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G̲h̲assān

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(G̲h̲assānids), an Arab dynasty in Syria, of Yamanī origin. They were monophysite Christians and were under the suzerainty of the Byzantine Emperors, whose frontiers they had to defend against the Fersians and their vassals, the Lak̲h̲mids of Ḥīra. Their rule extended approximately over the province of Arabia (roughly the Ḥawrān district and Balḳāʾ), Phoenicia ad Libanum, Palestina Prima and Secunda. In contrast co their relatives and natural enemies, the Lak̲h̲mids, to whom they were far superi…

Ḥanẓala

(525 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Mālik, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī group. Its genealogy is Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm. Among its more important subdivisions were the Barād̲j̲im (to which the poet Farazdaḳ belonged), Dārim and Yarbūʿ. The poet ʿAlḳama b. ʿAbada traced his descent from the Hanẓala. They dwelled between the two sandhills of Ḏj̲urād and Marrūt near Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Yamāma. The villages of al-Ṣammān (with many wells, cisterns and irrigation works), al-Raḳmatān, the Wādīs al-G̲h̲umain and al-ʿIrḳ, the lakes Ḵh̲abī (Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 203, probably by error, Ḏj̲abī) and…

Faḍlī

(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west …

Ḥalī

(273 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haly, Hhaly), a town in Arabia, lying to the south of Ḳonfude on the border between the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen on the Wādī ʿAs̲h̲r, with the small harbour of Marsā Ḥalī and the mountain spur of Raʾs Ḥalī (the latter according to Niebuhr in N. Lat. 18° 36′). Ibn Baṭūṭa, who visited the town on his journey to Yemen in 1331 a. d., gives it the name Ḥalī b. Yaʿḳūb and ¶ describes it as a flourishing seaport with fine buildings and a splendid mosque. The Sulṭān, who was at that time ruling the town, belonged to the Kināna [q. v.] and was a gifted poet and a model of Arabia…

Ḥarb

(454 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medīna. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālem and B. Moṣrūḥ. To the B. Salem belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Welad Selīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzaina, al-Hwāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Moṣrūḥ, amongst others; Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba (all robbers of pilgrims), Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū Ḥasseyn (all As̲h̲rāf), and Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages …

Ḥarīb

(787 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, about two days’ journey east of Maʾrib [q. v.] probably identical with the Caripeta of Pliny, the place from which the Roman general Aelius Gallus on his expedition to Arabia Felix began his retreat to the coast. Ḥarīb, a centre of ancient Arab civilisation, is traversed by a large wādī, the Wādī ʿAin, which receives on its left bank two small wādīs, the Wādī Mukbal and Wādī Ablaḥ. Two hours’ journey before reaching Wādī ʿAin rises Mount Mablaḳa, to which a series o…

al-Ḥarīḳ

(251 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Haryk), a province in Ned̲j̲d in the South of Yamāma lying on the edge of the great desert (Dahnā). The mountain range of this very warm district is said by Palgrave to be about 60—70 miles long. Ḥūta is the most important place in the country. During the Wahhābī wars after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] Ḥarīḳ was subdued by Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. After the Wahhābīs had regained Ned̲j̲d and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, a rebellion broke out against the chief ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿūd in Ḥarīḳ as in the adjoining Yamā…

Ḥāsik

(486 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), a town in the Mahra country [q. v.], east of Mirbāṭ [q. v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ’Ασίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei. Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (Ḏj̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Ra’s Ḥāsik), also called Kurya and Murya Bay after the two islands lying opposite (Ḵh̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here …

Ḥufās̲h̲

(216 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, dn the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [q. v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī in his ¶ Ḏj̲azīra, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyar Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rais̲h̲ān. Not far from the latter, (which in Hamdānī’s time was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque [called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir] on its summit, S̲h̲āhir), there lies a treasure, according to…

al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(642 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲er, Hadscher, Hödscher, al-Hhegr in Ritter) a town in Arabia, a day’s journey from Wādi ’l-Ḳura [q. v.] south of Taima [q. v.] identical with the ancient commercial town of ῞Εγρα in Ptolemy and Egra in Pliny. The town no longer exists. At present the name al-Ḥid̲j̲r is given by the Bedouins to the flat valley between Mabrak al-Nāḳa (Mazḥam) and Bīr al-G̲h̲anam which stretches for several miles and has a fertile soil with many wells at which numerous Bedouins encamp with their herds. Two road…

al-Ḥawṭa

(267 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hōta), a town in South Arabia in the land of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.] on the Wādī ʿAmaḳīn. It has over 1000 inhabitants who belong for the most part to the Mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the family of Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, who is said to be descended from ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī (flourished in the vith century), about 100 fortresslike houses and in addition to a large mosque has seven smaller ones, a large market with shops, many looms and a considerable cotton industry. Al-Ḥāwṭā is a free, independent town and pays no taxes. Next to ʿĪnāt [q. v.] it is the most ¶ important place of refuge in South Arabia. T…

Ḏh̲amār

(420 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(d̲h̲imār, damar, the of the ¶ Sabaean inscriptions), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf) and town in South Arabia, to the south of Ṣanʿā. The district of Ḏh̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertitily it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of Ḏh̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of Ḏh̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and Ḏh̲amūrān (the women of these two pl…

Barahūt

(521 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Balahūt, also written Burhūt), a Wādī in Ḥaḍramawt, on the verge of which, at the foot of a volcanic mountain, is the famous Biʾr Barahūt, the spring of Barahūt. According to the native accounts this is a fissure 33 feet long by 25 broad, at its entrance filled with burning sulphur. The stink of the sulphur and the bubbling of the spring (the noise of the volcano?) have given rise to the story that the souls of unbelievers predestined to hell are waiting here and cry out in the night time: “O Duma! O Duma!” in tones of woe. There used to be a proverb, as Hamdānī tells us in his Ḏj̲azīra among proverbial…

Ḥārit̲h̲

(834 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, usually called Balḥārit̲h̲, an arab tribe belonging to the Yemenī group. Their genealogy is: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). They lived in the district of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and were neighbours of the Hamdān. The following places amongst others belonged to them: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿAd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲ahāb, Dsu ’l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ [pl. Afrāt, between Nad̲j̲rān and the Ḏj̲awf], Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā), ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (between Ḥid̲j̲āz and Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥbal, Ṣamʿar, Sūḥān or Sawḥā…

Fazāra

(556 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a tribe in North Arabia. Their genealogy is: Fazāra b. Ḏh̲ubyān b. Bag̲h̲iẓ b. G̲h̲ait̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aṭafān. They dwelled on the Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Ḥalāl. Among places which belonged to the Fazāra, there are mentioned: ʿAdama, al-Akādir, Aẓfār, Baldaḥ, Barḳ, Ḏj̲us̲h̲s̲h̲ Aʿyār, al-Dīl, Ḏj̲anafā, al-Ḏj̲ināb (between Medīna and Faid), Dāra Dāt̲h̲ir, Yaraʿa, Kunaib, al-Luḳāṭa, Ḳinn, Ṣubḥ (on Mount ʿUrfa, a place of some size), S̲h̲uʿabā, Urul and ʿUraina. Among mountains: Abā…

Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb

(519 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia to the north of the country of the Raṣṣāṣ and Upper ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.], the most important of the lands lying between Yaman and Ḥaḍramawt. It was a centre of early Arab culture and has many ruins and numerous inscriptions. The population, the most prominent in all South Arabia, is capable and enterprising, and the ground very fertile because of the numerous springs. Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb is inhabited by a tribe, the Muṣʿabain i. e. the two (sons of) Muṣʿab, Aḥmad and ʿArīf fr…

Iyād

(1,148 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a great Arab tribe belonging to the ¶ Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is Iyād b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān. The Rabīʿa, Anmār and Muḍar were consanguineous tribes of the Iyād. A section of the Iyād professed Christianity. The poet Abū Dūʾād, famous for his descriptions of the horse, and the celebrated Ḳuss b. Sāʿida were members of the Iyād. At first they dwelt in Tihāmn up to the borders of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.]. In the first half of the iiird century they emigrated in large bodies to Eastern ʿIrāḳ and thence to Mesopotamia. Among their settlements were: Anbār (they …

Ḥaḍramawt

(3,096 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(the of the South Arabian inscriptions), now pronounced Ḥaḍramūt, a land in Arabia in the east of Yemen between 47° and 53° East. Long, and 15° and 19° North. Lat. It is bounded in the south by the sea, in the southeast by the land of Mahra, in the N. E., N. and N.W. by the great Central Arabian desert, in the S. W. by the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥaḍramawt is according to Arab tradition derived from Ḥaḍramawt b. Ḥimyar .…b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān (Ḥaṣarmāweth, the son of Yoḳtan in Genesis x. 26). In ancient times Ḥaḍramawt was celebrated as a land of frankincense …

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(638 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(‘Raven Castle’), a hill with a fortress upon it in South Arabia, near the harbour of Bir ʿAlī Mad̲j̲daḥa in 30° 59’ 20” North. Lat. and 45° 24’ 30” East. Long, in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The harbour of Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb in ancient times was the well-known Cane Emporium (Κανὴ ἐμπόριον) of the Periplus Maris Erythraei and of Ptolemy, the of the South Arabian inscriptions), a very important centre for the frankincense trade of the neighbourhood and an intermediate station for the trade between Egypt and India. The name Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb is derived from…

Hutaim

(490 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Heteim, Hatēmi, Tehmī, Ḥitēm, plūr. Hutaimān, Hetaimān), alarge tribe ofnomads which is scattered throughout the Ḥid̲j̲āz, Nad̲j̲d and Egypt. Their chief settlements are at Ḏj̲idda, Līt̲h̲, and al-Wad̲j̲h; smaller bodies of the Hutaim live near al-Ḥid̲j̲r, al-ʿUlā (ʿAlly), Ḵh̲aibar (here they are makers of cheese), in the Ḥarrat al-Et̲h̲nān (near Ḵh̲aibar), on the Wādi ’l-Rumma above Medīna, where they are neighbours of the Ḥarb, and in the vicinity of Mecca. In Egypt they are found south of Ḥelwā…

Ḥuraimila

(143 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥoreymela), a town in Arabia in the north of Riyāḍ [q. v.], the capital of Ned̲j̲d, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) on the borders between the latter and the province of ʿĀriḍ, the birthplace of the founder of the Wahhābī sect, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. It is surrounded by strong fortifications and in 1861 had, according to Palgrave, 10,000 inhabitants. Inside the town on an elevation is a large fortified citadel of architectural importance, which was erected along with the other citadels in Ned̲j̲d after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] by the Egyptians under ¶ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Durin…

Ḥaws̲h̲abī

(244 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(plural Ḥawas̲h̲ib), a tribe in South Arabia, of pure Ḥimyarite descent. Their land lies roughly between 44° 45′ and 45° 5′ East Long. (Greenw.) and between 13° 11′and 13° 30′ North Lat. and is bounded in the south by Laḥd̲j̲ (Laḥed̲j̲) [q. v.], in the west by the land of the Ṣubaiḥī (Šobēḥī) [q. v.] and of the Ḥud̲j̲rīyā [q. v.], in the north by the land of the Ḏj̲aʿda [q. v.] and in the east by the lower Yāfiʿ. The climate is tropical, the land fertile, producing wheat, coffee and cotton. Among…

Had̲j̲arēn

(312 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲arīn), a town in Ḥaḍramūt on the d̲j̲ebel of the same name, S.W. of Mes̲h̲hed ʿAlī [q. v.] on the Wādī Dawʿān (Dōʿan) situated in extremely picturesque country. It is surrounded by extensive palmgroves and reminds one of many mediaeval castles on the Rhine. As a centre of traffic between the coast and the interior of Ḥaḍramūt it is of importance. The houses of the town are built of bricks and are large but the streets are narrow and dirty. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], who are represented in it by a member of their family, who bears the title naḳīb and lives in a splendid p…

Ḥās̲h̲id and Bakīl

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large confederation of tribes in South Arabia. The genealogy of the Ḥās̲h̲id is given by the Arabs of South Arabia at the present day as Ḥās̲h̲id al-Aṣg̲h̲ar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Nawf b. Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Hamdān. Bakīl is held by them to be the son of Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar. Their land, called by Niebuhr Balad al-Ḳabāʾil “land of the tribes”, lies near Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] and stretches eastwards to Maʾrib [q. v.].and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and northwards right up to the desert as far as eastwards of Ṣaʿda [q. v.]. The Ḥās̲h̲id, who number 22,000 warriors, are divided into three main g…

ʿId̲j̲l

(610 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a North Arabian tribe, an inportant branch of the Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.]. Their ancestor ʿId̲j̲l b. Lud̲j̲aim was notorious for his stupidity and the expression “more stupid than ʿId̲j̲l” was proverbial (cf. Goldziher, Muh. Stud., i. 48, n. 3). During the heathen period they formed a portion of the so-called Lahāzimgroup, which included the Ḏh̲uhl and Yas̲h̲kur. Some of them professed Christianity. Abū Nad̲j̲m, the rad̲j̲az poet, belonged to the ʿId̲j̲l. They lived in al-Yamāma (al-Ḵh̲iḍrima, al-Ḵh̲aḍārim, also called Ḏj̲aww al-Ḵh̲iḍrima) and in the country between K…

Ḥarāz

(697 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haras, Harras, Harrāz), a high mountain range in South Arabia, lying to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is composed of basalt and is over 8500 feet high. The following mountains belong to the Ḥarāz: ¶ Lahāb (with Ḏj̲ebel Mebʾar, Ḏj̲ebel Med̲h̲erre, Ḏj̲ebel S̲h̲ukruf, Ḏj̲ebel Lakama), Hawzan of the South Arabian inscriptions, with the Ḏj̲ebel Ḳārad and Kāhil) and S̲h̲ibām, Masār and joined to the latter, Ṣaʿfān. Of places in Ḥarāz we may mention the large town of Manāk̲h̲a (southeast o…

Ḏj̲aʿda

(470 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(ʿĀmir), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, now ʿĀmir land, also called S̲h̲afel, lies to the west of the land of the Yāfiʿa [q. v.] and is for the most part mountainous. The soil is fertile in the north and produces dates with a little coffee and tobacco. The largest Wādī is the W. Nūra, into which flows the W. Dabāb. Near the latter lies the Ḏj̲ebel Arḍ T̲h̲awba, on which stand three ancient Himyarite castles. The chief town is Ḏh̲alaʿ (also called Blad S̲h̲afel) with about iooo inhabitan…

Fadak

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Demin. Fudaik), a town in Arabia not far from Ḵh̲aibar [q. v.] and like the latter inhabited by Jews. In the year 6 = 627 Muḥammed sent ʿAlī, afterwards Caliph, against Fadak as he had learned that the people of the latter town were going to support the Jews in Ḵh̲aibar. When Ḵh̲aibar was taken in the following year, the Jews of Fadak also submitted and agreed to give up half of their possessions. Muḥaiyiṣa b. Masʿūd conducted the negotiations between the Prophet and the people of Fadak and was …

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḏh̲iēb, “wolf”) a South Arabian tribe. Their land lies between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [q. v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the Ḏh̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are mostly occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairielike pasture land. In the east of the district is a mountain of some size, the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥamrā (over 4000 feet high). The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The Ḏh̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of robbers and are th…

al-Hofhūf

(903 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hofuf, Foof), a town in Arabia, capital of the province of Ḥasā (Ḥaṣā [see al-aḥsā. The town, which is surrounded by extensive gardens and datepalm groves, is divided into three parts; 1. the Kōt (fortress) in the northeast); 2. the Rafʿīya (Refeyʾīya, “eminence” so called on account of its rising ground, in the northwest and west); 3. the Naʿāthar (in the south and west). The Kōt, a large fortress with very high, thick walls and towers (about 16 on each side with winding stairways) is about 500 yards long a…

al-Ḥuwaiṭāt

(809 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hwēṭāt, Haweiṭāt, Ḥowētat, Howeytat, Howadat, Howahtat; sing. Ḥuwaiṭī), an Arab tribe in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz and on the Sinai peninsula; their settlements in the Ḥid̲j̲āz reach southwards from al-ʿAḳaba to beyond al-Wad̲j̲h; they are neighbours of the Balī. [q. v.] and Ḏj̲uhaina [q. v.] with the latter of whom they are on bad terms. Formerly the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām [q. v.] occupied their settlements. There is a large settlement of the Ḥuwaiṭāt on the Wādī Maḳnā, where they have many huts and thick palmgroves; they only stay here during the date-harvest. Between …

Ḥud̲j̲rīya

(448 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, (Hogriyia, Hödsyerīe), the name of a tribe in South Arabia. Their land lies to the north of the land of the Sobēḥī (Subaiḥī, [q. v.]) between 43° 40′ and 44° 42′ East Long. Greenw. and 13° 5′ and 13° 15’ North. Lat. and is entirely mountainous. The climate is tropical; the principal product is coffee. Among the mountains we may mention Ḏj̲ebel Ṣabr (Ṣabir [q. v.]) which is described by Hamdāni in his Ḏj̲azīra as a very high mountain, among wādīs, the Wādī Warazān which joins the Wādī Tubban, the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], and belonged in Hamdānī’s time to the Sakāsi…

ʿAwāliḳ

(458 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sg. ʿAwlaḳî, Beduin Mawweleḳ and Mawleḳî), dynastic name of a group of tribes ¶ in South Arabia. Their country is bounded in the South by the Arabian. seq, in the West by Dat̲h̲īna (in the southern part), by the land of the Awādil (in the centre) and by that of the Razāz (in the northern part); in the Northwest by the Kaṣâb (Gazāb), in the Northeast and the upper part of the East by the land of the upper Wāḥidī and in the lower (southern) part of the East by the land of the Ḏh̲īabi (Ḏh̲iēbi). The whole coun…

Ḥufās̲h̲

(197 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, on the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyarī Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rays̲h̲ān. In Hamdānī’s time the latter was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque (called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir) on its summit, S̲h̲āhir. It was popularly believed (also according to Hamdānī) that not fa…

Ḥarb

(497 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, puissante tribu arabe originaire du Yémen, et établie au Ḥid̲j̲āz entre la Mekke et Médine. Elle se divise en deux grandes branches: les Banū Sālim et les Muṣrūḥ. Aux B. Salīm appartiennent entre autres les sous-tribus suivantes: al-Hamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (ne pas confondre avec la grande tribu bien connue), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); aux Muṣrūḥ, appartiennent entre autres: Saʿdī (Saʿadì), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Les localités des B. Sālim (entre Médine et Yanbuʿ et sur…

Ḥāsik

(534 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), ville du Mahra [ q.v.], située à l’Est de Mirbāṭ [ q.v.], à 17° 21′ de lat. Nord et 55° 23′ de long. Est, au pied de la haute montagne de Nūs (Lūs); c’est le ‘Aσίχων du Périple de la mer Erythrée. Devant la ville, se trouve ce qu’on appelle la «baie aux herbes» (Ḏj̲ūn al-ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), la baie de Ḥāsik (Raʾs Ḥāsik), nommée aussi baie de Kuria et de Muria d’après deux îles situées en face (Ḵh̲aryān et Maryān chez al-Idrīsī). Al-Idrīsl dit que Ḥāsik est une petite ville fortifiée, à quatre journées de marche à l’Est de Mirbāṭ, ave…

Ḥāmī

(180 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, localité située sur le littoral du Ḥaḍramawt, à environ 25 km. au Nord-est de S̲h̲iḥr [ q.v.], près du Raʾs S̲h̲arma, dans une contrée très pittoresque et très fertile. Elle appartient, de même que Makalla et S̲h̲iḥr, aux Ḳuʿayṭis de S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] et possède, comme son nom l’indique, des sources thermales (sulfureuses) à la température de l’eau bouillante. Les maisons de cette petite ville sont bâties en argile et basses; au milieu de la ville et sur la plage se trouvent deux ḥiṣnṣ importants. La plupart des habitants sont pêcheurs; S.B. Haines prétendait en 1839 que leur …

Ḥufās̲h̲

(199 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, haute montagne de l’Arabie du Sud appartenant à la chaîne d’al-Maṣāniʿ du groupe d’al-Sarāt, sur le Wādī Surdud, près de Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. Elle est souvent citée par al-Hamdānī, en même temps que la grande montagne voisine de Milḥān (qui doit son nom au Ḥimyarite Miḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik, et dont le nom réel était Rays̲h̲ān). A l’époque d’al-Hamdānī, cette dernière ne possédait pas moins, dit-on, de 99 sources et portait à son sommet, qui s’appelait S̲h̲āhir, une grande mosquée (Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir). D’après la croyance p…

Banū ‘l-Ḥarit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb

(873 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, tribu arabe appartenant au groupe yéménite et appelée ordinairement Balḥārit̲h̲. La généalogie des Balḥārit̲h̲ est la suivante: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). Ils habitaient le territoire de Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.] et étaient voisins des Hamdān. Parmi les localités qui leur appartenaient, on cite entre autres: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿĀd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲uhāb, Ḏh̲ū l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ (pl Afrāṭ, entre Nad̲j̲rān et le Ḏj̲awf), Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā). ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (entre le Ḥid̲j̲āz et la Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥ…

D̲h̲amār

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf ) and town in South Arabia, south of Ṣanʿā, on the Ṣanʿā-ʿAdan road, near the fortress of Hirrān. The district of D̲h̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens, and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertility it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of D̲h̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of D̲h̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and D̲h̲amūrān (…

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(227 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
, “the wolves”, a South Arabian tribe whose lands lie between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [ q.v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the D̲h̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are largely occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairie-like pasture land. In the east of the distict is a mountain of some size, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrā, over 4000 ft. high. The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The D̲h̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of ¶ robbers, and are therefore…

Ḏh̲amār

(414 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(ou Ḏh̲imār, voir Yāḳūt, s.v.), district ( mik̲h̲lāf) et ville de l’Arabie méridionale, au Sud de Ṣanʿāʾ, sur la route de Ṣanʿāʾ à ʿAdan, près de la forteresse de Hirrān. Le district de Ḏh̲amār était très fertile, et possédait de riches champs de blé, de magnifiques jardins et de nombreux et anciens palais et citadelles. On l’appelait, à cause de sa fertilité, le Miṣr du Yaman. Les chevaux de Ḏh̲amar étaient célèbres dans tout le Yaman pour leurs pedigrees. On citait comme faisant partie du district de Ḏh̲amār les localités suivantes: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb,…

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
«les loups», tribu de l’Arabie du Sud dont le territoire s’étend entre le pays des Bas ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] et celui des Bas Wāḥidis [q.v.]. Il y a aussi un grand nombre de Ḏh̲iʾāb qui sont installés dans le pays des Bas Wāḥidis, dont ils peuplent pour une bonne part les villages. Le sol est stérile et couvert en majeure partie de pâturages de steppe. A l’Est de ce territoire s’élève une montagne assez importante, le Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrā, qui dépasse 1300 m. de hauteur. La localité la plus importante est le village de pêcheurs de Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) dont le port est très prospère. Les Ḏh̲iʾāb forment une tribu s…

Hamdān

(578 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large Arab tribe of the Yemen group, the full genealogy being Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-K̲h̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Their territory lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [ q.v.], stretching eastwards to Maʾrib [ q.v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [ q.v.], and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). The eastern half belonged to the sub-tribe of Bakīl, the western to Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.], and these are still found there. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya Hamdān worshipped the idol Yaʿūḳ (but probably not Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ as sometimes stated; cf. Wellhausen, Reste

Had̲j̲arayn

(330 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, ville du Ḥaḍramawt sur le Ḏj̲abal du même nom, à environ huit kilomètres au Sud de Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī [ q.v.] sur le Wādī Dūʿan. Située au milieu de palmeraies, elle est adossée aux pentes du Ḏj̲abal. Les terres environnantes sont très fertiles et produisent le d̲h̲ ura. L’irrigation provenant du sayl et de puits très profonds est assurée au moyen de canaux. La ville tire son importance de sa situation sur la route Mukallā-S̲h̲ibām. Ses maisons sont grandes et construites en brique, mais les rues sont étroites et escarpées. Elle appartient aux Ḳuʿaytis de S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] qui y sont représent…

Ḥabbān

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, ville du sultanat wāḥidī de l’ancien protectorat d’Aden, située dans le wādī du même nom. Elle est très ancienne, et il se peut qu’elle soit mentionnée dès 400 av. J.-C. dans l’inscription RES 3945. De nombreux graffiti anciens ont été relevés dans les environs, et il est possible qu’une canalisation d’eau souterraine conduisant à un réservoir dans la ville date de l’époque préislamique. On ne connaît pas le nombre de ses habitants, mais il était évalué à 4000 au milieu du XIXe siècle. La cité est dominée par la forteresse entourée de murs de Maṣnaʿat Ḥāḳir qui se dresse su…

Ḥud̲j̲riyya

(507 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L. O.
(Ḥogariyya),nom d’une tribu et d’une division administrative ( ḳadāʾ «district») du Yémen qui constitue l’un des quatre districts de la province ( liwāʾ) de Ta’izz; ce ḳaḍāʾ est situé à l’Est de celui d’al-Mak̲h̲āʾ et au Sud-ouest de Taʿizz, sur la frontière de la Fédération d’Arabie du Sud. La région est entièrement montagneuse, bien cultivée (café, céréales) et riche en bétail; d’après Heyworth-Dunne, elle est renommée pour la production d’une espèce d’ânes appelés sawriḳiyya. Le nombre des habitants de ce district donné par le même auteur pour 1952 est de 192 392,…

Hamdān

(568 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, grande tribu arabe du groupe yéménite dont la généalogie complète est: Hamdān (Awsa’a) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-Ḵh̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Son territoire, situé au Nord de Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], s’étend à l’Est jusqu’à Maʾrib [ q.v.] et Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], au Nord jusqu’à Ṣaʿda [ q.v.] et à l’Est jusqu’à la côte (Abū Arīs̲h̲). La moitié orientale du territoire appartenait à la sous-tribu des Bakīl et la moitié occidentale aux Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.] où ils se trouvent encore. Dans la Ḏj̲āhiliyya, les Hamdān adoraient l’idole Yaʿūḳ (mais probablement pas Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ co…

Ḥaḍūr

(516 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
(Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb), massif montagneux du Yémen sur la crête orientale du Sarāt Alhān, à environ 19 km. à l’Ouest de Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], entre les wādīs Sihām et Surdūd. Il est séparé de la chaîne du Ḥarāz à l’Ouest par la Ḥaymat alḴh̲ārid̲j̲yya [ q.v.], connue du temps d’al-Hamdānī sous le nom de Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ et habitée par les Sulayḥ, branche des Hamdān. Le massif est ainsi nommé en souvenir de Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, ancêtre du prophète S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam qui est cité dans le Ḳurʾān (sourate VII, 83 sq. et XI, 85 sq.); S̲h̲u’ayb…

al-Ḥāḍina

(237 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, petite région indépendante de l’Arabie du Sud, aujourd’hui dans le sultanat du Haut-ʿAwlaḳī. C’est une des régions les plus fertiles de l’Arabie du Sud, irriguée par des canaux venant du Wādī ʿAbadān. Les produits du sol, qui est d’origine volcanique, comprennent l’indigo, exporté à al-Ḥawṭa, le d̲h̲ura et le millet. Al-Ḥāḍina est habitée par la tribu des Ahl Ḵh̲alīfa qui prétend descendre des Hilāl [ q.v.]: quand ces derniers émigrèrent de l’Arabie du Sud, elle resta sur place, d’où son nom de Ḵh̲alīfa. Dans le passé, elle ne reconnaissait, en temps normal,…

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(567 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
, name (“Crow Castle”) of a mountain bearing on its summit the ruins of an ancient castle, situated on the southern coast of Arabia in the territory of the Wāḥidī [ q.v.] sultanate at the eastern end of the South Arabian Federation, near the small town of Bīr ʿAlī (14° N., 48° 19′ E.). The mountain, which is of volcanic origin like several small islands in its vicinity and has its name because of its conspicuous blackish brown colour, is connected with the mainland, as it was already in the 1st century A…

Hilāl

(2,768 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, eponymous ancestor of the tribe of the Banū Hilāl whom the Arab genealogists trace back to Muḍar according to the following lineage: Muḍar → ʿAylān → Ḳays → K̲h̲aṣafa → ʿ Ikrima → Manṣūr → Hawāzin → Bakr → Muʿāwiya → Ṣaʿṣaʿa →ʿ Amīr → Hilāl. Its three main divisions were the At̲h̲bad̲j̲, the Riyāḥ and the Zug̲h̲ba. This tribe naturally played its part along with the other groups of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa in the pre-Islamic tribal struggles or Ayyām al-ʿArab [ q.v.] and in the affairs connected with the beginning of Islam such as that of Biʾr Maʿūna [ q.v.]. It is likely that it did not support I…

al-Ḥāḍina

(237 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a small independent region of South Arabia, now in the Upper ʿAwlaḳī Sultanate. It is one of the most fertile districts of South Arabia and is irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān. The products of the soil, which is of volcanic origin, include indigo, which is exported to al-Ḥawṭa, d̲h̲ura and millet. Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe Ahl K̲h̲alīfa which claims descent from the Hilāl [ q.v.]. When the Hilāl emigrated from South Arabia they remained behind, whence their name K̲h̲alīfa. In the past they ordinarily acknowledged no authority, but in time of …

Ḥud̲j̲riyya

(506 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
(Ḥogariyya), name of a tribe, and of an administrative division ( ḳaḍāʾ , district) in the Yaman, one of the four districts in the province ( liwāʾ ) of Taʿizz. It is to the east of the ḳaḍāʾ of al-Mak̲h̲āʾ and to the south-west of Taʿizz, on the frontier of the South-Arabian Federation. The area is entirely mountainous, well-cultivated (coffee, cereals) and rich in livestock; according to Hey worth-Dunne it is famous for producing a kind of ass called sawriḳiyya . The number of inhabitants in this district was given by the same author in 1952 as 192,3…

Ḥaḍūr

(482 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
( Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb ), a mountain massif in the Yemen on the eastern edge of the Sarāt Alhān, some twelve miles west of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], lying between the wādīs Sihām and Surdūd. It is separated from the Ḥarāz range to the west by the Ḥaymat al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲iwa [ q.v.], known in Hamdānī’s time as the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ and inhabited by the Sulayḥ, a branch of Hamdān. The massif is named after Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the Prophet S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam, who is mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra VII, 83 f. and XI, 85 f.). He had been sent to preach to an…

Ḥabbān

(417 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in the Wāḥidī Sultanate of the former Aden Protectorate, situated in the wādī of the same name. It is very old and may be referred to as early as 400 B.C. in the inscription RES 3945. Many ancient graffiti have been copied in the vicinity and a subterranean water-conduit leading to a cistern within the city may be pre-Islamic. The population figure is not known but was estimated at 4,000 in the mid-nineteenth century. The town is dominated by the walled fortress of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir which stands on an isolated hill in the midd…

Had̲j̲arayn

(340 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in Ḥaḍramawt on the D̲j̲abal of the same name, about five miles south of Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī [ q.v.] on the Wādī Dūʿan. Situated amid extensive palm-groves, it is built against the slopes of the D̲j̲abal. The surrounding land is very fertile and produces d̲h̲ura . Irrigation is provided through channels from the say ! and from very deep wells. The town is of importance as a centre on the motor road between Mukallā and S̲h̲ibām. Its houses are built of brick and are large but the streets are narrow and steep. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaytīs of S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] who are represented in it by a member…

ʿAḳrabī

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Stern, S.M.
(plural: ʿAḳārib), a Soutb Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of Aden. Their territory, stretching on the coast line from Biʾr Aḥmad to Raʾs ʿImrān, is very small (a few square miles only). It is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥid̲j̲, which here is nearly always dry; as rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmad, with a few hundred inhabitants and the castle of the sultan. The ʿAḳārib, according to the Rasūlid al-As̲h̲raf, Turfat al-Aṣḥāb (Zetterstéen), 56, 57, belonged to the Kuḍāʿa (text obs…

Hilāl

(2,573 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, ancêtre éponyme de la tribu des Banū Hilāl que les généalogistes arabes font descendre de Muḍar selon cette filiation: Muḍar — ʿAylān — Ḳays –––Ḵh̲aṣafa ––––ʿIkrima –––– Manṣūr –––– Hawāzin ––––Bakr ––––Muʿāwiya ––––Ṣaʿṣaʿa ––– ʿĀmir –––Hilāl. Ses trois principales fractions étaient les At̲h̲bad̲j̲, les Riyāḥ et les Zug̲h̲ba. Cette tribu joua naturellement son rôle aux côtés des autres groupes des ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa dans les luttes tribales préislamiques ou Ayyām al- ʿArab [ q.v.] et dans les affaires du début de l’Islam du genre de celle de Biʾr Ma’ūna [ q.v.]. Elle ne se rallia sans…

ʿAḳrabī

(234 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Stern, S.M.
(pluriel: ʿAḳārib), tribu sudarabique, au voisinage d’Aden. Son territoire, s’étendant dans la bande côtière entre Biʾr Aḥmad et Raʾs ʿImrān, est très exigu (quelques km. carrés seulement). Il est traversé par le cours inférieur de la rivière de Laḥid̲j̲, qui en cet endroit est presque toujours à sec; les pluies étant à peu près inexistantes, le sol est dénudé et ne produit pas grand’chose. La ville principale est Biʾr Aḥmad, qui renferme quelques centaines d’habitants et le palais du sultan. Les ʿAḳārib, selon le rasūlide al-As̲h̲raf, Ṭurfat al-aṣḥāb (Zetterstéen), 56, 57, faisai…

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(568 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
(château du corbeau), nom d’une montagne au sommet de laquelle subsistent ¶ les ruines d’un ancien château, sur la côte méridionale de l’Arabie, dans le territoire du sultanat Wāḥidī [ q.v.], à l’extrémité orientale de la Fédération sudarabique, près de la petite ville de Bir ʿAlī (14° N., 48° 19′ E.). La montagne, qui est d’origine volcanique comme plusieurs petites îles du voisinage et doit son nom à sa couleur d’un brun noirâtre caractéristique, est reliée au continent, comme elle l’était déjà au Ier siècle de notre ère, par une bande de terrain sablonneux. En forme de prom…
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