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Ḥuraimila

(143 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥoreymela), a town in Arabia in the north of Riyāḍ [q. v.], the capital of Ned̲j̲d, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) on the borders between the latter and the province of ʿĀriḍ, the birthplace of the founder of the Wahhābī sect, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. It is surrounded by strong fortifications and in 1861 had, according to Palgrave, 10,000 inhabitants. Inside the town on an elevation is a large fortified citadel of architectural importance, which was erected along with the other citadels in Ned̲j̲d after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] by the Egyptians under ¶ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Durin…

Ḥaws̲h̲abī

(244 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(plural Ḥawas̲h̲ib), a tribe in South Arabia, of pure Ḥimyarite descent. Their land lies roughly between 44° 45′ and 45° 5′ East Long. (Greenw.) and between 13° 11′and 13° 30′ North Lat. and is bounded in the south by Laḥd̲j̲ (Laḥed̲j̲) [q. v.], in the west by the land of the Ṣubaiḥī (Šobēḥī) [q. v.] and of the Ḥud̲j̲rīyā [q. v.], in the north by the land of the Ḏj̲aʿda [q. v.] and in the east by the lower Yāfiʿ. The climate is tropical, the land fertile, producing wheat, coffee and cotton. Among…

Had̲j̲arēn

(312 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲arīn), a town in Ḥaḍramūt on the d̲j̲ebel of the same name, S.W. of Mes̲h̲hed ʿAlī [q. v.] on the Wādī Dawʿān (Dōʿan) situated in extremely picturesque country. It is surrounded by extensive palmgroves and reminds one of many mediaeval castles on the Rhine. As a centre of traffic between the coast and the interior of Ḥaḍramūt it is of importance. The houses of the town are built of bricks and are large but the streets are narrow and dirty. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], who are represented in it by a member of their family, who bears the title naḳīb and lives in a splendid p…

Ḥās̲h̲id and Bakīl

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large confederation of tribes in South Arabia. The genealogy of the Ḥās̲h̲id is given by the Arabs of South Arabia at the present day as Ḥās̲h̲id al-Aṣg̲h̲ar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Nawf b. Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Hamdān. Bakīl is held by them to be the son of Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar. Their land, called by Niebuhr Balad al-Ḳabāʾil “land of the tribes”, lies near Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] and stretches eastwards to Maʾrib [q. v.].and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and northwards right up to the desert as far as eastwards of Ṣaʿda [q. v.]. The Ḥās̲h̲id, who number 22,000 warriors, are divided into three main g…

ʿId̲j̲l

(610 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a North Arabian tribe, an inportant branch of the Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.]. Their ancestor ʿId̲j̲l b. Lud̲j̲aim was notorious for his stupidity and the expression “more stupid than ʿId̲j̲l” was proverbial (cf. Goldziher, Muh. Stud., i. 48, n. 3). During the heathen period they formed a portion of the so-called Lahāzimgroup, which included the Ḏh̲uhl and Yas̲h̲kur. Some of them professed Christianity. Abū Nad̲j̲m, the rad̲j̲az poet, belonged to the ʿId̲j̲l. They lived in al-Yamāma (al-Ḵh̲iḍrima, al-Ḵh̲aḍārim, also called Ḏj̲aww al-Ḵh̲iḍrima) and in the country between K…

Ḥarāz

(697 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haras, Harras, Harrāz), a high mountain range in South Arabia, lying to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is composed of basalt and is over 8500 feet high. The following mountains belong to the Ḥarāz: ¶ Lahāb (with Ḏj̲ebel Mebʾar, Ḏj̲ebel Med̲h̲erre, Ḏj̲ebel S̲h̲ukruf, Ḏj̲ebel Lakama), Hawzan …

Ḏj̲aʿda

(470 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(ʿĀmir), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, now ʿĀmir land, also called S̲h̲afel, lies to the west of the land of the Yāfiʿa [q. v.] and is for the most part mountainous. The soil is fertile in the north and produces dates with a little coffee and tobacco. The largest Wādī is the W. Nūra, into which flows the W. Dabāb. Near the latter lies the Ḏj̲ebel Arḍ T̲h̲awba, on which stand three ancient Himyarite castles. The chief town is Ḏh̲alaʿ (also called Blad S̲h̲afel) with about iooo inhabitan…

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḏh̲iēb, “wolf”) a South Arabian tribe. Their land lies between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [q. v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the Ḏh̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are mostly occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairielike pasture land. In the east of the district is a mountain of some size, the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥamrā (over 4000 feet high). The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The Ḏh̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of robbers and are therefore feared throughout South Arabia. They are Ḳabāʾil (free, independent tribes) and are considered as genuine Ḥimyars; their slogan ( ṣark̲h̲a, ʿazwa) is: anā d̲h̲ēb (d̲h̲īb) Ḥamyar (Ḥimyar) “I am the wolf of the Ḥimyars”. They have no common Sulṭān, and the various branches of the tribe are ruled by S̲h̲aik̲h̲s, called Abū (“father”), whom they only heed in case of war. The most influential S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of the Ḏh̲iʾāb lives in ʿArg̲h̲a (ʿÖrg̲h̲a, ʿIrg̲h̲a). (J. Schleifer) Bibliography v. Maltzan, Reise nach Südarabien (B…

al-Hofhūf

(903 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hofuf, Foof), a town in Arabia, capital of the province of Ḥasā (Ḥaṣā [see al-aḥsā. The town, which is surrounded by extensive gardens and datepalm groves, is divided into three parts; 1. the Kōt (fortress) in the northeast); 2. the Rafʿīya (Refeyʾīya, “eminence” so called on account of its rising ground, in the northwest and west); 3. the Naʿāthar (in the south and west). The Kōt, a large fortress with very high, thick wa…

al-Ḥuwaiṭāt

(809 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hwēṭāt, Haweiṭāt, Ḥowētat, Howeytat, Howadat, Howahtat; sing. Ḥuwaiṭī), an Arab tribe in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz and on the Sinai peninsula; their settlements in the Ḥid̲j̲āz reach southwards from al-ʿAḳaba to beyond al-Wad̲j̲h; they are neighbours of the Balī. [q. v.] and Ḏj̲uhaina [q. v.] with the latter of whom they are on bad terms. Formerly the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām [q. v.] occupied their settlements. …

Ḥud̲j̲rīya

(448 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, (Hogriyia, Hödsyerīe), the name of a tribe in South Arabia. Their land lies to the north of the land of the Sobēḥī (Subaiḥī, [q. v.]) between 43° 40′ and 44° 42′ East Long. Greenw. and 13° 5′ and 13° 15’ North. Lat. and is entirely mountainous. The climate is tropical; the principal product is coffee. Among the mountains we may mention Ḏj̲ebel Ṣabr (Ṣabir [q. v.]) which is described by Hamdāni in his Ḏj̲azīra as a very high mountain, among wādīs, the Wādī Warazān which joins the Wādī Tubban, the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], and belonged in Hamdānī’s time to the Sakāsi…

Ḥufās̲h̲

(197 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, on the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyarī Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rays̲h̲ān. In Hamdānī’s time the latter was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque (called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir) on its summit, S̲h̲āhir. It was popularly believed (also according to Hamdānī) that not fa…

Ḥarb

(497 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, puissante tribu arabe originaire du Yémen, et établie au Ḥid̲j̲āz entre la Mekke et Médine. Elle se divise en deux grandes branches: les Banū Sālim et les Muṣrūḥ. Aux B. Salīm appartiennent entre autres les sous-tribus suivantes: al-Hamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (ne pas confondre avec la grande tribu bien connue), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); aux Muṣrūḥ, appartiennent entre autres: Saʿdī (Saʿadì), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Les localités des B. Sālim (entre Médine et Yanbuʿ et sur…

Ḥāsik

(534 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), ville du Mahra [ q.v.], située à l’Est de Mirbāṭ [ q.v.], à 17° 21′ de lat. Nord et 55° 23′ de long. Est, au pied de la haute montagne de Nūs (Lūs); c’est le ‘Aσίχων du Périple de la mer Erythrée. Devant la ville, se trouve ce qu’on appelle la «baie aux herbes» (Ḏj̲ūn al-ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), la baie de Ḥāsik (Raʾs Ḥāsik), nommée aussi baie de Kuria et de Muria d’après deux îles situées en face (Ḵh̲aryān et Maryān chez al-Idrīsī). Al-Idrīsl dit que Ḥāsik est une petite ville fortifiée, à quatre journées de marche à l’Est de Mirbāṭ, ave…

Ḥāmī

(180 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, localité située sur le littoral du Ḥaḍramawt, à environ 25 km. au Nord-est de S̲h̲iḥr [ q.v.], près du Raʾs S̲h̲arma, dans une contrée très pittoresque et très fertile. Elle appartient, de même que Makalla et S̲h̲iḥr, aux Ḳuʿayṭis de S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] et possède, comme son nom l’indique, des sources thermales (sulfureuses) à la…

Ḥufās̲h̲

(199 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, haute montagne de l’Arabie du Sud appartenant à la chaîne d’al-Maṣāniʿ du groupe d’al-Sarāt, sur le Wādī Surdud, près de Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. Elle est souvent citée par al-Hamdānī, en même temps que la grande montagne voisine de Milḥān (qui doit son nom au Ḥimyarite Miḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik, et dont le nom réel était Rays̲h̲ān). A l’époque d’al-Hamdānī, cette dernière n…

Banū ‘l-Ḥarit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb

(873 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, tribu arabe appartenant au groupe yéménite et appelée ordinairement Balḥārit̲h̲. La généalogie des Balḥārit̲h̲ est la suivante: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). Ils habitaient le territoire de Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.] et étaient voisins des Hamdān. Parmi les localités qui leur appartenaient, on cite entre autres: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿĀd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲uhāb, Ḏh̲ū l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ (pl Afrāṭ, entre Nad̲j̲rān et le Ḏj̲awf), Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā). ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (entre le Ḥid̲j̲āz et la Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥ…

D̲h̲amār

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(227 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
, “the wolves”, a South Arabian tribe whose lands lie between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [ q.v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the D̲h̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are largely occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairie-like pasture land. In the east of the distict is a mountain of some size, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrā, over 4000 ft. high. The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The D̲h̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of ¶ robbers, and are therefore…

Ḏh̲amār

(414 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(ou Ḏh̲imār, voir Yāḳūt, s.v.), district ( mik̲h̲lāf) et ville de l’Arabie méridionale, au Sud de Ṣanʿāʾ, sur la route de Ṣanʿāʾ à ʿAdan, près de la forteresse de Hirrān. Le district de Ḏh̲amār était très fertile, et possédait de riches champs de blé, de magnifiques jardins et de nombreux et anciens palais et citadelles. On l’appelait, à cause de sa fertilité, le Miṣr du Yaman. Les chevaux de Ḏh̲amar étaient célèbres dans tout le Yaman pour leurs pedigrees. On citait comme faisant partie du district de Ḏh̲amār les localités suivantes: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb,…

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
«les loups», tribu de l’Arabie du Sud dont le territoire s’étend entre le pays des Bas ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] et celui des Bas Wāḥidis [q.v.]. Il y a aussi un grand nombre de Ḏh̲iʾāb qui sont installés dans le pays des Bas Wāḥidis, dont ils peuplent pour une bonne part les villages. Le sol est stérile et couvert en majeure partie de pâturages de steppe. A l’Est de ce territoire s’élève une montagne assez importante, le Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrā, qui dépasse 1300 m. de hauteur. La localité la plus importante est le village de pêcheurs de Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) dont le port est très prospère. Les Ḏh̲iʾāb forment une tribu s…

Hamdān

(578 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large Arab tribe of the Yemen group, the full genealogy being Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-K̲h̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Their territory lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [ q.v.], stretching eastwar…

Had̲j̲arayn

(330 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, ville du Ḥaḍramawt sur le Ḏj̲abal du même nom, à environ huit kilomètres au Sud de Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī [ q.v.] sur le Wādī Dūʿan. Située au milieu de palmeraies, elle est adossée aux pentes du Ḏj̲abal. Les terres environnantes sont très fertiles et produisent le d̲h̲ ura. L’irrigation provenant du sayl et de puits très profonds est assurée au moyen de canaux. La ville tire son importance de sa situation sur la route Mukallā-S̲h̲ibām. Ses maisons sont grandes et construites en brique, mais le…

Ḥabbān

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, ville du sultanat wāḥidī de l’ancien protectorat d’Aden, située dans le wādī du même nom. Elle est très ancienne, et il se peut qu’elle soit mentionnée dès 400 av. J.-C. dans l’inscription RES 3945. De nombreux graffiti anciens ont été relevés dans les environs, et il est possible qu’une canalisation d’eau souterraine conduisant à un réservoir dans la ville date de l’époque préislamique. On ne connaît pas le nombre de ses habitants, mais il était évalué à 4000 au milieu du XIX…

Ḥud̲j̲riyya

(507 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L. O.
(Ḥogariyya),nom d’une tribu et d’une division administrative ( ḳadāʾ «district») du Yémen qui constitue l’un des quatre districts de la province ( liwāʾ) de Ta’izz; ce ḳaḍāʾ est situé à l’Est de celui d’al-Mak̲h̲āʾ et au Sud-ouest de Taʿizz, sur la frontière de la Fédération d’Arabie du Sud. La région est entièrement montagneuse, bien cultivée (café, céréales) et riche en béta…

Ḥaḍūr

(516 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
(Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb), massif montagneux du Yémen sur la crête orientale du Sarāt Alhān, à environ 19 km. à l’Ouest de Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], entre les wādīs Sihām et Surdūd. Il est séparé de la chaîne du Ḥarāz à l’Ouest par la Ḥaymat alḴh̲ārid̲j̲yya [ q.v.], connue du temps d’al-Hamdānī sous le nom de Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ et habitée par les Sulayḥ, branche des Hamdān. Le massif est ainsi nommé en souvenir de Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, ancêtre du prophète S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam qui est cité dans le Ḳurʾān (sourate VII, 83 sq. et XI, 85 sq.); S̲h̲u’ayb…

al-Ḥāḍina

(237 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, petite région indépendante de l’Arabie du Sud, aujourd’hui dans le sultanat du Haut-ʿAwlaḳī. C’est une des régions les plus fertiles de l’Arabie du Sud, irriguée par des canaux venant du Wādī ʿAbadān. Les produits du sol, qui est d’origine volcanique, comprennent l’indigo, exporté à al-Ḥawṭa, le d̲h̲ura et le millet. Al-Ḥāḍina est habitée par la tribu des Ahl Ḵh̲alīfa qui prétend descendre des Hilāl [ q.v.]: quand ces derniers émigrèrent de l’Arabie du Sud, elle resta sur place, d’où son nom de Ḵh̲alīfa. Dans le passé, elle ne reconnaissait, en temps normal,…

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(567 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
, name (“Crow Castle”) of a mountain bearing on its summit the ruins of an ancient castle, situated on the southern coast of Arabia in the territory of the Wāḥidī [ q.v.] sultanate at the eastern end of the South Arabian Federation, near the small town of Bīr ʿAlī (14° N., 48° 19′ E.). The mountain, which is of volcanic origin like several small islands in its vicinity and has its name because of its conspicuous blackish brown colour, is connected with the mainland, as it was already in the 1st century A…

Hilāl

(2,768 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, eponymous ancestor of the tribe of the Banū Hilāl whom the Arab genealogists trace back to Muḍar according to the following lineage: Muḍar → ʿAylān → Ḳays → K̲h̲aṣafa → ʿ Ikrima → Manṣūr → Hawāzin → Bakr → Muʿāwiya → Ṣaʿṣaʿa →ʿ Amīr → Hilāl. Its three main divisions were the At̲h̲bad̲j̲, the Riyāḥ and the Zug̲h̲ba. This tribe naturally played its part along with the other groups of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa in the pre-Islamic tribal struggles or Ayyām al-ʿArab [ q.v.] and in the affairs connected with the beginning of Islam such as that of Biʾr Maʿūna [ q.v.]. It is likely that it did not support I…

Ḥud̲j̲riyya

(506 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
(Ḥogariyya), name of a tribe, and of an administrative division ( ḳaḍāʾ , district) in the Yaman, one of the four districts in the province ( liwāʾ ) of Taʿizz. It is to the east of the ḳaḍāʾ of al-Mak̲h̲āʾ and to the south-west of Taʿizz, on the frontier of the South-Arabian Federation. The area is entirely mountainous, well-cultivated (coffee, cereals) and rich in livestock; according to Hey worth-Dunne it is famous for producing a kind of ass called sawriḳiyya . The number of inhabitants in this district was given by the same author in 1952 as 192,3…

Ḥaḍūr

(482 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
( Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb ), a mountain massif in the Yemen on the eastern edge of the Sarāt Alhān, some twelve miles west of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], lying between the wādīs Sihām and Surdūd. It is separated from the Ḥarāz range to the west by the Ḥaymat al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲iwa [ q.v.], known in Hamdānī’s time as the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ and inhabited by the Sulayḥ, a branch of Hamdān. The massif is named after Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the Prophet S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam, who is mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra VII, 83 f. and XI, 85 f.). He had been sent to preach to an…

Ḥabbān

(417 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in the Wāḥidī Sultanate of the former Aden Protectorate, situated in the wādī of the same name. It is very old and may be referred to as early as 400 B.C. in the inscription RES 3945. Many ancient graffiti have been copied in the vicinity and a subterranean water-conduit leading to a cistern within the city may be pre-Islamic. The population figure is not known but was estimated at 4,000 in the mid-nineteenth century. The town is dominated by the walled fortress of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir which stands on an isolated hill in the midd…

Had̲j̲arayn

(340 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in Ḥaḍramawt on the D̲j̲abal of the same name, about five miles south of Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī [ q.v.] on the Wādī Dūʿan. Situated amid extensive palm-groves, it is built against the slopes of the D̲j̲abal. The surrounding land is very fertile and produces d̲h̲ura . Irrigation is provided through channels from the say ! and from very deep wells. The town is of importance as a centre on the motor road between Mukallā and S̲h̲ibām. Its houses are built of brick and are large but the streets are narrow and steep. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaytīs of S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] who are represented in it by a member…

ʿAḳrabī

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Stern, S.M.
(plural: ʿAḳārib), a Soutb Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of Aden. Their territory, stretching on the coast line from Biʾr Aḥmad to Raʾs ʿImrān, is very small (a few square miles only). It is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥid̲j̲, which here is nearly always dry; as rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmad, with a few hundred inhabitants and the castle of the sultan. The ʿAḳārib, according to the Rasūlid al-As̲h̲raf, Turfat al-Aṣḥāb (Zetterstéen), 56, 57, belonged to the Kuḍāʿa (text obs…

Hilāl

(2,573 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, ancêtre éponyme de la tribu des Banū Hilāl que les généalogistes arabes font descendre de Muḍar selon cette filiation: Muḍar — ʿAylān — Ḳays –––Ḵh̲aṣafa ––––ʿIkrima –––– Manṣūr –––– Hawāzin ––––Bakr ––––Muʿāwiya ––––Ṣaʿṣaʿa ––– ʿĀmir –––Hilāl. Ses trois principales fractions étaient les At̲h̲bad̲j̲, les Riyāḥ et les Zug̲h̲ba. Cette tribu joua naturellement son rôle aux côtés des autres groupes des ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa dans les luttes tribales préislamiques ou Ayyām al- ʿArab [ q.v.] et dans les affaires du début de l’Islam du genre de celle de Biʾr Ma’ūna [ q.v.]. Elle ne se rallia sans…

ʿAḳrabī

(234 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Stern, S.M.
(pluriel: ʿAḳārib), tribu sudarabique, au voisinage d’Aden. Son territoire, s’étendant dans la bande côtière entre Biʾr Aḥmad et Raʾs ʿImrān, est très exigu (quelques km. carrés seulement). Il est traversé par le cours inférieur de la rivière de Laḥid̲j̲, qui en cet endroit est presque toujours à sec; les pluies étant à peu près inexistantes, le sol est dénudé et ne produit pas grand’chose. La ville principale est Biʾr Aḥmad, qui renferme quelques centaines d’habitants et le palais du sultan. Les ʿAḳārib, selon le rasūlide al-As̲h̲raf, Ṭurfat al-aṣḥāb (Zetterstéen), 56, 57, faisai…

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(568 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
(château du corbeau), nom d’une montagne au sommet de laquelle subsistent ¶ les ruines d’un ancien château, sur la côte méridionale de l’Arabie, dans le territoire du sultanat Wāḥidī [ q.v.], à l’extrémité orientale de la Fédération sudarabique, près de la petite ville de Bir ʿAlī (14° N., 48° 19′ E.). La montagne, qui est d’origine volcanique comme plusieurs petites îles du voisinage et doit son nom à sa couleur d’un brun noirâtre caractéristique, est reliée au continent, comme elle l’était déjà au Ier siècle de notre ère, par une bande de terrain sablonneux. En forme de prom…
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