. 24 Verse weisen deutliche Übereinstimmungen mit Euripides auf (bes. Medeas Monolog bei N., Fr. 2 mit Eur. Med. 1021ff., 1236ff.), die Priorität is…

Menekrates

(1,022 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης). [English version] [1] att. Komödiendichter, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Komödiendichter des 5. Jh.v.Chr., von dem noch zwei Stücktitel, Ἑρμιονεύς (oder Ἑρμιόνη?) und Μανέκτωρ (wohl ‘Manes als Hektor), überliefert sind [1. test. 1] sowie aus letzterem ein anapästischer Tetrameter (fr. 1). Ob M. einmal an den Dionysien gewann, ist unsicher [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [English version] [2] Tragiker, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Griech. Tragiker, siegte an den Großen Dionysien 422 v.Chr. (TrGF 35 T 1), vielleicht i…

Thrasycles

(190 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Θρασυκλῆς/ Thrasyklês). [German version] [1] Representative of Athens in the Peace of Nicias, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Athenian, who in 421/0 BC requested the proxenía for a resident of the Peloponnese (IG I3 80,7) and belonged to those who swore an oath on the truce and the alliance between Sparta and Athens in the so-called Peace of Nicias [1] in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 412/1, T. was strategos along with Strombichides in the campaign to Asia Minor (Thuc. 8,15,1; 17,3; 19,2). Peloponnesian War Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 517180 Develin 157; 141. …

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Satyr play

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(σατυρικὸν δρᾶμα, satyrikòn drâma). [German version] A. Origins As in the case of Greek tragedy, the debate on the origins of the SP also starts with an observation in Aristotle's Poetics. According to Aristot. Poet. 1449a 19 ff., tragedy had initially dealt with minor topics in a humorous language and only later acquired its appropriate solemnity, because it had developed from the satyresque (ἐκ σατυρικοῦ, ek satyrikoû) and its original nature had been more that of a dance (ὀρχηστικωτέρα, orchēstikōtéra). Aristotle thus did not claim in any way that tragedy had developed…

Theudotus

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θεύδοτος; Theúdotos). Greek tragedian (TrGF I 157), victorious with the satyr play Palamedes presumably in Magnesia [2] in the 1st cent. BC (DID A 13,5). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Pharadas

(29 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φαράδας; Pharádas) from Athens; was successful with a satyr play after 85 BC at the Museia in Thespiae (Boeotia) (TrGF I 173). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Mamercus

(147 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC (Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos). Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC mentioned in Plut. Timoleon 31,1 (TrGF I 87). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Praenomen Praenomen exclusively used by the Patrician gens of the Aemilii (also used there as a cognomen, but never for freedmen); shortened to Mam.; Greek Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos. First attested for the father of Aemilius [I 25], traced back to M., son of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 8,18f.). The name also occurs in Oscan (Μαμερεκς/ Mamereks) and in Etruscan ( Mamarce, Mamerce, Mamurke, 7th-5t…

Spintharus

(65 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Σπίνθαρος; Spíntharos). Tragic poet (TrGF I 40), according to Suda σ 945 author of a Heracles burned and a ‘ Semele struck by lightning. Since Heraclides [16] Ponticus (fr. 13 Wehrli) describes him as an old man, he cannot be identical to the Phrygian S. mentioned in Aristoph. Av. 762, but must have lived in the 4th cent. BC. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Moschion

(705 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Piccione, Rosa Maria
(Μοσχίων/ Moschíōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, 3rd cent. BC Athenian tragedian, probably 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC, known almost solely through quotations by Stobaeus. Titles attested include ‘Telephos and two historical dramas: ‘Themistokles, at the heart of which was probably the naval battle at Salamis, following on from Aeschylus' ‘Persians, with the distinction that M. made Themistocles the protagonist; and ‘The Pheraeans, probably dealing with the death of Alexander [15] of Pherae. A lengthy f…

Phaenippus

(346 words)

Author(s): Rathbone, Dominic (London) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Φαίνιππος; Phaínippos). [German version] [1] Attic landowner, around 320 BC The country estate of P., son of Callippus, is described in an Attic court speech around 320 BC (Ps.-Dem. Or. 42). In the antídosis proceedings the plaintiff demands that P. should be placed on the list of the three hundred richest Athenian citizens, who bore the heaviest burden of the financial cost of liturgies ( ibidem 42,3f.), instead of himself. P.’ property was unusual for two reasons: on the one hand, P. was the only heir of his father and, at the same time, of his grandfather on h…

Mnesilochus

(103 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μνησίλοχος/ Mnēsílochos). [German version] [1] see Mnasilochus See Mnasilochus Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Father-in-law of Euripides Father-in-law of Euripides [1], of the deme of Phlya. In our sources, the daughter's name varies between Choerile and Melito. In the hypothesis to Aristophanes' ‘Thesmophoriazousai the kēdēstḗs (close relative) of Eupolis is incorrectly identified with M. (also in manuscript R). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Euripides, Herakles I 1895, 7. [German version] [3] Secon…

Cleitus

(556 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλειτός, Κλεῖτος, Κλῖτος; Kleitós, Kleîtos, Klîtos, ‘The Famous One’). [German version] [1] Nephew of the seer Melampus Nephew of the famous seer  Melampus, son of Mantius, father of Coeranus. He was abducted by Eos because of his beauty (Hom. Od. 15,249f.; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 115a). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Great nephew of C. [1] Great nephew of C. [1], son of Polyidus and Eurydameia. He and his brother Euchenor marched with the Epigones ( Epigoni [2]) against Thebes and then joined Agamemnon (Pherecydes ibid.). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [3] Son of…

Polyidus

(381 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Börm, Henning (Kiel) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολύιδος/ Polýidos, Latin Polyidus). [German version] [1] Mythical seer and miracle-worker from Corinth ('of wide learning'). Mythical seer and miracle-worker from Corinth (cf. Cic. Leg. 2,33), descendant of Melampus [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 115a; Paus. 1,43,5), spouse of Eurydameia, father of Euchenor (Hom. Il. 13,663-668; cf. Cic. Div. 1,89), Cleitus [2], Astycrateia and Manto (not identical with the seeress Manto). His powers are testified to by numerous accounts of his assitence: in Corinth, for example…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Psalmody

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Zimmermann, Heidy (Basle) | Haas, Max (Basle)
[German version] I. Definition Psalmody (Greek ψαλμῳδία/ psalmōidía; Latin psalmodia) is the singing of psalms; in medieval Latin, it is a technical term for a particular psalm tone (a recitation formula). In music, psalmody is used more generally as a collective term for all musical genres whose texts are largely taken from the Psalter (Psalms). Its significance is even greater if one considers that the psalms are seen as the most important model in the development of liturgical poetry. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] II. Jewish culture In the temple, psalms were…

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Hypothesis

(474 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(ὑπόθεσις; hypóthesis). Introduction, summary. [German version] A. History of literature Three types can be distinguished in tragedy: 1. The hypothéseis of  Aristophanes [4] of Byzantium found in the Peripatetic tradition ( Dicaearchus fr. 78 Wehrli); they contain a brief summary, point to the treatment of the same material by another tragedian, name the setting, the identity of the chorus and the speaker of the prologue and give further information on the play's performance (dating, title of the author's other p…

Perdix

(132 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πέρδιξ/ Pérdix , also called Talus or Calus), great-grandson of Erechtheus, nephew of  Daedalus [1], whose skill he surpassed - he is considered the inventor of, among other things, the saw and the compass (Ov. Met. 8,246ff.; Hyg. Fab. 39; Verg. G. 1,143) - and who therefore threw him to his death from the Acropolis  (Soph. fr. 323 TrGF; Hyg. Hab. 39). In Ov. Met. 8,251-253 P. is rescued by Athena, who turns him into a partridge ( perdix), which watches the burial of Daedalus's son Icarus [1], who also fell to his death, maliciously applauding with its wings ( ibid. 236ff.). Ac…

Didaskaliai

(700 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(αἱ διδασκαλίαι; hai didaskalíai). [German version] I. Greek Derived from the verb διδάσκειν, the singular didaskalía has the general meaning of ‘teaching’, ‘instruction’ (Pind. Pyth. 4,102; Xen. Cyr. 8,7,24) and in a special sense of ‘choral training’ (Pl. Grg. 501e); in the plural it is a technical term for lists of dramatic and choral productions with associated details: year of performance (archon), poet, title, festival, choregos, actors. The entries were made in the archive of the authority responsible for the production, such at least was the case in A…

Thespis

(238 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θέσπις; Théspis) from Icarium [1] in the Attic deme of Icaria [1. 49], according to one tradition attested on the  Marmor Parium (43) the ‘inventor’ ( prôtos heuretḗs ) of tragedy (TrGF I 1 T 2), according to another (Suda θ 282 = T 1) the sixteenth or second tragedian after Epigenes [0] of Sicyon. Between 535/4 and 532/1, he is supposed to have presented the first tragedy at the great Dionysia in Athens (but cf. [3]) and is considered to be the inventor of theatrical masks (made of linen, T 1). By adding a prologue ( prólogos) and a  rhêsis , he transf…

Moschus

(655 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Μόσχος; Mόschos). [German version] [1] From Elis, pupil of Phaidon M. from Elis, with Anchipylus a pupil (or pupil of a pupil) of Phaedon of Elis and teacher of Asclepiades [3] of Phleius and Menedemus [5] of Eretria. According to an ancient piece of gossip M. and Anchipylus are supposed to have subsisted only on water and figs their whole lives (Diog. Laert. 2,126; Athen. 2,44c). M. is presumably identical with the homonymous person whose name is the title of a dialogue by Stilpon (Diog. Laert. 2,120). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography SSR III E. [German version] [2] M. from Lampsacus…

Deus ex machina

(407 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θεὸς ἀπὸ μηχανῆς; theòs apò mēchanês). Crane-like stage machinery (μηχανή, γέρανος, κράδη; mēchanḗ, géranos, krádē) that became proverbial as early as the 4th cent. BC, by which a deity could suddenly appear hovering and traversing the air, and imbue the plot with fresh momentum or bring it to an end (cf. Pl. Cleit. 407a; Crat. 425d; Antiphanes 189,13-16 PCG; Alexis 131,9 PCG; Men. Theophorumene fr. 5 Sandbach = 227 Körte; Cic. Nat. D. 1,53). Its use in the parodies of Aristophanes (Pax 174ff.…

Cleophon

(216 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλεοφῶν; Kleophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC, lyre-maker, apparently not very wealthy (Lys. 19.48). In 410 C. introduced the   diobelía , a maintenance payment to needy citizens ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 28,3). According to Diodorus (13,53,2) he brought about in 410/409, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 34,1 in 406/5, the rejection of peace negotiations with Sparta, though these could have been duplicates of his measures in…

Sosistratus

(321 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σωσίστρατος/ Sōsístratos). [German version] [1] Oligarch in Syracuse, second half of the 4th cent. BC From c. 330 BC leader with Heraclides of the Oligarchy of the Six Hundred in Syracusae. Although he was suspected by Agathocles [2] of aspirations to tyranny, his successes in the war of Croton with the Bruttii confirmed his position in Syracuse (Diod. 19,3,3-5). After a military failure against Rhegium he was banished from Syracuse c. 322 (Diod. 19,4,3), but he and his followers were able to return under Acestoridas; after Agathocles seized power in 316/5, howe…

Sostratus

(572 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Σώστρατος/ Sṓstratos). [German version] [1] Of Cnidus, Greek architect, 1st half of 3rd cent. BC Son of Dexiphanes of Cnidus; architect of the early Hellenistic period (1st half of 3rd cent. BC), mentioned several times in ancient literature (Plin. HN 36,83; Lucian, Amores 11; Lucian, Hippias 2). He was also diplomatically active, as one of the philoi of Ptolemaeus [3] II (Str. 17,1,6). As well as with various canal constructions linked to the conquest of the Egyptian city of Memphis and buildings at Cnidus and Delphi (FdD III/1 nos. 198 and 299), h…

Silenus

(365 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σιληνός; Silēnós). [German version] [1] S. from Caleacte Greek historian, 2nd cent. BC Greek historian, like Sosylus in the retinue of Hannibal [4], 'as long as fate allowed it' (FGrH 175 T 2 in Nep. Hann. 13,3). Author of an 'official' history of Hannibal (F 1-2) and of Sikeliká in 4 books (F 3-9). S. was used by Coelius [I 1] Antipater (F 2); perhaps Polybius's criticism (3,47,6-48,12) of 'a number of' Hannibal historians concerning Hannibal's crossing the Alps is aimed at S., in whose work dreams, omens etc. play an important role (F 2). …

Choregia

(217 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ χορηγία; hē chorēgía). Office of the choregos; from c. 500 BC a special form of   leitourgia in Athens. The choregia was imposed on prosperous citizens by the appropriate archon, and young notables were glad to use this kind of leiturgia in order to win political esteem (in 472 Pericles was choregos for Aeschylus' ‘Persians; cf. also Thuc. 6,16,3 on Alcibiades). The political significance of the choregia becomes especially clear in the dithyrambic agon, where it is not the poet but the choregos who is named in the inscription ( Didaskaliai). Towards the end o…

Timesitheus

(44 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Tragedian (Τιμησίθεος; Timēsítheos). Greek tragedian, mentioned in the Suda (τ 613), not datable. According to Suda τ 613, author of 11 tragedies (TrGF I 214). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] see Furius [II 5] see Furius [II 5]

Epigenes

(499 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἐπιγένης; Epigénēs). [German version] [0] Of Sicyon, Greek tragedian, 6th cent. BC E. of  Sicyon. According to the Suda s. v.  Thespis (θ 282 = TrGF I 1 T 1), the first tragedian (6th cent. BC). The audience supposedly reacted to the lack of Dionysiac content in his plays with the proverbial exclamation οὐδὲν πρὸς τὸν Διόνυσον ( oudèn pròs tòn Diónyson, ‘But this has nothing to do with  Dionysus!’; TrGF I 1 T 18,3). Perhaps E.'s activity may be related to the τραγικοὶ χοροί ( tragikoì choroí, ‘tragic choruses’) attested for Sicyon in Hdt. 5,67 [2. 21-23].  Tragedy I Zimmermann, Bernhard (Fr…

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Agathon

(566 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἀγάθων; Agáthōn). [German version] [1] Attic tragedian Attic tragedian, c. 455- c. 401 BC, son of Tisamenus (Schol. Lucian. Rhetorum Praeceptor 11). According to Ath. 5,217b he achieved his first Lenaean victory in 416. The post-victory celebration of this win forms the historical background to Plato's Symposium. In 411 he is made fun of in the Thesmophoriazusae of Aristophanes, and in the same year he is defended in court by Antiphon [4]. Like Euripides, he left Athens before 405 (cf. Aristoph. Ran. 83-5, Ael. VH 13,4) and made his way to the court…

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Cleaenetus

(50 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Κλεαίνετος; Kleaínetos). Tragedian (TrGF I 84), won the 3rd place at the Lenaeans in 363 BC; mocked by  Alexis as not exacting (Fr. 268 PCG), by  Philodemus (84 T 3 TrGF I) as a worse poet than Euripides. ‘Hypsipyle’ is attested as a title. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Theodorides

(35 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θεοδωρίδης; TheodōrÍdēs). Greek tragedian (TrGF I 78 A), took second place at the Athenian Lenaea in 363 BC with a Medea and a Phaethon (DID A 2b, 94). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Morsimus

(50 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μόρσιμος; Mόrsimos). Son of Philocles, great-nephew of Aeschylus [1] (TrGF I 12 T 3), middle of the 5th cent. BC, oculist (TrGF I 29 T 2) and tragedian, the latter according to Aristophanes (Equ. 401, Pax 802, Ran. 151) of particularly poor quality. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Theatre

(2,540 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A.Late Antiquity/ Middle Ages (CT) There is, to be sure, evidence for the existence of sporadic performances of Greek tragedies up into 4th cent. AD and plays by Plautus and Terence continued to be performed as late as the 3rd/4th. cents., but on the whole, tragedies and comedies had largely disappeared from the theatre programme of the Roman Imperial Age. The stage of that age, however, was not devoid of dramatic, sub-literary genres [5]. They included mimes, pantomimes and the fabulae cantatae, i.e. tragic isolated scenes perfor…

Philinus

(600 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος; Philînos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician Athenian. P. proposed absorbing all thetai (thetes) into the hoplites ( hoplítai ) (Antiph. fr. 61 from the speech Katà Philînou). In 420/419 BC, he attempted to prevent a case brought against him for the improper use of public funds by inciting one Philocrates to raise a charge of accidental killing against the accuser immediately before the trial. Once the charge was accepted, P.' accuser was no longer permitted to enter any protected places, including places of justice ( nómima) (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfrie…

Polyphrasmon

(60 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πολυφράσμων/ Polyphrásmōn). Son of Phrynichus [1], tragedian, first victory between 482 and 471 (DID A 3a, 13), successful at the Dionysia in 471  (DID A 1, 22). In 467 he is recorded as third to Aeschylus [1], who won with his Theban trilogy, and Pratinas' son Aristias [2] with his trilogy Lykourgeia (TrGF I 7). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Stichomythia

(484 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (στιχομυθία/ stichomythía). A form of dialogue in ancient drama in which two persons - or, more rarely, three -  speak in regular turns. It was first documented as a technical term in Poll. 4,113, but a description of the dramatic technique of 'dialogue intensification' [6] appears as early as in Aeschylos [1] (Eum. 585 f.). The origins of stichomythia are unknown (initiation rites: [8. 201], folk customs: [2. 95-106]). Under the general heading of the technique of stichomythia, sc…

Rhesis

(452 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ ῥῆσις/ hē rhêsis), generally 'speech' (Hom. Od. 21,291). As early as the 5th cent. BC, rhesis was a technical term for a speech in a play, especially in a tragedy (for the concept cf. Aristoph. Ach. 416, Nub. 1371, Vesp. 580, Ran. 151; Aristot. Poet. 1454a 31, 1456a 31). The length of a rhesis varies from c. 7 to over 100 verses (Eur. Ion 1122-1228, Phoen. 1090-1199, Bacch. 1043-1152). The most important function of rhḗseis in the context of the storyline is to supply information. The requisite details which are important for the storyline are frequen…

Phanostratus

(27 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φανόστρατος; Phanóstratos) of Halicarnassus. Tragedian, probably successful at the Attic Lenaea in 306 BC. TrGF I 94 = DID B7. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Timocles

(419 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Τιμοκλῆς/ Timoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian author of comedies, 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Important Athenian author of comedies in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC to whom the Suda [1 test. 1] attributes 20 plays (divided into two authors by the same name who in reality are identical). 28 titles have been transmitted (uncertain: Geōrgós, 'The Farmer') and altogether 42 fragments. Only one win is recorded on the Lenaean list of winners [1 test. 3], two places ahead of Menander [4]. T.' active period lasted from the 340s (allusion to the Halon…

Neophron

(158 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Νεόφρων; Neóphrōn) of Sicyon. Tragedian, 2nd half of 5th cent. BC; according to the Suda (TrGF I 15 T 1) the author of 120 plays, and the first to depict tutors and the torture of slaves on the stage. According to the hypothesis of Euripides' [1] ‘Medea arising from the Peripatetic tradition, the Euripidean drama is said to have derived from N. The 24 surviving verses show clear concordances with Euripides (esp. Medea's monologue in N. fragment 2, cf. Eur. Med. 1021ff., 1236ff.); …

Stasimon

(504 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (τὸ στάσιμον /tò stásimon; derived from the adjective stásimos, 'standing'). In the list of structural forms (μέρη/ mérē) of the tragedy (I.), Aristotle (Poet. 1452b 22-24) distinguishes - among the chorus parts - the párodos from the stasima, which he defines as chorus songs that have no anapest or trochee, thus no recited verses, which are used primarily in the parodos [1]. The term stasimon must not be understood in the sense that the chorus was 'standing' while it sang the song, rather that the chorus performed i…

Trilogy

(41 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ τριλογία/ hē trilogía). From Hellenistic philology onwards a term for three tragedies, without the concluding satyr play, performed during the Great Dionysia at Athens (cf. Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 1124) [1. 80]. Tetralogy; Tragedy I. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography 1 Pickard-Cambridge/Gould/Lewis.

Pleias

(125 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πλειάς/ Pleiás). The 'Constellation of Seven' Greek tragic poets during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Ptolemaeus [I 3] II Philadelphus) (285-246 BC). The list of names varies (as with those of the Seven Sages and the Seven Wonders of the World); certain are: Alexander [21] Aetolus, Lycophron [5] of Chalcis, Homerus [2] of Byzantium,  Philicus of Corcyra and Sositheus of Alexandria; also mentioned are: Sosiphanes [2] of Syracuse, Aeantides, Dionysiades of Tarsus and Euphronius…

Zenodotus

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος/ Zēnódotos). [German version] [1] Of Ephesus, Alexandrian philologist Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus ( c. 325-260 BC; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] I. Life Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus Z. was employed as tutor to the royal princes at the Ptolemaic court before his appointment in 285/4 BC as the first director [1. 147-148] of the library (II B 2.a) in Alexandria [1]. In addition to a classification of Greek poetry (most notably epic and lyric works), Z. developed in …

Sositheus

(117 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Σωσίθεος/ Sōsítheos) from Alexandria [2] in the Troad, Satyr playwright and tragedian of the Pleias, first half of the 3rd century BC (TrGF I 99). According to the Suda (σ 860) he is also supposed to have written poetry and prose (T 1). In a fictitious burial epigram Dioscurides [3] (Anth. Pal. 7,707 = T 2) praises him as a reviver of the satyr play, taking his direction from Pratinas. 24 verses survive from Daphnis or Lityerses, presumably a satyr play, about the love of Daphnis and the nymph Thalia, their being taken prisoner by Lityerses and presumabl…

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús). Son of Dolius [2], brother of Melantho [2], treacherous goatherd of Odysseus, negative counterpart to the swineherd Eumaeus and the cowherd Philoetius (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos, 499/8 BC Athenian strategos who led the troops sent in support of the Ionians when they revolted in 499/8 (Hdt. 5,97). Ionian Revolt Stein-Hö…

Harmodius

(193 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁρμόδιος; Harmódios). [German version] [1] Harmodius of Athens Tyrantmurderer, 514 BC conspired with  Aristogiton [1] and others in order to murder the tyrants  Hippias [1] and  Hipparchus [1] during the Panathenaea in 514 BC. However, they only managed to kill Hipparchus. H. was also killed during this assassination attempt (Hdt. 5,55-58; Thuc. 1,20; 6,54-59; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 18). For Thucydides, the motivation for the conspiracy was purely personal: H. and his sister had suffered humiliation after H. …

Lysistratus

(146 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λυσίστρατος; Lysístratos). [German version] [1] Tragedian from Chalcis, 1st cent. BC from Chalcis. Tragedian, after 85 BC he was victorious at the Amphiaraia ( Amphiaraus) and Romaia in Oropus. His works are not extant. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, brother and collaborator of Lysippus [2]. By making plaster casts of living people, L. is said to have improved the similarity of portraits to their subjects, to have based his work on clay models and to have made…

Anagnorisis

(546 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (also anagnorismos: ἡ ἀναγνώρισις, ὁ ἀναγνωρισμός; hē anagnṓrisis, ho anagnōrismós). According to Aristot. Poet. 11,1452a-b, anagnorisis is the technical term for the ‘Recognition’ in drama. Aristotle defined anagnorisis as a transition from unknowing into knowing, with the effect that friendship is changed into enmity and vice versa. To him, that anagnorisis is the most dramatic, which occurs simultaneously with   peripeteia . Aristotle differentiated three varieties of anagnorisis with reference to the object: the recognition of persons, of ina…

Philoxenides

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φιλοξενίδης; Philoxenídēs) from Oropos, writer of satyr plays; after 85 BC he achieved success at the Amphiaraea and Romaea festivals in Oropus (TrGF I 170). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Publius

(129 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Common Roman praenomen , abbreviated by the siglum P.; earliest evidence Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; c. 500 BC; Lapis Satricanus), thereafter Greek Πόπλιος ( Póplios). The name is etymologically linked to populus (‘army’ > ‘people’). A derivation from Etruscan must be rejected since the rare Etruscan word Puplie was inherited from an Italic language. The shift of poplico- to pūblico- (following pūbēs) was also adopted for the praenomen and its derivative Pūblīlius, the nomen gentile. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian of Rome who wrote in Gr…

Monologue

(604 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] ‘Soliloquy’ (the term ‘monologue’ is not of ancient origin; it was only Augustinus who coined the term soliloquium, cf. Aug. retract. 1,4,1), special form of speech ( rhḗsis ) found in various literary genres. In distinguishing monologue in its proper sense from other forms of rhḗseis, such as a messenger's report (messenger scenes), the criterion should not be the length of the monologue, but only the communication situation [4. 180 f.]: the solitude or isolation of the speaker, who is not addressing his speech to a listene…

Patrocles

(438 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πατροκλῆς; Patroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian office holder, end of the 5th cent. BC Athenian, árchōn basileús in (404/)403 BC; a relative of Isocrates, who defended him (Isoc. Or. 18,5). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Develin, 94 Nr. 1  Traill, PAA 768600. [German version] [2] Accuser of Demosthenes An Athenian from Phlya; his accusation of paranomia (Paranomon graphe) against Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,5) was unanimously rejected and cost him a fine of 500 drachmas. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 768710. [German version] [3] Gree…

Zotion

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ζωτίων; Zōtíōn) from Ephesus. Only the name of this Greek tragic poet from the middle of the 2nd cent. BC is recorded (TrGF I 133). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Peripeteia

(187 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ περιπέτεια/ hē peripéteia). Literally 'turn-about, reversal' of a situation, mostly of fate, often unexpected and as a rule from good to bad (e.g. Aristot. Rhet. 1371b 10). The concept is central to Aristotle's Poetics (Poet. 11,1452a 22-29), where P. is defined as the reversal of what was to be achieved into its opposite. This should happen by probability (κατὰ τὸ εἰκός) or by necessity (κατὰ τὸ ἀναγκαῖον). Together with  anagnorisis P. is a characteristic of complex narrative structures ('plots', μῦθοι πεπλεγ…

Sophocles

(4,433 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Σοφοκλῆς/ Sophoklês). [German version] [1] Attic tragedian, 5th cent. BC The 5th cent. BC Attic tragedian Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Life Attischer Tragiker des 5. Jh. v. Chr. The most important records are the vita which has survived in several manuscripts and the Suda (σ 815); the complete testimonies have been collected in TrGF, vol. 4. S. was born in 497/6 BC as the son of Sophilus from the Attic deme of Colonus. In 480 he is said to have intoned the paean at the victory celebrations after the b…

Dithyramb

(963 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ὁ διθύραμβος; dithýrambos). Choral song in honour of  Dionysus. The origin and meaning of this term has caused much speculation since ancient times. The word itself is certainly not a Greek, perhaps a Phrygian composition; most likely from a combination of íambos (ἴαμβος; two-step) and thríambos (θρίαμβος; three-step) [1]. In a contested passage of his Poetics (Aristot. Poet. 4,1449a 10-13) Aristotle makes the dithyramb the harbinger of tragedy ─ or, say others [2], of comedy. Three phases can be distinguished in the history of the genre: the pre-litera…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Tetralogy

(245 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ τετραλογία/ hē tetralogía). Originally a technical term in rhetoric to describe four speeches treating the same case from different perspectives (Antiphon [4] A.), later also used to summarize the Platonic dialogues in groups of four (Diog. Laert. 3,57; Plato [1] C. 1. - 2.). Since the Hellenistic era, philology has used the term primarily for four theatre pieces connected by content: three tragedies (Trilogy) and one satyr play [2. 80 f.]. The 'originator' of the tetralogy was probably Aeschylus [1]; his Oresteia (458 BC) survives (without the satyr play)…

Monody

(365 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (μονῳδία; m onōidía). Monody and the verb μονῳδεῖν ( monōideîn) are found already in the 5th century BC as technical terms used to describe solo arias by actors in drama (Aristoph. Pax 1012; Aristoph. Thesm. 1077; Aristoph. Ran. 849; 944; 1330). Occasionally they are equated with Threnos, as a notable component of the arias, the complaint (see Aristoph. Vesp. 317-323), was transferred to the whole structural element, as is also the case with antiphonal songs (Kommos [2], Amoibaion). M. are the musical high points in the tragedies of Euripides [1] in particular. According…

Antiphellus

(182 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀντίφελλος; Antíphellos). Lycian harbour town, modern Kas̨; it may have originally been named Habesos (Plin. HN 5,100). In the 5th/4th cents. BC, A. belonged to  Phellus, was listed in Ps.-Scyl. 100 as πόλις καὶ λιμήν ( pólis kai limḗn, town and port), and, in the 2nd cent. BC, minted its own coins as an independent polis within the Lycian Confederacy [1; 2]. Municipal offices and institutions reveal Rhodian influence, originating from the Rhod…

Amoibaion

(495 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Generally antiphonal singing (Theoc. 8,31), also dialogue in tragedy (Pl. Resp. 394b), today terminologically established as antiphonal singing in the drama. In the listing of the components of the tragedy in ‘Poetics’ (12,1452b 22) Aristotle differentiates songs for the stage (τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς) and kommoi as special cases. Whereas in the first instance only the actors are involved (monodies, duets), with the kommoi the collaboration of actors and chorus is decisive. As, however, not all antiphonal singing between choir and actor(s) can be d…

Actus

(559 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Legal action An action, especially a legal action (Dig. 49,1,12) i. a. defining characteristic of   alienatio : omnis a., per quem dominium transfertur, Cod. Iust. 5,23,1. Formal legal actions in accordance with the old   ius civile , e.g. the   mancipatio , are described as acti legitimi. Any added condition renders them ineffective. Additionally, actus can mean a utility (  servitus ), for example the right to drive draught animals and beasts of burden over a plot of land, including the right of way ( iter, Dig. 8,3,1pr.). This actus is a res mancipi, and is obtained i…

Epiparodos

(60 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] The return of the chorus after it had left the orchestra during the performance of a play (μετάστασις χοροῦ; metástasis choroû, cf. Poll. 4,108), as in: Aesch. Eum. 231, 244; Soph. Aj. 814, 866 ; Eur. Alc. 746, 861, Hel. 385, 515, Rhes. 564, 674 ; Aristoph. Eccl. 310, 478.  Parodos Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography O. Taplin, The Stagecraft of Aeschylus, 1977, 377-381.

Epeisodion

(118 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (τὸ ἐπεισόδιον; tó epeisódion, from the adjective ἐπεισόδιος; epeisódios, ‘inserted’). According to Aristot. Poet. 12,1452b 20f. part of a tragedy between two entire chorus parts (that is between the  parodos and the first   stasimon or between two stasima). The term epeisodion is found as a technical term only in the Poetica, other authors speak of a méros or mórion. Aristotle also uses the terminus epeisodion in the Poetica in a more general sense for ‘section’, ‘episode’ (e.g. 17,1455b 13 Aristot. Poet. 17,1455b 2.15.18.27.). In the Old Comedy,…

Pratinas

(743 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πρατίνας/ Pratínas) of Phlius (in the Peloponnese), according to the Suda π 2230 (TrGF I 4 T 1) the inventor of the satyr play; son of a Pyrrhonides or Encomius (descriptive names: son of a 'red-head' or of 'a member of a - Dionysian - komos'; on the red hair and beards of satyrs cf. Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 7,707,3 and  Soph. Ichn. 358). Two dates are attested for his life: between 499 and 496 he entered a tragedic agon against Aeschylus [1] and Choerilus [2] (T 1); and 467 is a  terminus ante quem for his death: that year his son Aristias [2] entered with plays by P. ('…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Pyrrha

(494 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Πύρρα/ Pýrrha). [German version] [1] Daughter of Epimetheus In Greek mythology daughter of Epimetheus (brother of Prometheus) and Pandora and wife of  Deucalion. She and her husband were the only people to survive the flood sent over the earth by Zeus to punish the people of the Bronze Age; on the advice of Prometheus they built a boat on which they sailed around for nine days and nine nights. Deucalion and P. created a new race of people (Pind. Ol. 9,43-56; Ov. Met. 1,318-415), by - on the instruction…

Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος/ Nikómachos). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws ( anagrapheîs tôn nómōn). Exiled under the Thirty ( triákonta ), he returned in 403 and again became anagrapheús. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his …

Meletus

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος; Mélētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, c. 415 B.C. Athenian. In the year 415 BC he was denounced for having participated in the profanation of the mysteries and the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the). He fled from Attica and was condemned to death in absentia (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Possibly the same as M., the great-grandson of the Alcmaeonid Megacles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825 Traill, PAA 639290. [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Andocides, 400 B.C. Athenian; along with Socrates and others he was ordere…

Nothippus

(30 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Νόθιππος; Nóthippos). Athenian tragedian (TrGF I 26), mentioned by the comic poet Hermippus in his Moîrai (prob. performed 430 BC) (Fr. 46 PCG). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Pereus

(37 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Περεύς; Pereús). Son of the Arcadian king Elatus [3] and Laodice; father of Neaera [3] who was the wife of Aleus [1], the founder of Tegea (Paus. 8,4,4; Apollod. 3,102). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Philoxenides

(25 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Φιλοξενίδης) aus Oropos, Satyrspieldichter, nach 85 v.Chr. an den Amphiaraia und Romaia in Oropos erfolgreich (TrGF I 170). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Morychos

(20 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] Tragiker des ausgehenden 5. Jh.v.Chr., nach Aristophanes-Scholien wegen seiner Schlemmerei bekannt (TrGF I 30 T 1-3). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Kritias

(355 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Κριτίας) aus Athen, geb. um 460 v.Chr., entstammte einer alten att. Adelsfamilie, mütterlicherseits war er Onkel von Platon. Wie Alkibiades [3] gehörte er dem Kreis um Sokrates an. Polit. zählte er zu den antidemokratischen Kräften: 415 wurde er der Teilnahme am Hermokopidenfrevel bezichtigt, 411 war er Mitglied im oligarchischen Rat der 400 (Tetrakosioi). Nach der demokratischen Restauration hielt er sich bis 404 in Thessalien auf, nach der athenischen Niederlage 404 war er ein…
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