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Fundi

(315 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Aurunci in Latium adiectum at the foot of the montes Fundani (Tac. Ann. 4,59) on the via Appia between Tarracina and Formiae, 74 miles from Rome, modern Fondi (Latina). In 338 or 332 BC together with  Formiae civitas sine suffragio (Liv. 8,14,10; Vell. Pat. 1,14,4), F. then sided with the Privernati (Liv. 8,19). In 188 BC F. and Formiae belonged to the tribus Aemilia ( cum suffragio); F. was a praefectura; in 174 it obtained an aqueduct through the Roman censores (Liv. 41,27,11). F. was a municipium with three aediles and had a cult of Hercules. Under Augustus F. was a c…

Vicus Aventia

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (vulgarly also Vicoventia). Vicus (cf. CIL V 2383; XI 421) in Regio VIII (Aemilia;  cf. Regio , with map). It flourished from the 1st cent. AD as an administrative centre of the saltus regionis Padanae Vercellensium Ravennatium (cf. ILS 1509). Documented from 431 AD as a suffragan bishopric of Ravenna (Petrus Chrysologus, Sermo 175). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, Insediamenti, viabilità e commerci, in: N. Alfieri (ed.), Storia di Ferrara, vol. 3, 1989, 57-60.

Luca

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Caesar | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Coloniae City on the fossilized (that is, practically dried-up) tributary of the Auser (modern Serchio), which in ancient times flowed into the Arno at Pisa, today Lucca; last colonia of Latin law, founded in 180 BC by Rome on the territory of the Pisani (Liv. 40,43,1); from 89 BC municipium of the tribus Fabia. Important road junction (It. Ant. 283ff.; Tab. Peut. 4,1); in 56 BC the so-called triumvirate between Caesar, Po…

Planasia

(27 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum off Etruria, modern Pianosa. Prehistorical finds, villa of Agrippa [2] Postumus, catacombs. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 13, 535-546.

Mons Albanus

(205 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volcanic massif (956 m) in Latium Vetus (Latini), modern-day Monte Cavo, southeast of Rome (from it derives the term lapis Albanus,  a grey-coloured peperino or volcanic tuff used in buildings in Rome). The centre of cult worship originally lay beneath Alba Longa in a grove, then later in the temple of Iuppiter Latiaris ( templum Iovis Latiaris, CIL XIV 2227) 20 miles from Rome, where , in spring, the Latins and Romans sacrificed a white bull on occasion of the feriae Latinae and organised games in the presence of all the  magistrates.The grove of Diana Nemorensis ( nemus D…

Frentani

(240 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Samnite tribe on the Adriatic coast (Str. 5,4,2). The name is derived from the dissimilation of the place name [1] * Frentrum, which in turn was inferred through numismatical ( Frentrei) and inscriptional ( Frentra[ni]) methods [2]. The F. settled on the slopes of the regio VII that fall away towards the Adriatic, between the Maiella mountains and the coastal region surrounded by Ortona, the valleys of the Sagrus (Sangro), the Trinius (Trigno), the Tifernus, and the Frento (Fortore). In the west, the tribal area bordered on t…

Alba Fucens

(199 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Coloniae Latin   colonia with 6,000 colonists, founded as a fortification to control a road junction in 304 BC (Liv. 10. 1. 2) in the area of the  Aequi: the later via Valeria (between Rome and the Adriatic;   decumanus of the city laid out at right angles) and a road that connected Etruria with Campania along the Liris met there. Served as place of exile for Syphax, for Perseus and for Bituitus. Decline since the 3rd cent.…

Padusa

(112 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Marshy region on the river Eridanus, which had originated from a southern arm of the Padus (Po) in the period of Early History and had dried up in the Roman period. The fossil river bed was used in the construction of the fossa Augusta , the navigable canal between Padus and Classis which was the port for Ravenna (cf. Plin. HN 3,119). P. is associated with the myth of Phaethon and Cycnus [3] (Diod. Sic.5,23,3). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Gambi, Cosa era la Padusa, 1950  G. Uggeri, La Romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 49  Id., Insediamenti, viab…

Tamarus

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Calor (modern Calore) in the territory of the Hirpini, modern Tammaro. It rises in the region of Saepinum, crosses the Ager Taurasinus, touches Forum Novum (modern Sant' Arcangelo) and into the Calor at Beneventum; stretches of it are flanked by the via Minucia (station Super Thamari fluvium:  It. Ant. 103,1) and the via Traiana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Miller, 370 G. De Benedittis, L'alta valle del T., in: Studi Beneventani 4-5, 1991, 3-38.

Nar

(156 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Tributary of the Tiber running through Sabina and Umbria, present-day Nera, parts of which formed the boundary between regio IV and VI (Enn. Ann. fr. 260 V2: sulphureas ... Naris ad undas; Verg. Aen. 7,517; nar is Sabine for  ‘sulphur’). It had its source at Mons Tetrica in the territory of Nursia. M'. Curius [4] Dentatus diverted the Velinus (outflow of the Lacus Velinus and the Avens, Himella und Tolerus rivers) into the N. It flowed past Interamna [1] Nahars (modern Terni), where it was crossed by the via Flaminia, which led to Spoletium. It ran below Narnia and wa…

Pallia

(56 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (the modern Paglia). Right tributary of the Tiber which at Volsinii (the modern Orvieto) is joined by the Clanis flowing from Clusium.  A harbour (Pagliano) is formed where it flows into the Tiber. A station Pallia was situated on the via Cassia between Volsinii and Clusium (Tab. Peut. 4,5). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Herculem, ad

(37 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station in Etruria on the via Aemilia Scauri between Vada Volaterrana and Pisae (It. Ant. 293). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Sordi, La via Aurelia da Vada a Pisa, in: Athenaeum 59, 1971, 302-312.

Falerii

(786 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Oracles Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria on a tuff spur of the eastern Monti Cimini between two righthand tributaries of the Tiberis (Vicano and Fosso Maggiore). Founded by the Argive hero  Halesus (Ov. Fast. 4,73), according to others a Chalcidian foundation (Iust. 20,1,13). Had its own Italic dialect (Str. 5,2,9; [1; 2; 3]). Cu…

Fibrenus

(57 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the Liris in Latium in the region between Sora and Arpinum, modern Fibreno. At its mouth was the location of Cicero's villa (Cic. Leg. 2,6), remains of which are thought to be recognizable in the abbey of San Domenico near Isola del Liri. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 670.

Camerinum

(160 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) in the Apennines between the rivers Potenza and Chienti on the border with Picenum, modern Camerino. Allied with Rome by an aequo foedere from 309 BC (Liv. 9,36), it supported Scipio in 205 BC in his fight against Hannibal (Liv. 28,45); Marius granted Roman citizenship to two cohorts from C. in the war against the Cimbri. Municipium of the tribus Cornelia. Septimius Severus confirmed the rights of the municipes Camertes (CIL XI 5631). Mosaic on the Piazza Garibaldi, finds in S. G…

Compsa, Cossa

(134 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Hirpini in the regio II on the border to Lucania, modern Conza della Campania (Province of Avellino). Located on a height by the upper  Aufidus, at the crossing to the Sele valley (Sella di Conza). Involved in the Second Punic War, Hannibal's base of operations after Cannae (216 BC), but it was reconquered by Fabius Maximus (214 BC). In the Social War on Rome's side (Vell. 2,16). Municipium of the tribus Galeria. Cults of the Mater Deum and Iupiter Vicilinus in agro Compsano (Liv. 24,44,8). Epigraphy: CIL IX, p. 88, 963-993, Roman sarcophagi, episcopal…

Nomentum

(155 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Latini, Latium (or Numentum). Latin town founded by Alba Longa (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,53; Verg. Aen. 6,773; 7,706) in Sabine territory on the left bank of the Tiber on the Via Nomentana (Tab. Peut. 5,5), 14 miles north east of Rome, modern Mentana. Member of the Latin League (Latini, with map). N. received the civitas Romana, under a dictator, in 338 BC (Liv. 8,14,3). Martial praised N., especially the merits of its vineyards (Mart. 2,38; 10,48; 13,119; Columella 3,2f.; Plin. HN 14,23; 48) and …

Tarracina

(210 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae Originally Anxur (Liv. 4,59,4), a city of the Ausoni and the Volsci on a rocky promontory on the coast of Latium Adiectum, modern Terracina (Latina). Conquered in 406 BC by the Romans who established a colonia maritima ( Coloniae C.) there in 329 BC. T. was linked to Rome in 312 BC by a stretch of the via Appia ( decumanus maximus). Municipium of the tribus Oufentina. The city wall survives, as does the 'Forum Aemilianum' (paved by Aulus Aemilius, modern P…

Mandela

(70 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Pagus (‘district) in the land of the Sabini (Hor. Epist. 1,18,105) at the confluence of Digentia and Anio, later Massa Mandelana (CIL XIV 3482), modern Mandela near Vicovaro. Near M. Chalcolithic tomb chambers and a Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Lugli, La villa sabina di Orazio, in: Monumenti antichi, pubblicati dall' Accademia dei Lincei 31, 1926, 457-598 C. F. Giuliani, in: Tibur 2, 1966, 67-77.

Aventia

(23 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in the  Apuani region in Etruria (Tabula Peutingeriana), possibly that known today as the Avenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Suessa Pometia

(139 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Latium, not located. Colony of Alba Longa, occupied by the Volsci, destroyed by Tarquinius Superbus (Liv. 1,53,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,50; Tac. Hist. 3,72); conquered again by the Romans in 495 BC (Liv. 2,17,1; 2,25,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,29). According to [1; 2], SP refers to the pre-Volscan phase of Satricum (10th-6th cent. BC), according to [3; 4], it is identical to Apiolae or can be located in a pre-Roman city discovered at Cisterna di Latina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 C. M. Stibbe, …

Aesis

(78 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River, forming the border between  Picenum and the  Senones (Liv. 5,35), later taken as Umbrian ( Umbria), modern Esino. From its source on the territory of Sentinum, it runs to the Adriatic, where its mouth is bridged by the   via Flaminia at the   statio ad Aesim (modern Falconara Marittima) (large cistern: three parallel water chambers). The A. valley was known for its excellent cheeses (Plin. 3,112; 11,241). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Q. Maule, SE 59, 1993, 87-102.

Bovillae

(146 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium, colony of Alba Longa, ancestral seat of the gens Iulia, 11 miles south-east of Rome in Frattocchie near the via Appia, which had been extended to B. in 294 BC. B. became a municipium under Sulla. In 52 BC, it was the location of the dispute between Clodius and Milo. In memory of the obsequies of Augustus, Tiberius erected a memorial to the gens Iulia in B. (Tac. Ann. 2,41). Monuments: remains of quadratic town walls made from tufa ( lapis peperinus) near Due Santi, and also of the arcades of a circus and a theatre. Villa of Domitianus. Aqueducts and three cister…

Iulium Carnicum

(105 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Coloniae Venetic, later Celtic ( Carni) settlement centre, probably constituted as a Roman vicus after the attack of the  Iapodes in 52 BC. Municipium since Augustus, colonia since Claudius. Location: on the road from Aquileia to Aguntum. Local Belenus cult. After its destruction, most likely by  Alaricus [2], the inhabitants moved to the hill of San Pietro, modern Zuglio. Archaeology: forum with porticus, capitolium, in the south a basilica; thermae; aqueduct; early Christian cemetery basilica. Uggeri, Giova…

Clitumnus

(167 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small river in Umbria, tributary of the Tiberis, modern Timia. The sources of the C. (between Spoletium and Fulginiae below Trebiae) were made famous by Plin. Ep. 8,8; Caligula and Honorius visited them; they were surrounded by chapels for the god of the same name and other oracle deities, taken care of by the citizens of Hispellum; sacraria of a statio of the via Flaminia (It. Burd. 613); villae in the surrounding area. In S. Salvatore de Piscina (6th cent. AD) reused stones and inscriptions have been used in buildings (CIL II 4963). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography…

Sagrus

(90 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium, modern Sangro (Str. 5,4,2: Σάγρος/Ságros; Ptol. 3,1,19: Σάρος/Sáros). It passed through the territory of the Carricini past Aufidena and Trebula, then through the territory of the Frentani between Iuvanum and Pallanum, and flowed into the Ionios Kolpos between Ortona and Histonium. Below Castel di Sangro it could be crossed by a bridge that was part of the Roman road which went from Sulmo to Aesernia. Samnites, Samnium Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Mariani, Aufidena, in: Monumenti antichi dei Lincei 10, 1901, 225-638, espe…

Cures

(206 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Sabine city on the left bank of the Tiber, 24 miles from Rome on the via Salaria. C. is the hometown of two Roman kings (Titus Tatius, Numa Pompilius), the designation of the Romans as Quirites (Str. 5,3,1), and also the name of the mons Quirinalis (Varro, Ling. 5,51). The Romans conquered C. under M'. Curius Dentatus (290 BC). As a municipium, C. was incorporated into the tribus Sergia. Sulla and Caesar deduced coloniae to C. It belonged to regio IV (Ov. Fast. 2,135; Str. 5,3,1) and was called C. Sabini in the imperial period…

Tannetum

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Township in Gallia Cispadana (Pol. 3,40,13), modern Taneto near Sant'Ilario d'Enza (in the province of Reggio Emilia). Municipium, Regio VIII (Plin. HN. 3,116), on the right bank of the Incia, itself a right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), between Parma [1] and Regium, somewhat to the north of the Via Aemilia (It. Ant. 267,8; Tab. Peut. 4,3;  It. Burd. 616,12: Canneto). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Degani, Edizione archeologica 74 (Reggio Emilia), 1974, 30 f.

Graviscae

(296 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria A harbour town on the Etruscan coast south of the mouth of the Marta, connected to the via Aurelia by a byway; known today as Porto Clementino (municipality of Tarquinia). Commercial trading post for Tarquinii, prone to malaria (Cato Orig. 2: 46). In 181 BC, it becomes a Roman colonia, Tribus Stellatina, whose territory was divided into parcels of land of five iugera; later colonia Augusta, regio VII. Wine production and trade in red coral (Plin. HN 14, 67; 32, 21). Destroy…

Bandusia

(150 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Spring near Venusia Spring near Venusia, the native city of  Horatius, who was prompted by B. to name B. [2]. In connection with Bantia (today Banzi), it is located in the Palazzo San Gervasio (today Potenza) on the basis of a bull of Pope Pasquale II (1103), who addresses an ecclesia ss. martyrum Gervasii et Protasii in Bandusino fonte apud Venusium and a castellum Bandusii. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Jaffé, 714, 5945. [German version] [2] Spring in Apulia Fons splendidior vitro (‘a spring, clearer than glass’ Hor. Carm. 3,13), named thus by…

Sacriportus

(84 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium (Luc. 2,134; App. B Civ. 1,87: Ἱερὸς λιμήν/ Hieròs Limḗn) on the upper reaches of the Tolerus (present-day Sacco) on the via Labicana between Praeneste and Signia, possibly near Piombinara. Here, Cornelius [I 90] Sulla crushed the army of Marius [I 2] in the spring of 82 BC (Plut. Sulla 28,4; App. B Civ. 1,87; Liv. Per. 87; Vell. Pat. 2,26; Luc. 2,134). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 651  G. Tomassetti, La Campagna Romana, vol. 3, 1910, 459 (repr. 1976).

Natiso

(85 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Νατίσων; Natís ōn). River in Venetia (Ptol. 3,1,26) which rises in the Alpes Carnicae, flows below Forum Iulium (present-day Cividale), reaches the Turrus from the right (Plin. HN 3,126) and flows into the Laguna Veneta near Aquileia [1]. It protected the east walls of Aquileia and formed a canal port there (Str. 5,1,8). At the estuary the river is nowadays called Natissa (as in Iord. Get. 42), but Natisone and Torre in the interior regions. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 229.

Manates

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Archaic people of Latium, possibly identical with the Sanates Tiburtes, who were neighbours of the Forcti Gabini, and who, according to Plin. HN 3,69, as one of the 30 pagi of the populi Albenses, gathered for sacrificial rites on Mons Albanus. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 555-557 M. Pallottino, Le origini di Roma, in: ArchCl 12, 1960, 27 A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1963, 13.

Narnia

(231 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | | Coloniae City in Umbria, regio VI, located on a high limestone spur of the Apenninus, 56 miles from Rome, present-day Narni. In the year 299 BC (Liv. 10,10,5) a colony under Latin law was founded there at the site of the Umbrian city of Nequinum, its ominous name (in popular etymology derived from nequire, ‘to be unable’) replaced as it was renamed for the Nahartes in the Nar valley. Municipium of the tribus Papiria, birthplace of the Emperor Nerva [2]; it was of strategic significance in AD 69 …

Ufens

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Latium (Latini), after which the tribus Oufentina was named in 318 BC (Liv. 9,20,6; Fest. 212,7 ff. L.: Ofens); modern Uffente. The U. rises on Mons Lepinus (modern Monti Lepini) to the north of  Setia and flowed into the Pomptinae paludes ( Ager Pomptinus ), where it collected (Verg. Aen. 7,801;  Str. 5,3,6;  Sil. Pun. 8,382). There it was crossed by the Via Appia on a two-arched bridge. To the east of Cerceii it flowed into the sea. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Cancellieri, s. v. Ufente, EV 5, 354.

Sontius

(151 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (also: Isontius, Aesontius). River in Venetia (Tab. Peut. 4,5; Cassiod. Var. 1,18,1; 1,29; with no mention of the name: Str. 5,1,8; Hdt. 8,4,2). The source is in the Alpes Carnicae, it is joined from the left by the Frigidus (modern Vipacco) and flows into the Adriatic Sea between Aquileia [1] and Tergeste, modern Isonzo. During the yearly snow-melt, it swells strongly and is difficult to cross. It was crossed by the Via Gemina (Aquileia - Emona) near Pons Sontii (modern Mainizza)…

Cutilia

(56 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Sabine town between Reate and Interocrium, founded by the local inhabitants, made famous by Varro; the Aquae Cutiliae and the lacus Cutiliensis, situated in the centre of the peninsula, considered the umbilicus Italiae (‘navel of Italia’) (Varro, Ling. 5,71; Plin. 3,109) take their name from Cutilia. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 2, 475.

Tripontium

(64 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the Via Appia , where a road branches off to Setia, about 58 km from Rome in the Pomptinae Paludes (Ager Pomptinus) outside Forum Appii (modern Faiti), modern Torre Tre Ponti. A three-arch Roman bridge still crosses the Nymphaeus (modern Ninfa) today; the Decennovium to Tarracina began there. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Galliazzo, I ponti romani, 1994, 86, No. 131.

Carsulae

(167 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria Town of the imperial age (Tac. Hist. 3,60; Plin. Ep. 1,4), on the via Flaminia between Narnia and Mevania in Umbria, on an elevated plain, a little to the north of San Gemini. Municipium of the tribus Clustumina. Excavations: via Flaminia within the town area, forum (lining the via Flaminia in the east with two small tetragonal arches, trapeziform, its southern end delimited by a temple with two cellae), theatre, amphitheatre (86 × 62 m), cisterns. To the east of the road, the church of S. D…

Gallia Cisalpina

(1,556 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A. Location The Roman province in northern Italy borders on the Alps in the north and west, the Apennines in the south and the Adriatic in the east. Traversed by the Padus (Po) ( Gallia Transpadana to the north and Gallia Cispadana to the south of the Padus), Gallia Cisalpina (GC) was identified with the Po valley ( latissima pars Italiae, Tac. Hist. 1,70,1). In antiquity the geomorphological structure of GC was in many respects quite different from today, especially with regard to the riverbeds of the Padus (which ran further south) and the Atesis …

Cameria, Camerium

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Aborigines and Prisci Latini, colony of Alba Longa; seized by Tarquinius Priscus; destroyed 502 BC by the consul Opiter Verginius Tricostus. Listed by Pliny (HN 3,68) as one of the Latian towns that had disappeared by his time. The gens Coruncania came from C. (Tac. Ann. 11,24,2). Location unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 563.

Padus

(427 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] The largest river in Italy, present-day Po, which was equated with the mythical Eridanus ( fluminum rex Eridanus, Verg. G. 1,482; sacer Eridanus, Sil. Pun. 12,696; pater Eridanus, Sil. Pun. 4,691); it was known locally as P. and Bodincus (Metrodorus FGrH 184 F 8). It flows for a distance of 570 km from west to east through the whole of Gallia Cisalpina (Pianura Padana) which it divides into Cispadana in the south and Transpadana in the north. (The regional reforms of Augustus created Liguria and Aemilia in …

Igilium

(123 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum, off the promonturium Argentarium, modern Giglio. Settled since the Neolithic, I. belonged to the territory of the colonia of  Cosa and in 49 BC was part of the property of the Domitii, who equipped a fleet against Massilia there (Caes. B Civ. 1,34,3). Regarding maritime traffic cf. the corpus codicariorum (CIL XI 2643). Due to its remoteness and dense forests, I. was used as a refuge by the Romans in the time of Alarich [2] (Rut. Namat. 1,325). Archaeology: a splendid villa near the port, another near Campese; Etruscan and Roman remain…

Lanuvium

(218 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Latini, Latium Town in Latium in the southern foothills of the Alban hills, 18 miles from Rome on the via Appia, modern Lanuvio. Participated in the foedus Cassianum of 493 BC. Loyal to Rome during the Latin War of 340 ( Latin League), L. received the civitas Romana; municipium (338 BC; Liv. 8,14,2), possibly tribus Maecia. Birth-place of the emperors Antoninus Pius and Commodus. The modern settlement is located on top of the ancient town; only the arx (‘castle’), surrounded by a tuff wall, on the hill of…

Salinae

(172 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
A number of towns or townships in Italy had this name, derived from the production of salt there. [German version] [1] Town on the Adriatic coastal road S. is recorded in Tab. Peut. (5,1; cf. Geogr. Rav. 327; [1]) as on the Adriatic coastal road 5 Roman miles north of Ostia Aterni (modern Pescara) and 13 Roman miles south of Hadria on the left bank of the River Salino, which, formed by the confluence of the Tavo and the Fino, marked the border between the Vestini and the Praetuttii, near modern Montesilvano Marina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Place south of Mons Garganus Place…

Rosea Rura

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Plain in Sabine territory near Reate (also Rosea, Varro Rust. 2,7,6; 3,2,9; 3,17,6; Rosia, ibid. 3,2,10; Ager Rosulanus, Serv. Aen. 7,712); the most fertile soils in the whole of Italy were there (Varro Rust. 1,7,10). Fest. 355,3 derives the term from arva rore humida ('land moist with dew'). The region was drained in 272 BC under the censor M'. Curius [4] Dentatus by constructing a canal between Lacus Velinus and the Nar, and was thus made agriculturally useful (Cic. Att. 4,15,5). The RR was used for breeding horses, whi…

Pandateria

(90 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Πανδατερία/ Pandatería). Island in the mare Tyrrhenum (Str. 2,5,19; 5,3,6), modern Ventotene (Latina), west of Cyme [2] and south of Caieta, between the insulae Pontiae (Pontia) and Pithecussae. Iulia [6], Agrippina [2], Octavia [3], the wife of the emperor Nero, and Flavia [3] were exiled there. Extant remains include a villa, an aqueduct, a cistern, a fishpond as well as port facilities. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C.M. Amici, F. Cifarelli et al., Ventotene: documentazione archeologica, in: G.M. De Rossi (ed.), Le isole Pontine attraverso i …

Cominium

(104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium adiectum; the modern Val di Comino to the north of  Atina [1] (perhaps San Donato). During the 3rd Samnite War in 293 BC conquered by consul Sp. Carvilius Maximus (Liv. 10,39-44) and destroyed (perhaps in 291 by consul L. Postumius Megellus: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 16,4,5). Probably not to be identified with C. Ceritum (Ocritum?), where Hanno learned of the defeat at  Beneventum in 212 BC (Liv. 25,14,14). Plin. HN 3,108 lists C. among the ruined towns of the Aequiculi. CIL X p. 507, 5143-56. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 669 G. Devoto, Gli A…

Oglasa

(55 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum between Corsica and the Italian mainland (Plin. HN 3,80), probably Montecristo (province of Livorno), a granite outcrop (10.4 km2, alt. 645 m) to the south of Ilva; the Mons Christi inhabited by monks in the 6th cent. AD (Greg. M. Epist. 1,49). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 320-324.

Metaurus

(80 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] see Mataurus see Mataurus Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] River in Italy (Liv. 27,47; Mataurus, Tab. Peut. 5,2). River rising in the Umbrian Apennines, flowing past Tifernum and Urbinum through the Ager Gallicus and into the Adriatic to the south of Fanum Fortunae, modern Metauro. In 207 BC it was on the M. that the battle between the Romans and Hasdrubal [3] took place. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography N. Alfieri, La battaglia del M., 1994.

Mons Garganus

(115 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Cape, forested in ancient times (Hor. Carm. 2,9,7; Hor. Epist. 2,1,202; Sil. 8,629), in Apulia on the eastern coast of Italy, isolated mountainous massif (1065 m high), called Ἀρίονος ὄρος/ Aríonos óros (‘Mountain of Arion’) in Scyl. 14, today Promontorio del Gargano. The MG was an important landmark for maritime navigation and for geographers. To the north were the Lacus Pantanus (modern Lago di Lesina) and the Sinus Urias (modern Lago di Várano) with Uria [3], off the coast the Insulae Diomedeae (modern Trem…

Caenina

(81 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium, probably near Antemnae, inhabited by Siculi and Aborigines; legend has it that Romulus captured and destroyed the town, then ruled by King Acro; Romulus was also supposedly the first to sacrifice   spolia opima to Jupiter Feretrius. There is documentary evidence for the Caeninenses sacerdotes in imperial Rome, but the town itself had disappeared at the latest by the time of Pliny the Elder (HN 3,68). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 2, 560 Ruggiero, 2, 10.

Ilva

(152 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum, off the coast of Populonia (Αἰθάλη; Aithálē, Αἰθαλία; Aithalía: Hecat. FGrH 1 F 59; Ps.-Scyl. 6), modern Elba. The limḕn Argôios (λιμὴν Ἀργῷος) is supposed to have been founded by the  Argonauts (Str. 5,2,6; others trace the name back to the white colour of the beach). Settled since the Neolithic. I. was famous for its iron mines, which had been exploited since Etruscan times (smelting slag on Pithecussae and at Populonia). In 453 BC, I. was briefly occupied by Syracusae (Dio…

Opitergium

(137 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Coloniae | Batavian Revolt Settlement of the Veneti in the lower reaches of the Piave, inhabited from the Bronze Age, linked to the Adriatic by a canal (Str. 5,1,8). O. was municipium of the tribus Papiria ( lex Iulia); later incorporated into the regio X Venetia. As a junction on the via Postumia, it was connected to the city of Concordia; today Oderzo, province of Treviso. O. took the side of Caesar against the Senate, and was rewarded with tax exemption. Archaeological remains: forum, domus with polychrome mosaics (…

Insula Columbaria

(18 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum near Ilva (Plin. HN 3,81). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Dolates

(47 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Members of a community in the regio VI, called Sallentini in the Augustan list (Plin. HN 3,113), because in 266 BC they were deported to Umbria from Soletum in Calabria (Liv. Ep. 15; Eutr. 2,17). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 1, 543 n. 2.

Algae

(22 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version]   Statio in  Etruria, between  Centumcellae and  Graviscae, by the sea (It. Ant. 498,5 f.), not located. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Ulubrae

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Township in Latium, municipium of the tribus Pomptina, colony of the Triumviri (Triumvirate), later abandoned owing to its unhealthy location on the edge of the Pomptinae paludes ( Ager Pomptinus ) at modern Sermoneta and Cisterna di Latina (Cic. Fam. 7,12,2; 7,18,3; Hor. Epist. 1,11,30;  Juv. 10,102; Plin.  HN 3,64; Porphyrio ad Hor. epist. 1,11,30). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 2, 637.

Vesidia

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Tyrrhenian coastal river in Regio VII between Pisae and Luna [3], modern Vezza. It gave its name to the modern region of Versilia. Its location between Vada Volaterrana and Velinae (mistake for Velatrae, cf. Volaterrae), as recorded in Tab. Peut. 4,2, is incorrect. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Fulginiae

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) on the via Flaminia on the eastern edge of the plain of the Topino and Clitumno ( lacus Clitorius), modern Foligno (Perugia). Conquered by Rome in 295 BC, praefectura, later municipium, tribus Cornelia. Without walls F. suffered in the Perusinian War; the town was abandoned in the 5th cent. AD in favour of the hill of San Valentino di Civitavecchia. Iron Age and Roman remains: amphitheatre, arch, thermae near Santa Maria del Sasso, necropoleis near Santa Maria in Campis, villa (Palace of …

Ardea

(272 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae | Latini, Latium City of the Rutuli in Latium on the via Ardeatina (Fest. 356,20), c. 4.5 km from the coast, c. 35.5 km from Rome, at the foot of   mons Albanus , today A. (previously Casalazzara and Pomezia). Linked with the legend of  Aeneas. Mentioned in the 1st Roman-Carthaginian treaty (Pol. 3,22,11); member of the  Latin League (Cato fr. 58); from 442 BC colonia Latina (Liv. 4,9-11); declined during the late republican period. Acropolis with remains from…

Septem Maria

(87 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Area of lagoons (seven at the time of naming) at the mouths of the Padus and the Atesis (Plin. HN. 119f.), modern Laguna Veneta in the Atria region, enhanced by the Etrusci with the waters of the Sagis, and still navigable in the Roman Imperial period, partly by means of fossae, between Ravenna and Altinum. Statio on the Via Popilia to the east of Atria (It. Ant. 126,6; Tab. Peut. 4,5). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Bosio, I S. M., in: Archeologia Veneta 2, 1979, 33-44.

Lautulae

(89 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Strategically important narrow pass ( saltus) above Tarracina (in Latium) between the mountain range and a steep headland above the sea (Liv. 7,39,7; 22,15,11). The Romans were defeated there in 315 BC by the Samnites (Liv. 9,23,4; Diod. Sic. 19,72). From 312 onwards the steep via Appia led over it. Trajan had 128 feet of the height - measured from the base of the cliff - chopped off and the road built in the plain along the sea; modern Piscomontano. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 642.

Laterium

(33 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Villa in the region of Arpinum west of the Liris near Cereatae (Cic. Att. 4,7,3; 10,1,1; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,5,4; 3,1,4; 3,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 674.

Arpinum

(162 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Hill town of the  Volsci in the central Liris valley, modern Arpino (Frosinone); Roman   praefectura from 305 BC (Liv. 9,44,16), from 90 BC   municipium of the tribus Cornelia, regio I, birth place of Marius and Cicero. Simple Volscian fortifications are extant at Civita Falconiera, also a strong Roman walled circle (3 km in diameter; polygonal stonework), including a monumental gate with a pointed arch. Remains of a temple (possibly of Mercurius Lanarius) underneath the church of S. Maria; remains of another b…

Tiber

(606 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Τίβερις/ Tíberis, modern Tevere). River in central Italy (403 km long, 17,169 km2 catchment area). Other names: Albula (Serv. Aen. 8,332: from the Latin albus, 'white'; cf. Liv. 1,3; Plin. HN 3,53), Rumon (Serv. Aen. 8,63; 8,90), Serra (Serv. Aen. 8,63), Thybris (Verg. Aen. 2,782; 3,500); called flavus ('yellow') in Verg. Aen. 7,31 for the great quantity of eroded soil it bore (on Tiberinus, god of the T., cf. Varro, Ling. 5,71; Serv. Aen. 8,31). It rises in the Appenines (Appenninus) on Monte Fumaiolo at 1,268 m above sea le…

Hernici

(186 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Italian people in Latium on the  Liris and its tributary Trerus or Tolerus (modern Sacco); here lay Anagnia, Ferentinum and Frusino on the via Latina, and further inland Verulae, Aletrium and Capitulum Hernicum. Possibly attested from the beginning of the Iron Age, they appear to have been the oldest Italian people who immigrated to Latium, possibly in connection with the migrations of the Sabini (Serv. Aen. 7,684) or Marsi (Paul Fest. 89 L.). Laevus Cispius of Anagnia supported Tullus Hostilius against …

Tetrica mons

(46 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Mountain in the Appenninus (Varro Rust. 2,1,5; Verg. Aen. 7,713) to the north of the Via Salaria, which separates the fourth (Nursia der Sabini) and fifth (Asculum in Picenum) regio nes, modern Monti Sibillini (up to 2476 m high). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Firmum Picenum

(232 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Coloniae | Coloniae Settlement from the early Iron Age; town in the Picenum, regio V, on a rise (319 m) on the right bank of the Tinna, modern Fermo (Ascoli P.), 8 km from the Adriatic coast where the harbour was situated (Φίρμον Πικηνόν· ἐπίνειον ... Κάστελλον, Str. 5,4,2 or castellum Firmanorum, Plin. HN 3,111). In 264 BC it was a colony with ius Latii (Vell. Pat. 1,14,7), five quaestores. In the war with Hannibal it sided with Rome, in the Social War it was a Rom…

Trebiae

(51 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Umbrian settlement (412 m high) on the upper reaches of the Clitumnus, later a municipium above the Via Flaminia , Regio VI, ethnic Trebiates (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Trevi with remains of the city wall. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Sensi, T., in: Quaderni Istituto Topografia Antica 6, 1974, 183-190.

Venaria

(32 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum between Corsica and the Etruscan coast (Plin. HN. 3,81), not precisely located. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography W. V. Harris, Rome in Etruria and Umbria, 1971, 118.

Casinum

(154 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Oscan, later Volscian and Samnite town in the Liris valley. Because of its location on the via Latina, C. played a strategically important role during the Samnite wars; it probably became a colonia Romana in 312 BC. The acropolis was located in Montecassino, a walled circle ( opus polygonale) enclosed C. on the slope south of the modern Cassino (province of Frosinone). Archaeological monuments: amphitheatre, forum (on a terrace with a temple), theatre; villa with thermae on the Rapido, attributed to Varro; a…

Telesia

(179 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City of the Samnites in Campania in the valley on the right side of the river Calor (modern Calore) at its confluence with the Volturnus (modern Volturno) at the branching of the roads from Alifae to Beneventum and Capua. In 217 BC T. was conquered by Hannibal [4], in 214 by Fabius [I 30] (Pol. 3,90,8; Liv. 22,13). T. was a colonia Herculea (ILS 5987) probably from the time of Sulla with new buildings, then a municipium of Regio IV, tribus Falerna. Copper coins: TELIS. There is evidence of centuriation (Surveyors)…

Digentia

(43 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Stream in the ager Sabinus, received the fons Bandusia, passed by the villa of Horatius Flaccus (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104) and entered the Anio on the right side between Mandela and Varia; modern Licenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 616.

Argoos Limen

(30 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ἀργῷος λιμήν; Argôios limḗn). Port on  Ilva, named after the resting place of the  Argonauts (Str. 5,2,6; Apoll. Rhod. 4,658), modern Portoferraio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Ficulea

(94 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town in Latium, north-east of Rome on the via Ficulensis (Liv. 3,52,3), subsequently the via Nomentana [1. 43], localized near Casale di Marco Simone Vecchio. It was originally founded by Aborigines (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,16), then by the Prisci Latini; captured by Tarquinius Priscus (Liv. 1,38,4); municipium (Plin. HN 3,64). Atticus (Cic. Att. 12,34) and Martial (6,27,2) owned estates near F. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topografico-antiquaria della carta dei d…

Vettona

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City in Umbria on a hill on the left side of the Tiberis between Tuder and Perusia, modern Bettona. Municipium of the tribus Clustumina [1. 271]. Walls in opus quadratum (Masonry); necropoleis from the 4th cent. BC until the 2nd cent. AD. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 L. R. Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, 1960. G. Becatti , Nota topografica sulle mura di Bettona, in: SE 8, 1934, 397-400  C. Pietrangeli, s. v. Bettona, EAA 2, 76.

Verrugo

(116 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volsci border city in Latium, which changed owners several times - occupied and fortified by the Romans in 445 BC (Liv. 4,1,4), reconquered by the Volsci in 422, conquered again by the Romans in 409 (Liv. 4,55,8), reconquered by the Volsci in 407 (Liv. 4,58,3). In 394 V. found itself in Roman hands again (Liv. 5,28,6). The place name can be derived from Latin verruca = locus editus asperque = 'high-lying rough place' (Cato in Gell. NA 3,7,6; cf. Diod. Sic. 14,11; a place name occurring from Tridentum to Eryx [1] in Sicily). Location uncertain, po…

Fidentia

(127 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Augural name of a town in the western Aemilia ( regio VIII) on the via Aemilia (It. Ant. 288; It. Burd. 616; Tab. Peut. 4,3) on the crossing of the river Stirone, in the Middle Ages Borgo San Donnino, from 1927 Fidenza (Parma). It was founded as a municipium in the 2nd cent. BC; during the Civil War, it was besieged by Lucullus in 82 BC (Plut. Sulla 17; Vell. Pat. 2,28; Liv. Epit. 88). It later declined to become vicus Fidentiola (It. Ant. 99; 127). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Aimi, Storia di F., 1982 M. Calvani Marini, F., 1977 M. Catarsi, Il territorio fidenti…

Togisonus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia (Plin. HN 3,121), probably arising from the confluence of the Retron (modern Retrone) and the Astagus (modern Astico) in the area of Vicetia (modern Vicenza) with other rivers to the north of thr Atesis; modern Bacchiglione. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. B. Castiglioni, Abbozzo di una carta dell'antica idrografia nella pianura tra Vicenza e Padova, in: P. Innocenti (ed.), Scritti geografici. FS A. Sestini, vol. 1, 1982, 183-197.

Numicus

(144 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (also Numicius). Minor river in Latium Vetus, where Aeneas [1] was said to have landed; the place was named Troy and consecrated to Sol Indiges. According to CIL XIV 2065, the N. was in territorio Lavinas (‘in the territory of Lavinium’). There was a heroon of Aeneas there (Serv. Aen. 7,150). The Iuturna, whose waters were taken to Rome and used in sacrifices to Vesta (Serv. Aen. 12,139), rose nearby. Anna Perenna was described as nympha Numici (Ov. Fast. 3,653). Identification of the N. is not certain: it may be the Fosso di Pratica di Mare (Pomezia, pro…

Nepete

(126 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae (Νέπητα; Népēta). Etruscan town east of Sutrium on the via Amerina (Tab. Peut. 5,3), modern Nepi (Province Viterbo). In 383 (Liv. 6,21,4) or 373 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,14,2), it became a colonia Latina, later municipium, possibly tribus Stellatina; ethnikon Nepesinus. Cults: Diana, Ceres, Augustales. N. was located on a wedge-shaped terrace between two gorges. Settlement and necropolis date to the 8th cent. BC. Chamber tombs with dromos, tuff walls from the beg…

Hispellum

(128 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae Town in Umbria on a rise of Monte Subasio, modern Spello. Settled since the 7th cent. BC, connected to the via Flaminia, municipium, Tribus Lemonia, Colonia Iulia (possibly since the Second Triumvirate).The source of the  Clitumnus lay in the territory of H. (Plin. Ep. 8,8,6). Under Constantinus the town was Colonia Flavia Constans with a temple of the Gens Flavia and had the privilege of celebrating annually an Umbrian festival (ILS 705 of 333/337). Archaeology: remains o…

Abellinum

(169 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town of the  Hirpini in  Campania, on the border of southern Samnium ( Samnites), close to the modern Cività. A colonia under Sulla, Augustus, and Severus Alexander, it rose to   civitas , tribus Galeria. A. is situated on a terrace on the left bank of the Sabato river, west of Atripalda. Two wall circuits are preserved ( opus quadratum, 3rd cent. BC, opus reticulatum with towers and moats of the Augustan colony), also baths, houses, an amphitheatre south of the town outside the walls; aqueduct to …

Treba

(69 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Aequi in the Colles Simbruini (modern Simbruini Mountains) in the valley of the upper Anio; modern Trevini nel Lazio, 821 m elevation; municipium of Regio I (Plin. HN 3,64), tribus Aniensis; ethnicon Trebani (ILS 6264;  cf.  Ptol. 3,1,62; Frontin.  Aq. 93,3: T. Augusta). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Quilici Gigli, Appunti di topografia per la storia di Trevi nel Lazio, in: MEFRA 99, 1987, 129-69.

Furfo

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Vicus of the Vestini ( regio IV) on the upper reaches of the Aternus (Pescara), in the territorium of Peltuinum (CIL IX 3524), and near the church of Santa Maria di Furfona, 15 km south-east of L'Aquila; administered by two aediles. Cult of Jupiter Liber (58 BC; CIL I2, 756). Located on the road between Prifernum and Peltuinum, later named via Claudia Nova. Inscriptions: CIL IX p. 333, 3513-3568. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 442 Ruggiero 3, 1922, 353, s.v. F.

Lorium

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the via Aurelia, 12 miles outside Rome (It. Ant. 290; Tab. Peut. 5,5), modern La Bottaccia near Castel di Guido. Antoninus Pius died here in his villa (SHA Antoninus Pius 1,8; 12,6). Marcus [2] Aurelius also stayed here (Fronto, Ad Marcum 2,15; 3,20; 5,7). An episcopal see in the 5th cent. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Castagnoli (ed.), La via Aurelia, 1968.

Rufrae, Rufrium

(129 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement in Samnium (cf. Rufrani vicani, ILS 80; 5759), conquered by the Romans early in the 2nd Samnite War in 326 BC (Liv. 8,25,4: Rufrium; Sil. Pun. 8,568), subsequently named castellum Campaniae (Serv. Aen. 7,739) and tribus Teretina (CIL X 4836), on the Via Latina. R. is situated on the middle reaches of the Volturnus in the region of San Felice a Ruvo, west of Presenzano (province of Caserta); remains of a small Roman theatre and statues of Augustus and Agrippa have been found there. Cato praises oil presses from R. (Cato Agr. 22,4; 135,2: ad Rufri Maceriam). …

Minio

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in southern Etruria, modern Mignone, the border between Tarquinia and Caere (Serv. Aen. 10,183; Munio, Rut. Namat. 1,279). Crossed by the Via Aurelia at the confluence of the Graviscae and the Centumcellae. Etruscan fortifications at a Bronze Age settlement above Stazione di Monte Romano, Luni sul Mignone. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 308; 2, 332 L. Banti, Il mondo degli Etruschi, 1969, 61f. BTCGI 9, 287-291.

Aternus

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium (CIL IX 3337-8), flanked by the via Claudia Nova from Amiternum to its confluence with the Tirinus, and by the via Claudia Valeria (CIL IX 5973) to Ostia Aternus (port of the Vestini, vicus and mansio at the junction with the coastal road along the Adriatic, modern Pescara). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Bibl. Top. 13, 1994, 477-488.

Flavinium

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in the regio VII (Etruria) at the southern foot of the  Soracte (Verg. Aen. 7,696; Serv. Aen. ad 1; Sil. 8,490) where according to Sil. 13,85 the Capenas (modern Gramiccia?) caused floods. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Caieta

(191 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, located in the foothills of the same name which form the western end of the sinus Caietanus or Formianus; modern Gaeta (province of Latina). It was reputedly named after either  Aeetes, the father of Medea (Lycoph. 1274), or the wet-nurse of  Aeneas [1], who was supposedly buried there (Verg. Aen. 7,1-7), or after the shoals in its bay (Laconian καιέτας, Str. 5,3,6); temple of Apollo (Liv. 40,2,4). In Roman times, it was a health resort, same as Formiae (four miles away), with villae and attached mausolea. C. was also the location of the villae of S…

Tarus

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), modern Taro (126 km long). It rises in the Ligurian Appenninus and flows through Forum Novum; it was crossed by the Via Aemilia  (where the Ad Tarum road station was: It. Burd. 616,14) and into the Padus at Parma [1]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Frigidus

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the river Sontius in East Venetia, modern Vipacco/Wippach, also a station on the via Gemina, 36 miles east of Aquileia (It. Ant. 18), modern Aidussina/Haidenschaft. Here, Theodosius defeated the usurper Eugenius in AD 394 (Claud. De III consulatu Honorii 99). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Gallunianum

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praedium (estate) in Etruria, then a centre of settlement with ecclesia, modern Galognano near Siena, mentioned in inscriptions on liturgical silver objects (6th cent. AD, now in the Pinacoteca of Siena). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography O. von Hessen, W. Kurze, C. A. Mastrelli, Il tesoro ecclesiastico di Galognano, 1977 M. M. Mango, Silver from Early Byzantium, 1986, 250-254 S. A. Boyd, M. M. Mango, Ecclesiastical Silver Plate, 1992, 134.

Sabinum

(239 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Country estate of the poet Horace (Horatius [7], cf. Hor. Carm. 2,18,14; Hor. Epist. 1,16), probably a gift from Maecenas [2] (Hor. Sat. 2,3,305 ff.). It was located in the territory of the Sabini on the stream Digentia (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104; present-day Licenza), a right tributary of the Anio, north of Varia (present-day Vicovaro) from where the estate obtained agrarian products (Hor. Carm. 1,20,1; 22,9; 2,18,14; 3,1,47; 4,22; Hor. Sat. 2,7,118), above the village of Mandela (Hor…

Buxentum

(133 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae Town in Lucania, modern Policastro Bussentino (Salerno province) at the Gulf of Policastro. It succeeded the Greek settlement of Pyxus (coins minted in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC: HN 83), was newly founded under Micythus of Messene in 471 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,59,4; Str. 6,1,1), and subsequently left to the Lucani. Roman colonia in 194 BC, renewed in 186 BC (Liv. 32,29,4; 34,45,2; 39,22,4), in 89 BC municipium of the tribus Pomptina. Bishop's seat in AD 592. Both the river, which d…

Rapinium

(29 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small site fit for landing ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 498,6 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Centumcellae and Graviscae, modern Bagni Sant'Agostino. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Minturnae

(434 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae Chief town of the Aurunci (Ausones), 97 miles from Rome, on both banks, connected by a ford, of the lower Liris, which formed the border between Latium and Campania, in a broad coastal plain on the Gulf of Formiae (modern Gulf of Gaeta) to the east of where the via Appia emerges from the narrow strip of land between the Aurunci mountains and the sea. M. and its port facilities were the trading centre of the region. M. is first menti…

Piscinae

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the via Aurelia between Vada Volaterrana and Pisae on the Tyrrhenian coast of Etruria (Tab. Peut. 4,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; 5,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Sordi, La via Aurelia, in: Athenaeum 59, 1971, 302-312.
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