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Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, Abū muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿalī zayn al-ʿĀbidīn [see zayn al-ʿābidīn ], born about 230/844 at Medīna of a K̲h̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304/beginning of 917 at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is still recognized under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaydiyya [ q.v.] in the Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [see al-Ḥasan b. Ẓayd b. muḥammad ];¶ his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zayd distrusting him, he endeavoured …

Nafīsa

(484 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, al-Sayyida , a mausoleum situated to the south of the Fāṭimid city of al-Ḳāhira in the northern part of the cemetery area of the City of the Dead (al-Ḳarāfa), to the south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [see walī ] in Cairo next to Sayyida Zaynab bint Muḥammad [ q.v.] and “Sitt Sekīna” (Sukayna) “Sitt Nefīsa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Sayyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, imme…

al-Tanāwutī

(665 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.] referring to the Tanāwut, a Berber tribe of the Nafzāwa country in southern Tunisia and Wargla (Wārd̲j̲alān). To the 5th/11th century belongs: 1). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī, who often appears in later tradition. His son 2). Ismāʿīl, but still more his grandson 3). Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl, had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: 4). Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Y…

al-Mufīd

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. al-Nuʿmān al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī, also called Ibn al-Muʿallim, a distinguished Twelver scholar of Bag̲h̲dād under the Būyids, was born at the end of 333 or 338 (945 or 950), and came of an old Ḳurais̲h̲ family which, as his second epithet shows, had a reputation for scholarship; he himself became, as his epithet shows, the teacher from whom all “later students have derived advantage”. While he took little active part in politics, he was a very prolific author. His correspondence, usually replies to queries, came from Mawṣil, Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān, Dīnawar, Raḳḳa, Ḵh̲wār…

Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Riḍā

(714 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, ninth imam of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa, was born in Ramaḍān 195 (June 811) in Medīna. As, according to Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī, Maḳātil al-Ṭālibīyīn (Teheran 1307), p. 195, 18, he was of negroid appearance, it may be true that his mother, a slavewoman, variously called Sabīka, Durra and Ḵh̲aizurān, was a Nubian; to give her an honourable pedigree it was added “of the family of Maria the Copt”. When al-Maʾmūn attached ʿAlī al-Riḍā to his court, he married the boy to one of his daughters, Umm al-Faḍl, who was taken to …

al-Mahdī’s

(519 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a dynasty of Zabīd in the Yaman. When the founder of the dynasty, ʿAlī b. Mahdī [q. v.], died in the middle of 554 (1159) soon after the taking of Zabīd, the power of .the dynasty which had been concentrated in his personality, was seriously threatened, especially as his sons Mahdī, ʿAbd al-Nabiʾ and ʿAbd Allāh quarrelled. It is not quite clear whether Mahdī at first obtained the throne (so ʿOmāra in Kay [see Bibl.], p. 129) or whether he ruled jointly with ʿAbd al-Nabiʾ, the latter taking charge of civil and the former of military affairs (so Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī in Kay, p.…

Ziyādī

(645 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a Yaman dynasty of 204 to 371 (819—981) or 409 (1018) with capital in Zabīd [q.v.]. They were regarded as descendants of Ziyād b. Abīhi [q. v.]. But as the latter’s genealogy is uncertain, so not even the name of the father of the founder of the dynasty, Muḥammad, has been handed down with certainty. The caliph Maʾmūn was harassed by his uncle Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī; at the same time tribes in the Yaman became rebellious. The fact that there were ʿAlid schemes afoot there and indeed shortly before Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲azzār, a brother of ʿAlī al-Riḍā [q. v.], had been plundering in Ṣanʿāʾ, may ¶ have decid…

al-Nāṣir Li-Dīn Allāh

(762 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, honorific title of several Zaydī imāms . I. Among the Caspian Zaydīs, this title was borne by 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [see Ḥasan al-uṭrūs̲h̲ ] and his great-grandson 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī . The latter gained for himself a dominion beginning in Hawsam, where he could find associations with the earlier period of Zaydī rule. He laid great emphasis on the religious character of Zaydism; he gave out of the state treasury funds to support people who learned the Ḳurʾān by he…

al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,517 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿOmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿAlī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [s. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain], born about 230 (844) at Medīna of a Ḵh̲urāsān slave girl, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 304 (beginning of 917) at Āmul as ruler in Ṭabaristān, is recognised under the official name of al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr as Imām by the Zaidīs, and also by those of Yemen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ came to Ṭabaristān in the reign of the ʿAlid al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zaid [see al-Ḥasan b. Zaid b. Muḥammad]; his brother and successor al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zaid distrusting him, he endeavoured to…

Karam

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(Banu ’l-), a dynasty of ʿAden, from 476—533 (1083—1138) conducted an Ismāʿīlī condominium — at first as viceroys of the Ṣulaiḥids of Ṣanʿāʾ — in two branches, the Banū Masʿūd and the Banū ʿAbbās Abi ’l-Zuraiʿ; from 533—569 (1138—1173) the latter alone — the Zuraiʿids, also called Banu ’l-Ḏh̲iʾb (sons of the wolf) — held the now independent sultanate, only recognising the Caliphate of the Fāṭimids. The Banu ’l-Karam belonged to the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am clan of the tribe of Yām in the Ḥamdān group and were closely related to the Ṣulaiḥids [q. v.]. They were therefore the principal supporters of ¶ the fo…

al-Tanāwutī

(687 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the nisba of many spiritual s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Abāḍīs [q.v.]. To the fifth (eleventh) century belongs: Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī who often appears in later tradition. His son Ismāʿīl but still more his grandson Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl had the reputation of being very devout and miraculously gifted. The most important bearer of the name is the last-named’s son: Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, fellow-pupil and friend of Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Wārd̲j̲alānī. He came of a wealthy family and had an allowance of 1,000 d…

Zaid b. ʿAlī

(988 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Zain al-ʿĀbidīn [q. v.] gave his name to the Zaidīya [q. v.] who revere him as a political and religious martyr; he was the first ʿAlid after the catastrophe which overwhelmed his grandfather al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī ¶ [q. v.] at Kerbelāʾ to endeavour to deprive the Umaiyads of the caliphate by armed rebellion when he placed himself at the disposal of the Kūfans as Imām. Except for an interval of two months when he was secretly seeking adherents in Baṣra, he spent a year in preparation in Kūfa, hidden in constantly changing hiding-places…

al-Zaidīya

(2,548 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the practical group of the S̲h̲īʿa, distinguished from the It̲h̲nā ʿAs̲h̲arīya [q. v.] and the Sabʿīya [q. v.] by the recognition of Zaid b. ʿAlī. After the latter’s death they took part in several ʿAlid risings but were not a united body. Writers on heresy distinguish eight schools among them: from Abū ’l-Ḏj̲ārūd, who combined warlike activity with apotheosis of the imāms and belief in a Mahdī, to Salama b. Kuhail whose Zaidism was watered down to a simple S̲h̲īʿa point of view. It was the sa…

Taʿziya

(2,178 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), a. expression of sympathy in general, b. the passion play of the S̲h̲īʿīs. The word, a verbal noun from ʿaziya II, is not found in the Ḳurʾān (but cf. ʿizīn in lxx. 37), but occurs in all schools of fiḳh at the end of the book on public worship in the section, or in the separate book, al-d̲j̲anāʾiz = burial, where sympathy is requested for the relatives. Among the S̲h̲īʿīs it means in the first place the lamentation for the martyred imāms, which is held at their graves and aiso at home. In particular, however, it is mourning for Ḥusain. The tābūt, a copy of the tomb at Kerbelāʾ, in popular…

Zabīd

(881 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a town in the Tihāma of Yaman, on the road running from north to south from Mecca to ʿAden, halfway between the Yaman highlands and the Red Sea, about 16 miles from the coast. At this distance the country is suitable for agriculture in view of the better water-supply, and the town itself is adjoined by two wādīs, in the north the Wādī Rimaʿ and the south the perennial Wādī Zabīd, from which it has taken the name which has replaced the original al-Ḥusaib. In contrast to the rest of the Tihāma it is famous for its gardens with date-palms, ¶ a little corn, indigo and various medicinal plants; th…

Yaʿfur

(372 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (also al-Raḥīm) b. Kuraib al-Ḥiwālī (on the disputed vocalisation cf. the poem in van Arendonk [see Bibl.], p. 232, note 3), founder of the dynasty of Yaʿfurids or Ḥiwālids who claimed to be descended from the Tubbaʿs, the ancient Ḥimyarite kings. Their ancestral home S̲h̲ibām, called S̲h̲ibām Aḳyān or S̲h̲ibām Kawkabān to distinguish it from other places of the same name, is described by geographers as a well cultivated hilly country. In the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim, i. e. before 227 (842), Yaʿf…

al-Muḥammadīya

(547 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a name of several heretical schools, notably the ultra-S̲h̲īʿī Muḥammadīya. As the example of the Kaisānīya [q. v.] shows, at an early date some S̲h̲īʿīs transferred the imāmate to ʿAlids who were not descendants of the Prophet’s daughter Fāṭima and then to those who were not ʿAlids at all. The Manṣūrīya revered such an one in Abū Manṣūr al-ʿId̲j̲lī, whom Yūsuf b. ʿOmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī, governor of the ʿIrāḳ, executed in the reign of the Caliph His̲h̲ām, i. e. before 125 (743). Abū Manṣūr, rejected by the I…

T̲h̲anawīya

(1,798 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
Dualism, means the doctrine that light and darkness are the two equal eternal creative principles. There is not a regular T̲h̲anawīya sect or school in Islām. The term, as the characteristic name of a school of thought, is limited to three non-Muslims and their adherents: Ibn Daiṣān, Mānī and Mazdak [see these three articles]. A danger arose to Islām through the tendency to dualism within its ranks from the mass conversions of Persians, as was seen for example at the beginning of the ʿAbbāsid period in the disturbing figure of Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ. He w…

Tūrāns̲h̲āh

(953 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. Aiyūb al-Malik al-Muʿahẓhẓam S̲h̲ams al-Dawla Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn, founder of the Aiyūbid dynasty of the Yemen. He was born at the beginning of Rad̲j̲ab 569 (February 1174); two years before, the death of the last Fāṭimid ʿĀḍid [q. v.] had formally made Saladin lord of Egypt; the relationship of vassal and overlord between him and the Zangid Atābeg Nūr al-Dīn Maḥmūd had now become unnatural and threatened to end in war; King Amalrich of Jerusalem, with whom Saladin had been fighting, was still unsubdued; the Crus…

Mūsā al-Kāẓim

(970 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
the seventh Imām of the Twelfer S̲h̲īʿa, son of Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ṣādiḳ [q. v.], was born about 128 (745) at al-Abwāʾ [q. v.], the traditional burial-place of Āmina, mother of the Prophet. He grew to manhood in his father’s house in Medīna and remained there as Imām after the latter’s death in 148 (765) without playing any part in politics. In particular he took no share in the great rising of the Ḥasanid ʿAlids which collapsed at Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ in 169 (786). Nevertheless the caliph was suspi…

al-Nāṣir

(913 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
li-Dīn Allāh, official name of several Zaidī imāms. I. Among the Caspian Zaidīs this title was borne by 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [q. v.] and his great-grandson 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥūsain b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. The latter gained for himself a dominion beginning in Hawsam, where he could find associations with the earlier period of Zaidī rule. He laid great emphasis on the religious character of Zaidism; he gave out of the state treasury funds to support people who learned the Ḳurʾān by heart. He was also a …

Sabʿīya

(2,532 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
“Sevener”, the name of various S̲h̲īʿa groups who restrict the number of visible Imāms to seven. Confusion came upon the legitimist S̲h̲īʿa, who believe that the character of Imām is transmitted by divine providence from father to son, when about 145 (762) Ismāʿīl, the (eldest?) son of the sixth Imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ [q. v.] died before his father. While the majority replaced Ismāʿīl by another son of Ḏj̲aʿfar, Mūsā al-Kāẓim, the seventh in the series of the twelve visible Imāms of the It̲h̲nā…

al-Ẓāhirīya

(1,288 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a school of law, which would derive the law only from the literal text ( ẓāhir) of the Ḳurʾān and Sunna. In the “branches” of law ( furūʿ al-fiḳh) it still further increased the number of contradictory detailed regulations by many divergencies, peculiar to it alone. More important is its significance for the principles of legislation ( uṣūl al-fiḳh), the development and elucidation of which it considerably furthered by its uncompromising fight against raʾy, ḳiyās, istiṣḥāb, istiḥsān and taḳlīd [q. v.]. In the ʿIrāḳ the Ẓāhirī mad̲h̲hab, also called Dāʾūdī after its founder [see dāʾūd b.…

Taḳīya

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
(a.), caution, fear (see Glossarium to Ṭabarī, s.v. t-ḳ-d) or keitmān, “disguise”, is the technical term for dispensation from the requirements of religion under compulsion or threat of injury. Muḥammad himself avoided suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by docetism (Sūra iv. 156) and in everyday life by the hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in case of need the denial of the faith (Sūra xvi. 108), friendship with unbelievers (iii. 27) and the eating of forbidden foods (vi. 119; v. 5). This point of view is general in Islām. But, as he at the …

al-Manṣūr

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
bi ’llāh al-Ḳāsim, the name of two Zaidī imāms of the Yemen. I. al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī al-ʿAiyānī (? according to others al-IIyānī). His genealogy goes back through a certain ʿAbd Allāh and a Muḥammad to al-Ḳāsim b. Ibrāhīm Ṭabāṭabā (d. 246 = 860), the spiritual founder of Zaidism in the Yemen; he is however not a descendant of the latter’s grandson, al-Hādī Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusain, the creator of the secular power of the Zaidīs in the Yemen. The latter was succeeded in the imāmate by his two sons: the weak Muḥammad al-Mu…

al-Mahdī li-Dīn Allāh Aḥmad

(2,399 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a title and name of several Zaidī Imāms of the Yaman. About 250 years after al-Hādī Yaḥyā, the founder of the Zaidīya [q. v.] dynasty of the Yaman, his direct descendant, the Imām al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad b. Sulaimān had, between 532 and 566 (1134—1170), restored the kingdom to its extent in al-Hādī’s period, with Ṣaʿda, Nad̲j̲rān and for a time also Zabīd and Ṣanʿāʾ. A generation later (593—614 = 1197—1217) the hill country from Ṣaʿda to Ḏh̲amār was again ruled by one man, al-Manṣūr bi’llāh ʿAbd Al…

al-Saiyida Nafīsa

(435 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, a mausoleum outside Cairo, south of the Mosque of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn in the direction of the sepulchral mosque of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Among the female saints [cf. walī] in Cairo next to Saiyida Zainab bint Muḥammad [q. v.] and “Sitt Sekina” (Sukaina) “Sitt Nefisa” takes a very prominent place. In the official recitations of the Ḳurʾān, al-Saiyida Nafīsa, where the reading is held on Sundays, takes third place among them all, immediately after Imām al-S̲h̲āfiʿī and Imām al-Ḥusainī (see Bergsträsser, in Isl., xxi. [1933], 110 sq.). The sanctuary is visited by both men and women, especiall…

Tas̲h̲bīh

(2,732 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
assimilating, comparing (God to man), anthropomorphism, and taʿṭīl, emptying, divesting (God of all attributes), are the names of two opposite views of the doctrine of the nature of God in Islām; both are regarded as heresies and grave sins in dogma. The fierce dispute over these conceptions, by which even the dogma of the Ḳurʾān is influenced, is explained by the central position of the doctrine of the nature of God in Islām. The formal cause is to ¶ be found in the Ḳurʾān, which strongly emphasises the absolute uniqueness nf God and yet at the same time naively describe…

Banū Nad̲j̲āḥ

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
a dynasty of Abyssinian Mamlūks at Zabīd [q. v.] from 412 to 553 (1022—1158). When the last Ziyadī [q. v.] had been put to death in the vizierate of the Abyssinian Mard̲j̲ān by one of his Mamlūk governors Nafīs, the other Nad̲j̲āḥ came forward to avenge him. After desperate fighting, Nafīs was slain and Nad̲j̲āḥ in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 412 (Feb. 1022) entered Zabīd where he had the vizier built alive into a wall in exact revenge for the Ziyādī. As his rival Nafīs had already done, Nad̲j̲āḥ assumed the insignia of royalty, struck his own coins and inserted his own name in the k̲h̲uṭba after that of the ʿ…

S̲h̲īʿa

(9,188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the general name for a large group of very different Muslim sects, the starting point of all of which is the recognition of ʿAlī as the legitimate caliph after the death of the Prophet. The Motives of the S̲h̲īʿa and the Earlier Period Islām is a religious and a political phenomenon as its founder was a prophet and statesman. The development of the community of Islām into separate sectional groups was therefore a natural result of the different possible relations which the political constitution and religious belief might bear to one an…

Ḳāʾim

(437 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
al-Zamān (a.) i. e. “Lord of the Age”, a S̲h̲īʿa term. The phrase includes the two theological meanings of “representative of God on earth” and “Deputy” of the Prophet. Among the earlier S̲h̲īʿīs for example the Imām is called “the ḳāʾim”, “our ḳāʾim” or “the ḳāʾim of his age”, synonymous with ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a or k̲h̲alīfa. The political application of the word brought in the meaning of “rebellious”, current among all the seceding sects, c. g. also among the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs. Through chiliasm the name is given to the Mahdi as “resurrected” from (apparent) death who is active in the “age” through the na…

Ṣanʿāʾ

(3,575 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, the capital of Yaman, lies on the eastern Sarāt in a mountain valley which is open to the west as far as the chain which belongs to the Ḏj̲abal ʿAibān, while immediately to the east the town is overshadowed by the Ḏj̲abal Nuḳum which rises 1600 feet above it. Its situation is 15° 23′ N. Lat. and 44° 12′ E. Long. As the town is 7200 feet above sea-level the climate is temperate, particularly as in summer regular winds blow through the day. In winter the temperature falls to zero at night which …

al-Nāṣir

(805 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
li-dīn Allāh, titre honorifique de plusieurs Imāms zaydites. — I. Chez les Zaydites de la Caspienne ont porté ce titre, outre 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [voir Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲], son arrière-petit-fils; — 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. Celui-ci se créa une principanté en partant de Hawsam, où il pouvait s’appuyer sur les souvenirs de l’ancien gouvernement zaydite. Il insista fortement sur le caractère religieux du Zaydisme, préleva sur le trésor de l’État de l’argent pour l’entretien des gens …

al-Tanāwutī

(643 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, nisba de plusieurs s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s ibāḍites [ q.v.]. Au Ve/XIe siècle, nous avons: (1) Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Tanāwutī, que l’on rencontre souvent dans les traditions anciennes. Son fils (2) Ismāʿīl et plus encore son petit-fils (3) Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ismāʿīl ont un renom d’hommes pieux favorisés par des miracles. Le plus important parmi ceux qui portèrent le nom est le fils du dernier nommé: (4) Abū ʿAmmār ʿAbd al-Kāfī al-Tanāwutī, condisciple et ami d’Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲alānī. Sa famille étant riche, il disposait à Tunis …

al-Sayyida Nafīsa

(496 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, mausolée situé aux portes de la ville fàtimide d’al-Ḳāhira, dans la Cité des Morts (al-Ḳarāfa), au Sud de la mosquée d’Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn dans la direction de la mosquée-tombeau d’al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. Parmi les saintes [voir Walī] du Caire, tout de suite après Sayyida Zaynab bint Muḥammad [ q.v.], à côté de la «Sitt Sekina» (Sukayna), la «Sitt Nefisa» occupe une place particulièrement importante. Dans les récitations officielles du Ḳurʾān, le mausolée d’al-Sayyida Nafīsa, où l’on fait la lecture le dimanche, occupe même le troisième rang dans le clas…

Ḥasan al-Uṭrūs̲h̲

(1,640 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-As̲h̲raf b. ʿAlī Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn [voir Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn], né vers 230/844 à Médine d’une esclave du Ḵh̲urāsān, mort dans le mois de s̲h̲aʿbān 304/début de 917 à Āmul comme souverain du Ṭabaristān, est encore reconnu comme imām sous le nom d’al-Nāṣir al-Kabïr par les Zaydiyya [ q.v.] au Yémen. Al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ vint au Ṭabaristān dès le règne du ʿAlide al-Dāʿī al-Kabīr al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [voir al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Muḥammad]; comme il paraissait suspect à al-Ḳāʾim bi-l-Ḥaḳḳ Muḥammad b. Zayd, frère et successeur d’al-Ḥasan …

al-Ṭūsī

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Ruska, J.
Naṣīr al-Dīn, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, astronomer, polychronicler and S̲h̲īʿa politician of the period of the Mongol invasion, born at Ṭūs on the 11th Ḏj̲umādā I 597 (Feb. 18, 1201), died at Bag̲h̲dād on the 18th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 672 (June 26, 1274). Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī began his career as astrologer to the Ismāʿīlī governor Naṣīr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Abī Manṣūr at Sertak̲h̲t. After his attempt to transfer to the caliph’s court had been betrayed, he was kept under supervision in Sertak̲h̲t and later in Alamūt […

Taḳiyya

(1,799 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Djebli, Moktar
(a.), also tuḳa n , tuḳāt , taḳwā and ittiḳāʾ , “prudence, fear” (see LʿA , s.v. w-ḳ-y , Beirut 1956, xv, 401-4; TʿA , x, 396-8), and also, from the root k-t-m, kitmān “action of covering, dissimulation”, as opposed to id̲h̲āʿa “revealing, spreading information”, denotes dispensing with the ordinances of religion in cases of constraint and when there is a possibility of harm. The Ḳurʾān itself avoids the question of suffering in the cause of religion in dogmatics by adopting a Docetist solution (sūra IV, 156) and in everyday life by the hid̲j̲ra and by allowing in …

Nad̲j̲āḥids

(1,191 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R.
, a dynasty of Abyssinian slaves with their capital in Zabīd [ q.v.], reigned 412-553/1022-1158. ¶ The best historical source for an understanding of the dynasty is ʿUmāra (see Kay, in Bibl .), but it should be stressed that ʿUmāra’s account is sometimes confused, frequently anecdotal with interruptions of little or no relevance and lacking in dates. Other published sources which can be used as a control on ʿUmāra’s text are listed below, though many depend ultimately on him, being transmitted in the main through other writers. When the last Ziyādid [ q.v.] had been put to death during…

Nad̲j̲āḥides

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R.
, dynastie d’esclaves abyssins qui régna à Zabīd [ q.v.] de 412 à 553/1022-1158. La meilleure source historique pour comprendre la dynastie est ʿUmāra (voir Kay, dans la Bibl.), mais on doit souligner que son récit est parfois confus, souvent anecdotique, avec des interruptions plus ou moins justifiées, et pauvre en dates. Lorsque le dernier Ziyādide [ q.v.] eut été mis à mort sous la domination du wazīr abyssin Mard̲j̲ān, par un de ses gouverneurs esclaves, Nafīs, l’autre, Nad̲j̲āḥ, s’avança pour le venger. Après le combat, Nafīs fut tué, et, en d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda …

al-Mahdī Li-Dīn Allāh Aḥmad

(1,710 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G.R. | Blackburn, J.R.
, a title and name of a number of Zaydī imāms of the Yemen. About 250 years after al-Hādī ila ’l-Ḥaḳḳ Yaḥyā, the founder of the Zaydiyya in the Yemen, his direct descendant, al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad, had, between 532/1137 and 566/1170, restored Zaydī territory to its extent in al-Hādī’s time, with Ṣaʿda, Nad̲j̲rān and, for a time, also Zabīd and Ṣanʿāʾ. A generation later (593-614/1197-1217) the mountainous region from Ṣaʿda in the north to D̲h̲amār, south of Ṣanʿāʾ, was again ruled by the Zaydī al-Manṣ…

al-Mahdī Li-dīn Allāh Aḥmad

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R. | Smith, G. R. | Blackburn, J. R.
, titre et nom d’un certain nombre d’ imāms zaydites du Yémen. Environ 250 ans après al-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaḳḳ Yaḥyā, fondateur de l’imamat zaydite au Yémen, son descendant, al-Mutawakkil ʿalā Llāh, rendit au territoire zaydite, entre 532 et 566/1137-70, l’étendue qu’il avait à l’époque d’al-Hādī, avec Saʿda, Nad̲j̲rān et, pour un temps, Zabīd et Ṣanʿāʾ. Une génération plus tard (593-614/1197-1217), la région montagneuse de Ṣaʿda au Nord à Ḏh̲amār au Sud de Sanʿāʾ, était à nouveau gouvernée par le Zaydite al-Manṣū…
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