Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Schleifer, J." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Schleifer, J." )' returned 101 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Ḥāsik

(475 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( Hasek ), a town in the Mahra country [ q.v.], east of Mirbāṭ [ q.v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ʾΑσίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei . Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (D̲j̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Raʾs Ḥāsik), also called Kuria Muria Bay after the two islands lying opposite (K̲h̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days ¶ east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here on his way through to ʿUmān and found the h…

Ḥāmī

(167 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a coast-town in Ḥaḍramawt, about 18 miles north-east of S̲h̲iḥr [ q.v.], near Raʾs S̲h̲arma in a very picturesque and fertile district. Like Makalla and S̲h̲iḥr it belongs to the Ḳuʿayṭī of S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] and has, as the name shows, thermal wells of the temperature of boiling water. The houses of the little town are low and built of mud; in the centre of the town and on the shore there are two important ḥiṣn . The inhabitants are mainly fishermen; their number was estimated by Capt. Haines at 500 in 1839. Behind the town lie thick palm-groves and ¶ fields with luxurious crops of Indian corn. (J. Sc…

banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb

(844 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, usually called Balḥārit̲h̲, an Arab tribe belonging to the Yemenī group. Their genealogy is: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). They lived in the district of Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.] and were neighbours of the Hamdān. The following places amongst others belonged to them: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿĀd̲h̲, Baṭn al-D̲h̲uhāb, D̲h̲u ’l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ (pl. Afrāt, between Nad̲j̲rān and the D̲j̲awf), Ḥadūra (K̲h̲adūrā), ʿIyāna, al-K̲h̲aṣāṣa (between Ḥid̲j̲āz and Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥbal, Ṣamʿar, Sūḥān or Sawḥān, Mīnān…

al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(136 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in Arabia near Bīs̲h̲a [q. v.] and the land of the Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. It is called after Ḥid̲j̲r b. al-Azd. The land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r was very fertile and rich in fields of wheat and barley and had many fruit-trees (apples, peaches, figs, plums and almonds). Among the clans of Ḥid̲j̲r Hamdānī mentions the ʿĀmir (with the subdivision ʿAbd), Aṣābig̲h̲a, Rabīʿa, S̲h̲āhr (with the divisions al-Asmar, Bal-Ḥārit̲h̲, Malik, Naṣr and Nāzila). Among places in the land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r he mentions As̲h̲d…

al-Ḏj̲awf

(239 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Ḏj̲ōf), a district in South Arabia between Nad̲j̲rān and Ḥaḍramawt. According to the information obtained by Niebuhr during his stay in Vaman, it is for the most part ¶ flat and desert; many camels and horses are reared in it and are also exported. The soil is in many places also suitable for agriculture. The inhabitants are warlike Bedouins, who wear iron helmets and cuirasses. The chief place in Ḏj̲awf is Maʾrib, which is governed by its own S̲h̲arīf, while the villages and the desert are governed by an independent S̲h̲aik̲h̲. Al-Ḏj̲awf is first mentioned by Hamdānī in his Ḏj̲azīra. He …

Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab district in the north of Nad̲j̲d towards Syria, on the Wādī Sirḥān, the largest oasis in North Arabia next to Taimā. The most important town in Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān was Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal (the Δουμαίθα of Ptolemy) with the fortress of Mārid. This place which is said to be called after a son of Ishmael is known to us from the history of Muḥammad. When the Prophet was advancing against Tabūk in the year 9 = 630, he sent his general Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, which was then under the rule of the Christian princ…

Ḳalhāt

(294 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(in Marco Polo Calatu, in Portuguese writers Calaiate), a once flourishing seaport in ʿOmān lying northwest of Rās al-Ḥadd. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, who visited the town during his travels in ʿOmān, specially mentions the fine streets and splendid lofty mosque, which afforded a wide view of the sea and the harbour and was built by the pious Bītī (of noble family) Maryam. The inhabitants of the town, who lived by trading in Indian products, and spoke a bad Arabic, were members of the Ibāḍīya sect (see ibāḍīya), but concealed their creed from their rulers, the kings of Hormuz [q. v.] (cf. als…

Ḥarb

(464 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medina. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālim and B. Muṣrūḥ. To the B. Sālim belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Muṣrūḥ, amongst others: Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-D̲j̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages of the B. Sālim (between Medina and Yanbuʿ and o…

Farasān

(181 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Farsān), a group of islands in the S. W. of Cape Ḏj̲izān, opposite the harbour of Abū ʿArīs̲h̲ in Tihāma. The largest of these islands are Farasān Kabīr with the harbour of Ḵh̲ōr Farasān and Farasān Ṣag̲h̲īr. Muharrak and Seyed are other places worthy of mention besides Ḵh̲ōr. The inhabitants fish for pearls and catch turtles, which brings them great wealth. Ehrenberg, who discovered the islands, saw many date-groves and fields growing durra and melons, Arab antelopes, numerous gazelles and goats there. Hamdānī was acquainted with these islands. Their inhabitants, who take t…

Ḥod̲j̲aila

(178 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a village in South Arabia, at the foot of Ḥarāz [q. v.] about 1900 feet above the sea level, a border village of the Tihāma. It belongs to the ḳaḍā of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and to the mudīrlik of Mitwaḥ on Ḏj̲ebel Saʿfān (Ḥarāz). It has a market and Turkish barracks. The low cottages ( arwās̲h̲) of the village are built of large unhewn stones without mortar. The people of Ḥod̲j̲aila are of a chestnut brown colour and resemble gipsies; they belong some to the tribe of Ḵh̲awlī, others to the Ziyādinī. Around the village many partridges are found whence its name. Moreover a kind of wild duck called k̲h̲ulal

Ḥanīfa

(898 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Lud̲j̲aim, an important branch of the great North Arabian tribe of Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.], consanguineous to the ʿId̲j̲l. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they were in part heathen, in part Christian. The pagans honoured an idol īn the form of a cake of butter and honey, which they used themselves to consume in time of famine. They led a settled life in Yamāma, where they built the fortified town of Ḥad̲j̲r, which later became the capital. The Wādi ’l-ʿIrḍ and among others the following places belonged to them: al-ʿAwḳa (inhabited by the clan ʿAdī), Fais̲h̲ān …

Hud̲h̲ail

(916 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large Arab tribe, belonging to the North Arabian group. Their genealogy is Hud̲h̲ail b. Mudrika b. al-Yās b. Muḍar. They were a brother tribe of the Ḵh̲uzaina. They inhabited the mountains of Sarāt Hud̲h̲ail, which bear their name, between Mecca and Medīna and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.] and Kināna [q. v.]. In the time of Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Suwāʿ (destroyed by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ in 8 = 630) at Ruhāṭ and, like the Ḳurais̲h̲, Ḵh̲uzāʿa, and other tribes, also Manāt (destr…

G̲h̲alāfiḳa

(167 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ghalefka, Alafaka, the Ditio Sabaeorum of Pliny), at one time a nourishing seaport in Yemen, near Bait al-Faḳīh [q. v., i. 597b et seq.]. It was an important emporium and was known as the harbour of Zebīd. About a century before Niebuhr’s journey in Yemen the harbour of G̲h̲alāfiḳa became inaccessible through coral reefs, whereupon the rich traders of this coast-town moved to Bait al-Faḳīh, which rapidly became a flourishing commercial town. During his stay in Yemen, Niebuhr saw only a few walls, a mosque and several tombstones remaining of this once prosperous town. (J. Schleifer) Biblio…

al-Ḥabaṭ

(165 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name in South Arabia for a sacred area, which is under the protection of a saint, who is usually buried there, and is a place of refuge. No one who seeks asylum on this holy ground may be slain or attacked there. The verb ḥabaṭa in South Arabia means “to hold back” “to restrain”. The most important ḥabaṭ in South Arabia is that of Ḏj̲ebel Kadūr, which lies to the south of the village of Liḥya (Laḥya) on the Wādī Ḥabbān in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. Four saints ( mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the tribe of Bā Marḥūl, to whom Liḥya belongs, are buried there. This habaṭ therefore is also known as Ḥabaṭ al-Ar…

Ḥabbān

(299 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Abban), a town in South Arabia, the capital of the territory of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.], situated in the wādī of the same name. According to Miles it has about 4000 inhabitants, but this figure seems to be too high. The Sulṭān of the Wāḥidī dwells here in the Castle of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir, which is built on a small isolated hill in the midst of the city and surrounded by a wall. The town itself has no walls and only two watchtowers at each end of it. The houses are strongly built like little fortres…

Ḥaima al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īya

(327 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(“Outer-Ḥaima”, in Niebuhr Heime al-Asfal “Lower-Ḥaima”), also called Ḥud̲j̲ra, a district in South Arabia, between Ḥarāz [q. v.] and Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is an izzle (small district) of the ḳaḍā (large district) of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and stretches from Bawʿān (probably Yoān in Niebuhr, 8570 feet above sealevel, with a market) to Bait al-Mahdī. The capital is Mefḥaḳ (Möfḥaḳ in Niebuhr with ḥiṣn). North of Mefḥaḳ at Ḏj̲ebel Manār (8700 feet above sealevel) lies Sūḳ al-Ḵh̲amīs, a spur of the Ḳara al-Waʾl (“deer-antle…

Balī

(761 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Yaman group. Its genealogy is: Balī b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥāfī b. Ḳuḍāʿa. The Bahrā and Ḥaidān are given as consanguineous tribes and the Hanī and Farān as subordinate. Their dwellings were on the Syrian frontier near Taimā between the lands of the Ḏj̲uhaina and the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām. In the time of Ptolemy the T̲h̲amūd (Θαμυδίται) inhabited their land. Of districts belonging to the Balī there are mentioned: al-Ḏj̲azl, al-Ruḥba, al-Suḳyā, Had̲j̲as̲h̲ān(?) Maʿdin Farān (called after the subordinate tribe of Farān) at the mines of the Sulaim…

Hilāl

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Its genealogy is Hilāl b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin…. b. Ḳais ʿAilān. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped at Tabāla the idol Ḵh̲alaṣa, called the Kaʿba of the Yemen, which was also worshipped by the Bad̲j̲īla, Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb and Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. They lived in Nad̲j̲d (on the Yemen border) and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.]. The following places belonged to them, al-ʿAblāʾ, Buraik (with the Ḥarra of the Banū Hilāl), Dūmī, al-Futuḳ, al-Ḳuraiḥā (the two latter were already ruined by Hamdānī’…

Ḥāmī

(183 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a coast-town in Ḥaḍramūt, about 18 miles N. E. of S̲h̲iḥr [q. v.], near Raʾs S̲h̲arma in a very picturesque and fertile district. Like Makalla and S̲h̲iḥr it belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.] and has, as the name shows, thermal wells of the temperature of boiling water. The houses of the little town are low and built of mud; in the centre of the town and on the shore there are two important ḥiṣn. The inhabitants are mainly fishermen; and their number was estimated by Capt. Haines at 500 in 1839. Behind the town lie thick palmgroves and fields with luxurious crops of Indian corn. (J. Schleife…

Bakr

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Wāʾil, a great Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy (omitting one or two unimportant links) is: Bakr b. Wāʾil b. Ḳāsiṭ b. Hinb b. Asad ¶ b. Rabīʿa b. Nizār b. Maʿadd. Allied tribes were amongst others the Tag̲h̲lib and Anz, subordinate tribes the Jas̲h̲kur, Badam, al-Ḥārit̲h̲, Ḏj̲us̲h̲m and ʿAlī. Other important subordinate tribes were the Ḏh̲uhl, ʿId̲j̲l, Ḥanīfa, Ḳais and S̲h̲aibān. They lived in the Tihāma of Yaman, the Yamāma and Baḥrain as far as the borders of Mesopotamia. We find them here in the time of the Caliphs Ab…

al-Ḥodaida

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hodáde, Hadída), a seaport in Arabia, on the Red Sea about no miles N.N.W. of Mok̲h̲a [q. v.], the most important port for the coffee trade in Yemen and a landingplace for pilgrims to Mecca from Central Africa. It is under the protection of a patron saint, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadīḳ, whose festival is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the month S̲h̲aʿbān. In the time of Niebuhr and Seetzen, al-Ḥodaida belonged to the Imām of Ṣanʿāʾ. In 183 7 Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a was commander in the town. Since 1899, al-Ḥod…

al-Darʿīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Dreyeh, Deraya, Daraaije, or Drahia) a town in the district of al-ʿĀriḍ in the Nad̲j̲d country in Arabia, on the ¶ caravan route from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. It was handsomely built of stone and lay at the foot of high hills in a narrow valley, and a little wādī (W. Ḥanīfa) which was usually dry in summer ran through it. In addition to a large and several smaller mosques it had many madrasas. It lay in a very fertile neighbourhood and was surrounded by extensive wheat, barley and milletfields and rich orchards with extensive date-palm g…

Ḥāyil

(817 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Hāyel, Haīl, Hāeyl), the capital of the land of Ḏj̲ebel-S̲h̲ammar [q. v.] in western Ned̲j̲d in the centre of a long plain called Sāhila al-Ḵh̲ammashīya, which lies between the parallel ranges of Ad̲j̲aʾ (M’nīf) and Salmā (Fittī) about 5000 feet about the level of the sea. The town, which is one of the main stations on the route for Persian pilgrims to Mecca, is surrounded by walls about 20 feet high and round and square towers. It is divided into eleven quarters and has a large mosque, a fort…

Ḥais

(477 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Häs, Hēs),a town in South Arabia, at the foot of the Ḏj̲ebel Raʾs at the entrance to a valley about five miles S. E. of Zabīd. [q. v.]. In 1842 it consisted of 500 houses of earth and stone, 250 round huts, an old castle with a garrison of 300 men, 21 mosques, including one large one which was already falling into ruins, 10 coffee-houses and inns, several coffee-mills and potteries, the latter of which supplied the whole of the Yemen, a few dye-works and indigo factories, and numbered 2000 men c…

Hawāzin

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large North Arabian tribe. Their genealogy is Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b, ʿIkrima b. Ḵh̲aṣafa b. Ḳais Ailān b. Muḍar. Among the important clans of the Hawāzin may be mentioned the T̲h̲aḳīf in Ṭāʾif northeast of Mecca where there is still a powerful tribe of them, the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [q. v.], the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am, the Saʿd b. Bakr ¶ (Ḥalīma b. Abī Ḏh̲uwaib, the nurse of the Prophet, was descended from them) and Hilāl. They were of the same stock as the Sulaim. During the Ḏj̲āhiliya they worshipped the idol Ḏj̲ihār in ʿUkāẓ, the large and much frequented market o…

Ḥawra

(198 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥōra), a town in Ḥaḍramūt, N. E. of Has̲h̲arēn [q. v.] on the Ḏj̲ebel of the same name. The little Wādī Ḥōra flows past it, running for the earlier part of its course parallel to the large Wādī ʿAin (see ḥaḍramawt, p. 208a) and then joining it. At the upper end of the town there is a large ḥiṣn with seven stories, flanked by corner towers, which commands the town. Here the ḥākim resides; he is appointed by the Ḳuʿaiṭīs of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], to whom the town belongs. Ḥawra possesses a small bazaar and two mosques and is surrounded by gardens and fields,…

Ḥaḍūr

(704 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥadūr Nabī [Nebbi] S̲h̲uʿaib), a mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the Sarāt group of Alhān, to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near the Ḥarāz range [q. v.], from which it was separated in Hamdānī’s time by the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ (now Ḥaima [q. v.]) inhabited by the Ṣulaiḥ (a branch of the Ḥamdān). The name Ḥaḍūr is derived from Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the prophet S̲h̲uʿaib b. Mahdam, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra vii. 83 et seq. and xi. 85 et seo.) who was sent to preach and to warn his people on Mount Ḥaḍūr and was thereupon slain by them. The…

Hamdān

(758 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( of the South Arabian inscriptions), a large Arab tribe, belonging to the Yemen group. Their genealogy is Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-Ḵh̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Kahlān. Their land, the Balad Hamdān, a centre of civilization in ancient Arabia, was five days’ journey in length and breadth and lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] it stretched eastwards as far as Maʾrib [q. v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [q. v.] almost up to the desert and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). It was divid…

Ḍibāb

(274 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddite group. They were the descendants of Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb, who was called al-Ḍibāb because of three of his sons (Ḍibāb, Ḍabb und Muḍibb). Their genealogy is: Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAmr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Ilawāzin. They dwelled in the district of Ḥima Ḍarīya in the Nad̲j̲d territory. The following settlements of the Ḍibāb are mentioned: Ḏj̲azʿ Banī Kūz, Dāra Ḏj̲uld̲j̲ul and Ṭulūḥ; mountains: Ak̲h̲zum, al-Ḏj̲aws̲h̲anīya, Ḏh̲āt Ārām, al-Yaḥmūm (a large black hill), Kabs̲h̲a (with Dāra al-Kabas̲h…

Aḳārib

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Sing. ʿAḳrabī; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens p. 80, identical with the Agraei of Pliny), a South-Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of ʿAden. Their territory, which is very small (only about 2—3 square miles), is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], which here is nearly always dry. As rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmed, with some hundred inhabitants and the castle of the Sultan, who resides ther…

G̲h̲anī

(337 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Aʿṣur, a tribe in North Arabia, a branch of the Ḳais b. ʿAilān and related to the G̲h̲kṭafān [q. v., p. 144b et seq.]. They lived around Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Nad̲j̲d and were neighbours of the Ṭaiy with whom they were constantly at feud. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idols al-Lāt, Manāt and al-ʿUzzā, all of whom are mentioned in the Ḳorʾān (Sūra liii. 19, 20). The great pre-Islāmic poet Ṭufail b. ʿAwf, called Ṭufail al-Ḵh̲ail (on account of his skill in depicting the horse) belonged to the G̲h̲anī. Among the settlements of the G̲h̲anī were: Ayhab, Awʿāl, Ad̲h̲ruʿāt, Baṭn…

al-Ḥawṭa

(120 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name given in South Arabia to a district which is considered holy and regarded as a place of refuge. The substantive al-ḥawṭa denotes a place surrounded by a wall, then a place under the protection of a saint,’ who is buried there. The most important Ḥawṭa in South Arabia is that at ʿĪnāt (ʿAināt [q. v.] in Ḥaḍramūt, where the famous S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Munṣab Bū Bakr b. Sālim is buried. The second in importance is the Ḥawṭa in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥawṭa is also borne by the capital of the land of the…

Hid̲j̲ra

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name of a village (indeed of several) in South Arabia which is exclusively inhabited by Sāda or As̲h̲rāf (“lords”, “notables”, descendants of the Prophet) and is considered sacrosanct. These villages (e. g. Ḥaifa in Arḥab [cf. ḥās̲h̲id and bakīl] may not be overrun in war. The members of the Hid̲j̲ra, who are chiefly judges ( ḳuḍāt) and jurists ( fuḳahāʾ) receive from the tribe to which they belong a certificate of their membership of the Hid̲j̲ra and enjoy great esteem, which surpasses that of a s̲h̲aik̲h̲. Individual members are. also found scatte…

Ḏj̲aʿda

(351 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin. The Ḳus̲h̲air and ʿUḳail were closely related tribes. The poet Nābig̲h̲a (al-Ḏj̲aʿdī) traces his descent from the Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb. They inhabited the district of Falad̲j̲ in the territory of Yamāma. Of places, which belonged to them, there are mentioned, amongst others: Ukma (a large fortified town on the Wādī of the same name, with a much frequented market, many wells, bazaars and …

Ḥūla

(75 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Arabia, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) in Nad̲j̲d, north of Ḥuraimila [q. v.]. The inhabitants are partly tradesmen and partly agriculturists. Its trade and prosperity has markedly increased under Wahhābī rule. During Palgrave’s stay in Nad̲j̲d, Ḥūla was one of the most flourishing places in Sedeyr. The town is surrounded by walls. (J. Schleifer) Bibliography Palgrave, A Narrative of a Year’s Journey in Arabia (London 1865), i. 338 sq.

ʿĪnāt

(234 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Ḥaḍramūt, south east of Tarīm, on the wādī of the same name. The family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, the only Saiyid family in Ḥaḍramūt to bear arms, lives here. It has two munṣib’s of whom one is chief of the Banū Thanna [see ḥaḍramawt]. In the eighties of last century there lived in ʿĪnāt the greatest saint of Ḥaḍramūt, Saiyid Muhsin b. Sālim, of the family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, to whom people made pilgrimages from the whole country and from more distant lands, such as the Indian Archipelago, on account of the miracles performed b…

al-Ḥāḍina

(144 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a small independent territory in South Arabia, north of the Wāḥidī. It is one of the most interesting and most fertile territories in South Arabia. The products of the soil, which is artificially irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān are hawīr (indigo), d̲h̲ura (a kind of maize) and duk̲h̲n (millet). Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe al-Ḵh̲alīfa, which claims descent from the Hilāl [q. v.]. On the migration of the Hilāl they remained in South Arabia, whence ¶ their name Ḵh̲alīfa. They number about 1000 fighting men and are ruled by an ʿAḳīl whose residence is in th…

Dat̲h̲īna

(441 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, lying to the west of the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v., p. 514] in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr. It is a fairly mountainous country with a dry climate, as a rule. The soil is fertile only in the N. E. where it produces tobacco, wheat and maize. The main wādīs are: the very fertile Wādī Marrān (Mirān) and the Wādī al-Ḍura. Dat̲h̲īna is inhabited by two large tribes, the main branch, the Ahl um-Saʿīdī (Ahl al-Saʿīdī) and the ʿÖlah (al-ʿUlah, ʿUlah al-Kawr and ʿUlah al-Baḥr). The chief town is Blad Ahl um-Saʿīdī with several hundred inha…

G̲h̲ifār

(218 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: G̲h̲ifār b. Mulaik b. Ḍamra b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna; they were closely allied to the Hud̲h̲ail. They lived in the Hid̲j̲āz. The following places belonged to them: Aḍāʾa (near Mecca), Baʿāl (near ʿUsfān, also given as a hill), S̲h̲adak̲h̲ (in common with the Uslum), G̲h̲aiḳa, Waddān (both the latter between Mecca and Medīna), al-Tanādib and the hill of Musliḥ. In the year 8 (629) the G̲h̲ifār adopted Islām. In the same year they took part in the conquest of Mecca along with the Muzai…

ʿAwd̲h̲illa

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sing. ʿAwd̲h̲alī, pl. ʿAwād̲h̲ila, in Hamdānī, Banū Awd; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geogr. Arabiens, p. 206, 269, identical with the Оὐδηνοι of Ptolemy and the Autaridae of Pliny), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, lying between the land of the Yāfiʿa and that of the ʿAwāliḳ, is for the most part highland and crossed by a great range, the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr (Kor) often also called Ẓāhir (Ḍaher). Of the Wādīs that rise in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr the W. Yerāmīs (Jerames) is the best watered. The climate is tropi…

G̲h̲assān

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(G̲h̲assānids), an Arab dynasty in Syria, of Yamanī origin. They were monophysite Christians and were under the suzerainty of the Byzantine Emperors, whose frontiers they had to defend against the Fersians and their vassals, the Lak̲h̲mids of Ḥīra. Their rule extended approximately over the province of Arabia (roughly the Ḥawrān district and Balḳāʾ), Phoenicia ad Libanum, Palestina Prima and Secunda. In contrast co their relatives and natural enemies, the Lak̲h̲mids, to whom they were far superi…

Ḥanẓala

(525 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Mālik, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī group. Its genealogy is Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm. Among its more important subdivisions were the Barād̲j̲im (to which the poet Farazdaḳ belonged), Dārim and Yarbūʿ. The poet ʿAlḳama b. ʿAbada traced his descent from the Hanẓala. They dwelled between the two sandhills of Ḏj̲urād and Marrūt near Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Yamāma. The villages of al-Ṣammān (with many wells, cisterns and irrigation works), al-Raḳmatān, the Wādīs al-G̲h̲umain and al-ʿIrḳ, the lakes Ḵh̲abī (Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 203, probably by error, Ḏj̲abī) and…

Faḍlī

(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west …

Ḥalī

(273 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haly, Hhaly), a town in Arabia, lying to the south of Ḳonfude on the border between the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen on the Wādī ʿAs̲h̲r, with the small harbour of Marsā Ḥalī and the mountain spur of Raʾs Ḥalī (the latter according to Niebuhr in N. Lat. 18° 36′). Ibn Baṭūṭa, who visited the town on his journey to Yemen in 1331 a. d., gives it the name Ḥalī b. Yaʿḳūb and ¶ describes it as a flourishing seaport with fine buildings and a splendid mosque. The Sulṭān, who was at that time ruling the town, belonged to the Kināna [q. v.] and was a gifted poet and a model of Arabia…

Ḥarb

(454 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medīna. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālem and B. Moṣrūḥ. To the B. Salem belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Welad Selīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzaina, al-Hwāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Moṣrūḥ, amongst others; Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba (all robbers of pilgrims), Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū Ḥasseyn (all As̲h̲rāf), and Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages …

Ḥarīb

(787 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, about two days’ journey east of Maʾrib [q. v.] probably identical with the Caripeta of Pliny, the place from which the Roman general Aelius Gallus on his expedition to Arabia Felix began his retreat to the coast. Ḥarīb, a centre of ancient Arab civilisation, is traversed by a large wādī, the Wādī ʿAin, which receives on its left bank two small wādīs, the Wādī Mukbal and Wādī Ablaḥ. Two hours’ journey before reaching Wādī ʿAin rises Mount Mablaḳa, to which a series o…

al-Ḥarīḳ

(251 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Haryk), a province in Ned̲j̲d in the South of Yamāma lying on the edge of the great desert (Dahnā). The mountain range of this very warm district is said by Palgrave to be about 60—70 miles long. Ḥūta is the most important place in the country. During the Wahhābī wars after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] Ḥarīḳ was subdued by Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. After the Wahhābīs had regained Ned̲j̲d and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, a rebellion broke out against the chief ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿūd in Ḥarīḳ as in the adjoining Yamā…

Ḥāsik

(486 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), a town in the Mahra country [q. v.], east of Mirbāṭ [q. v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ’Ασίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei. Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (Ḏj̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Ra’s Ḥāsik), also called Kurya and Murya Bay after the two islands lying opposite (Ḵh̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here …

Ḥufās̲h̲

(216 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, dn the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [q. v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī in his ¶ Ḏj̲azīra, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyar Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rais̲h̲ān. Not far from the latter, (which in Hamdānī’s time was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque [called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir] on its summit, S̲h̲āhir), there lies a treasure, according to…

al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(642 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲er, Hadscher, Hödscher, al-Hhegr in Ritter) a town in Arabia, a day’s journey from Wādi ’l-Ḳura [q. v.] south of Taima [q. v.] identical with the ancient commercial town of ῞Εγρα in Ptolemy and Egra in Pliny. The town no longer exists. At present the name al-Ḥid̲j̲r is given by the Bedouins to the flat valley between Mabrak al-Nāḳa (Mazḥam) and Bīr al-G̲h̲anam which stretches for several miles and has a fertile soil with many wells at which numerous Bedouins encamp with their herds. Two road…

al-Ḥawṭa

(267 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hōta), a town in South Arabia in the land of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.] on the Wādī ʿAmaḳīn. It has over 1000 inhabitants who belong for the most part to the Mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the family of Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, who is said to be descended from ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī (flourished in the vith century), about 100 fortresslike houses and in addition to a large mosque has seven smaller ones, a large market with shops, many looms and a considerable cotton industry. Al-Ḥāwṭā is a free, independent town and pays no taxes. Next to ʿĪnāt [q. v.] it is the most ¶ important place of refuge in South Arabia. T…

Ḏh̲amār

(420 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(d̲h̲imār, damar, the of the ¶ Sabaean inscriptions), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf) and town in South Arabia, to the south of Ṣanʿā. The district of Ḏh̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertitily it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of Ḏh̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of Ḏh̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and Ḏh̲amūrān (the women of these two pl…

Barahūt

(521 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Balahūt, also written Burhūt), a Wādī in Ḥaḍramawt, on the verge of which, at the foot of a volcanic mountain, is the famous Biʾr Barahūt, the spring of Barahūt. According to the native accounts this is a fissure 33 feet long by 25 broad, at its entrance filled with burning sulphur. The stink of the sulphur and the bubbling of the spring (the noise of the volcano?) have given rise to the story that the souls of unbelievers predestined to hell are waiting here and cry out in the night time: “O Duma! O Duma!” in tones of woe. There used to be a proverb, as Hamdānī tells us in his Ḏj̲azīra among proverbial…

Ḥārit̲h̲

(834 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, usually called Balḥārit̲h̲, an arab tribe belonging to the Yemenī group. Their genealogy is: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). They lived in the district of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and were neighbours of the Hamdān. The following places amongst others belonged to them: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿAd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲ahāb, Dsu ’l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ [pl. Afrāt, between Nad̲j̲rān and the Ḏj̲awf], Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā), ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (between Ḥid̲j̲āz and Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥbal, Ṣamʿar, Sūḥān or Sawḥā…

Fazāra

(556 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a tribe in North Arabia. Their genealogy is: Fazāra b. Ḏh̲ubyān b. Bag̲h̲iẓ b. G̲h̲ait̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aṭafān. They dwelled on the Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Ḥalāl. Among places which belonged to the Fazāra, there are mentioned: ʿAdama, al-Akādir, Aẓfār, Baldaḥ, Barḳ, Ḏj̲us̲h̲s̲h̲ Aʿyār, al-Dīl, Ḏj̲anafā, al-Ḏj̲ināb (between Medīna and Faid), Dāra Dāt̲h̲ir, Yaraʿa, Kunaib, al-Luḳāṭa, Ḳinn, Ṣubḥ (on Mount ʿUrfa, a place of some size), S̲h̲uʿabā, Urul and ʿUraina. Among mountains: Abā…

Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb

(519 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia to the north of the country of the Raṣṣāṣ and Upper ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.], the most important of the lands lying between Yaman and Ḥaḍramawt. It was a centre of early Arab culture and has many ruins and numerous inscriptions. The population, the most prominent in all South Arabia, is capable and enterprising, and the ground very fertile because of the numerous springs. Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb is inhabited by a tribe, the Muṣʿabain i. e. the two (sons of) Muṣʿab, Aḥmad and ʿArīf fr…

Iyād

(1,148 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a great Arab tribe belonging to the ¶ Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is Iyād b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān. The Rabīʿa, Anmār and Muḍar were consanguineous tribes of the Iyād. A section of the Iyād professed Christianity. The poet Abū Dūʾād, famous for his descriptions of the horse, and the celebrated Ḳuss b. Sāʿida were members of the Iyād. At first they dwelt in Tihāmn up to the borders of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.]. In the first half of the iiird century they emigrated in large bodies to Eastern ʿIrāḳ and thence to Mesopotamia. Among their settlements were: Anbār (they …

Ḥaḍramawt

(3,096 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(the of the South Arabian inscriptions), now pronounced Ḥaḍramūt, a land in Arabia in the east of Yemen between 47° and 53° East. Long, and 15° and 19° North. Lat. It is bounded in the south by the sea, in the southeast by the land of Mahra, in the N. E., N. and N.W. by the great Central Arabian desert, in the S. W. by the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥaḍramawt is according to Arab tradition derived from Ḥaḍramawt b. Ḥimyar .…b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān (Ḥaṣarmāweth, the son of Yoḳtan in Genesis x. 26). In ancient times Ḥaḍramawt was celebrated as a land of frankincense …

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(638 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(‘Raven Castle’), a hill with a fortress upon it in South Arabia, near the harbour of Bir ʿAlī Mad̲j̲daḥa in 30° 59’ 20” North. Lat. and 45° 24’ 30” East. Long, in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The harbour of Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb in ancient times was the well-known Cane Emporium (Κανὴ ἐμπόριον) of the Periplus Maris Erythraei and of Ptolemy, the of the South Arabian inscriptions), a very important centre for the frankincense trade of the neighbourhood and an intermediate station for the trade between Egypt and India. The name Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb is derived from…

Hutaim

(490 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Heteim, Hatēmi, Tehmī, Ḥitēm, plūr. Hutaimān, Hetaimān), alarge tribe ofnomads which is scattered throughout the Ḥid̲j̲āz, Nad̲j̲d and Egypt. Their chief settlements are at Ḏj̲idda, Līt̲h̲, and al-Wad̲j̲h; smaller bodies of the Hutaim live near al-Ḥid̲j̲r, al-ʿUlā (ʿAlly), Ḵh̲aibar (here they are makers of cheese), in the Ḥarrat al-Et̲h̲nān (near Ḵh̲aibar), on the Wādi ’l-Rumma above Medīna, where they are neighbours of the Ḥarb, and in the vicinity of Mecca. In Egypt they are found south of Ḥelwā…

Ḥuraimila

(143 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥoreymela), a town in Arabia in the north of Riyāḍ [q. v.], the capital of Ned̲j̲d, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) on the borders between the latter and the province of ʿĀriḍ, the birthplace of the founder of the Wahhābī sect, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. It is surrounded by strong fortifications and in 1861 had, according to Palgrave, 10,000 inhabitants. Inside the town on an elevation is a large fortified citadel of architectural importance, which was erected along with the other citadels in Ned̲j̲d after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] by the Egyptians under ¶ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Durin…

Ḥaws̲h̲abī

(244 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(plural Ḥawas̲h̲ib), a tribe in South Arabia, of pure Ḥimyarite descent. Their land lies roughly between 44° 45′ and 45° 5′ East Long. (Greenw.) and between 13° 11′and 13° 30′ North Lat. and is bounded in the south by Laḥd̲j̲ (Laḥed̲j̲) [q. v.], in the west by the land of the Ṣubaiḥī (Šobēḥī) [q. v.] and of the Ḥud̲j̲rīyā [q. v.], in the north by the land of the Ḏj̲aʿda [q. v.] and in the east by the lower Yāfiʿ. The climate is tropical, the land fertile, producing wheat, coffee and cotton. Among…

Had̲j̲arēn

(312 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲arīn), a town in Ḥaḍramūt on the d̲j̲ebel of the same name, S.W. of Mes̲h̲hed ʿAlī [q. v.] on the Wādī Dawʿān (Dōʿan) situated in extremely picturesque country. It is surrounded by extensive palmgroves and reminds one of many mediaeval castles on the Rhine. As a centre of traffic between the coast and the interior of Ḥaḍramūt it is of importance. The houses of the town are built of bricks and are large but the streets are narrow and dirty. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], who are represented in it by a member of their family, who bears the title naḳīb and lives in a splendid p…

Ḥās̲h̲id and Bakīl

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large confederation of tribes in South Arabia. The genealogy of the Ḥās̲h̲id is given by the Arabs of South Arabia at the present day as Ḥās̲h̲id al-Aṣg̲h̲ar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Nawf b. Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Hamdān. Bakīl is held by them to be the son of Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar. Their land, called by Niebuhr Balad al-Ḳabāʾil “land of the tribes”, lies near Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] and stretches eastwards to Maʾrib [q. v.].and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and northwards right up to the desert as far as eastwards of Ṣaʿda [q. v.]. The Ḥās̲h̲id, who number 22,000 warriors, are divided into three main g…

ʿId̲j̲l

(610 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a North Arabian tribe, an inportant branch of the Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.]. Their ancestor ʿId̲j̲l b. Lud̲j̲aim was notorious for his stupidity and the expression “more stupid than ʿId̲j̲l” was proverbial (cf. Goldziher, Muh. Stud., i. 48, n. 3). During the heathen period they formed a portion of the so-called Lahāzimgroup, which included the Ḏh̲uhl and Yas̲h̲kur. Some of them professed Christianity. Abū Nad̲j̲m, the rad̲j̲az poet, belonged to the ʿId̲j̲l. They lived in al-Yamāma (al-Ḵh̲iḍrima, al-Ḵh̲aḍārim, also called Ḏj̲aww al-Ḵh̲iḍrima) and in the country between K…

Ḥarāz

(697 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haras, Harras, Harrāz), a high mountain range in South Arabia, lying to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is composed of basalt and is over 8500 feet high. The following mountains belong to the Ḥarāz: ¶ Lahāb (with Ḏj̲ebel Mebʾar, Ḏj̲ebel Med̲h̲erre, Ḏj̲ebel S̲h̲ukruf, Ḏj̲ebel Lakama), Hawzan of the South Arabian inscriptions, with the Ḏj̲ebel Ḳārad and Kāhil) and S̲h̲ibām, Masār and joined to the latter, Ṣaʿfān. Of places in Ḥarāz we may mention the large town of Manāk̲h̲a (southeast o…

Ḏj̲aʿda

(470 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(ʿĀmir), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, now ʿĀmir land, also called S̲h̲afel, lies to the west of the land of the Yāfiʿa [q. v.] and is for the most part mountainous. The soil is fertile in the north and produces dates with a little coffee and tobacco. The largest Wādī is the W. Nūra, into which flows the W. Dabāb. Near the latter lies the Ḏj̲ebel Arḍ T̲h̲awba, on which stand three ancient Himyarite castles. The chief town is Ḏh̲alaʿ (also called Blad S̲h̲afel) with about iooo inhabitan…

Fadak

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Demin. Fudaik), a town in Arabia not far from Ḵh̲aibar [q. v.] and like the latter inhabited by Jews. In the year 6 = 627 Muḥammed sent ʿAlī, afterwards Caliph, against Fadak as he had learned that the people of the latter town were going to support the Jews in Ḵh̲aibar. When Ḵh̲aibar was taken in the following year, the Jews of Fadak also submitted and agreed to give up half of their possessions. Muḥaiyiṣa b. Masʿūd conducted the negotiations between the Prophet and the people of Fadak and was …

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḏh̲iēb, “wolf”) a South Arabian tribe. Their land lies between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [q. v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the Ḏh̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are mostly occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairielike pasture land. In the east of the district is a mountain of some size, the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥamrā (over 4000 feet high). The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The Ḏh̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of robbers and are th…

al-Hofhūf

(903 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hofuf, Foof), a town in Arabia, capital of the province of Ḥasā (Ḥaṣā [see al-aḥsā. The town, which is surrounded by extensive gardens and datepalm groves, is divided into three parts; 1. the Kōt (fortress) in the northeast); 2. the Rafʿīya (Refeyʾīya, “eminence” so called on account of its rising ground, in the northwest and west); 3. the Naʿāthar (in the south and west). The Kōt, a large fortress with very high, thick walls and towers (about 16 on each side with winding stairways) is about 500 yards long a…

al-Ḥuwaiṭāt

(809 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hwēṭāt, Haweiṭāt, Ḥowētat, Howeytat, Howadat, Howahtat; sing. Ḥuwaiṭī), an Arab tribe in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz and on the Sinai peninsula; their settlements in the Ḥid̲j̲āz reach southwards from al-ʿAḳaba to beyond al-Wad̲j̲h; they are neighbours of the Balī. [q. v.] and Ḏj̲uhaina [q. v.] with the latter of whom they are on bad terms. Formerly the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām [q. v.] occupied their settlements. There is a large settlement of the Ḥuwaiṭāt on the Wādī Maḳnā, where they have many huts and thick palmgroves; they only stay here during the date-harvest. Between …

Ḥud̲j̲rīya

(448 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, (Hogriyia, Hödsyerīe), the name of a tribe in South Arabia. Their land lies to the north of the land of the Sobēḥī (Subaiḥī, [q. v.]) between 43° 40′ and 44° 42′ East Long. Greenw. and 13° 5′ and 13° 15’ North. Lat. and is entirely mountainous. The climate is tropical; the principal product is coffee. Among the mountains we may mention Ḏj̲ebel Ṣabr (Ṣabir [q. v.]) which is described by Hamdāni in his Ḏj̲azīra as a very high mountain, among wādīs, the Wādī Warazān which joins the Wādī Tubban, the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], and belonged in Hamdānī’s time to the Sakāsi…

ʿAwāliḳ

(458 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sg. ʿAwlaḳî, Beduin Mawweleḳ and Mawleḳî), dynastic name of a group of tribes ¶ in South Arabia. Their country is bounded in the South by the Arabian. seq, in the West by Dat̲h̲īna (in the southern part), by the land of the Awādil (in the centre) and by that of the Razāz (in the northern part); in the Northwest by the Kaṣâb (Gazāb), in the Northeast and the upper part of the East by the land of the upper Wāḥidī and in the lower (southern) part of the East by the land of the Ḏh̲īabi (Ḏh̲iēbi). The whole coun…

Ḥufās̲h̲

(197 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, on the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyarī Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rays̲h̲ān. In Hamdānī’s time the latter was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque (called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir) on its summit, S̲h̲āhir. It was popularly believed (also according to Hamdānī) that not fa…

Ḥarb

(497 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, puissante tribu arabe originaire du Yémen, et établie au Ḥid̲j̲āz entre la Mekke et Médine. Elle se divise en deux grandes branches: les Banū Sālim et les Muṣrūḥ. Aux B. Salīm appartiennent entre autres les sous-tribus suivantes: al-Hamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (ne pas confondre avec la grande tribu bien connue), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); aux Muṣrūḥ, appartiennent entre autres: Saʿdī (Saʿadì), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Les localités des B. Sālim (entre Médine et Yanbuʿ et sur…

Ḥāmī

(180 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, localité située sur le littoral du Ḥaḍramawt, à environ 25 km. au Nord-est de S̲h̲iḥr [ q.v.], près du Raʾs S̲h̲arma, dans une contrée très pittoresque et très fertile. Elle appartient, de même que Makalla et S̲h̲iḥr, aux Ḳuʿayṭis de S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] et possède, comme son nom l’indique, des sources thermales (sulfureuses) à la température de l’eau bouillante. Les maisons de cette petite ville sont bâties en argile et basses; au milieu de la ville et sur la plage se trouvent deux ḥiṣnṣ importants. La plupart des habitants sont pêcheurs; S.B. Haines prétendait en 1839 que leur …

Banū ‘l-Ḥarit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb

(873 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, tribu arabe appartenant au groupe yéménite et appelée ordinairement Balḥārit̲h̲. La généalogie des Balḥārit̲h̲ est la suivante: al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb b. ʿAmr b. ʿUlā b. Ḏj̲ald b. Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (Mālik). Ils habitaient le territoire de Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.] et étaient voisins des Hamdān. Parmi les localités qui leur appartenaient, on cite entre autres: al-ʿArs̲h̲, al-ʿĀd̲h̲, Baṭn al-Ḏh̲uhāb, Ḏh̲ū l-Marrūt, al-Furuṭ (pl Afrāṭ, entre Nad̲j̲rān et le Ḏj̲awf), Ḥadūra (Ḵh̲adūrā). ʿIyāna, al-Ḵh̲aṣāṣa (entre le Ḥid̲j̲āz et la Tihāma), Ḳurrā, Saḥ…

Ḥufās̲h̲

(199 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, haute montagne de l’Arabie du Sud appartenant à la chaîne d’al-Maṣāniʿ du groupe d’al-Sarāt, sur le Wādī Surdud, près de Ḥarāz [ q.v.]. Elle est souvent citée par al-Hamdānī, en même temps que la grande montagne voisine de Milḥān (qui doit son nom au Ḥimyarite Miḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik, et dont le nom réel était Rays̲h̲ān). A l’époque d’al-Hamdānī, cette dernière ne possédait pas moins, dit-on, de 99 sources et portait à son sommet, qui s’appelait S̲h̲āhir, une grande mosquée (Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir). D’après la croyance p…

Ḥāsik

(534 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), ville du Mahra [ q.v.], située à l’Est de Mirbāṭ [ q.v.], à 17° 21′ de lat. Nord et 55° 23′ de long. Est, au pied de la haute montagne de Nūs (Lūs); c’est le ‘Aσίχων du Périple de la mer Erythrée. Devant la ville, se trouve ce qu’on appelle la «baie aux herbes» (Ḏj̲ūn al-ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), la baie de Ḥāsik (Raʾs Ḥāsik), nommée aussi baie de Kuria et de Muria d’après deux îles situées en face (Ḵh̲aryān et Maryān chez al-Idrīsī). Al-Idrīsl dit que Ḥāsik est une petite ville fortifiée, à quatre journées de marche à l’Est de Mirbāṭ, ave…

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(227 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
, “the wolves”, a South Arabian tribe whose lands lie between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [ q.v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the D̲h̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are largely occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairie-like pasture land. In the east of the distict is a mountain of some size, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrā, over 4000 ft. high. The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The D̲h̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of ¶ robbers, and are therefore…

D̲h̲amār

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf ) and town in South Arabia, south of Ṣanʿā, on the Ṣanʿā-ʿAdan road, near the fortress of Hirrān. The district of D̲h̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens, and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertility it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of D̲h̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of D̲h̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and D̲h̲amūrān (…

Ḏh̲amār

(414 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(ou Ḏh̲imār, voir Yāḳūt, s.v.), district ( mik̲h̲lāf) et ville de l’Arabie méridionale, au Sud de Ṣanʿāʾ, sur la route de Ṣanʿāʾ à ʿAdan, près de la forteresse de Hirrān. Le district de Ḏh̲amār était très fertile, et possédait de riches champs de blé, de magnifiques jardins et de nombreux et anciens palais et citadelles. On l’appelait, à cause de sa fertilité, le Miṣr du Yaman. Les chevaux de Ḏh̲amar étaient célèbres dans tout le Yaman pour leurs pedigrees. On citait comme faisant partie du district de Ḏh̲amār les localités suivantes: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb,…

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
«les loups», tribu de l’Arabie du Sud dont le territoire s’étend entre le pays des Bas ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] et celui des Bas Wāḥidis [q.v.]. Il y a aussi un grand nombre de Ḏh̲iʾāb qui sont installés dans le pays des Bas Wāḥidis, dont ils peuplent pour une bonne part les villages. Le sol est stérile et couvert en majeure partie de pâturages de steppe. A l’Est de ce territoire s’élève une montagne assez importante, le Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrā, qui dépasse 1300 m. de hauteur. La localité la plus importante est le village de pêcheurs de Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) dont le port est très prospère. Les Ḏh̲iʾāb forment une tribu s…

Hamdān

(578 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large Arab tribe of the Yemen group, the full genealogy being Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-K̲h̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Their territory lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [ q.v.], stretching eastwards to Maʾrib [ q.v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [ q.v.], and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). The eastern half belonged to the sub-tribe of Bakīl, the western to Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.], and these are still found there. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya Hamdān worshipped the idol Yaʿūḳ (but probably not Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ as sometimes stated; cf. Wellhausen, Reste

Had̲j̲arayn

(330 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, ville du Ḥaḍramawt sur le Ḏj̲abal du même nom, à environ huit kilomètres au Sud de Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī [ q.v.] sur le Wādī Dūʿan. Située au milieu de palmeraies, elle est adossée aux pentes du Ḏj̲abal. Les terres environnantes sont très fertiles et produisent le d̲h̲ ura. L’irrigation provenant du sayl et de puits très profonds est assurée au moyen de canaux. La ville tire son importance de sa situation sur la route Mukallā-S̲h̲ibām. Ses maisons sont grandes et construites en brique, mais les rues sont étroites et escarpées. Elle appartient aux Ḳuʿaytis de S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] qui y sont représent…

Ḥabbān

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, ville du sultanat wāḥidī de l’ancien protectorat d’Aden, située dans le wādī du même nom. Elle est très ancienne, et il se peut qu’elle soit mentionnée dès 400 av. J.-C. dans l’inscription RES 3945. De nombreux graffiti anciens ont été relevés dans les environs, et il est possible qu’une canalisation d’eau souterraine conduisant à un réservoir dans la ville date de l’époque préislamique. On ne connaît pas le nombre de ses habitants, mais il était évalué à 4000 au milieu du XIXe siècle. La cité est dominée par la forteresse entourée de murs de Maṣnaʿat Ḥāḳir qui se dresse su…

Ḥud̲j̲riyya

(507 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L. O.
(Ḥogariyya),nom d’une tribu et d’une division administrative ( ḳadāʾ «district») du Yémen qui constitue l’un des quatre districts de la province ( liwāʾ) de Ta’izz; ce ḳaḍāʾ est situé à l’Est de celui d’al-Mak̲h̲āʾ et au Sud-ouest de Taʿizz, sur la frontière de la Fédération d’Arabie du Sud. La région est entièrement montagneuse, bien cultivée (café, céréales) et riche en bétail; d’après Heyworth-Dunne, elle est renommée pour la production d’une espèce d’ânes appelés sawriḳiyya. Le nombre des habitants de ce district donné par le même auteur pour 1952 est de 192 392,…

Ḥaḍūr

(516 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
(Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb), massif montagneux du Yémen sur la crête orientale du Sarāt Alhān, à environ 19 km. à l’Ouest de Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], entre les wādīs Sihām et Surdūd. Il est séparé de la chaîne du Ḥarāz à l’Ouest par la Ḥaymat alḴh̲ārid̲j̲yya [ q.v.], connue du temps d’al-Hamdānī sous le nom de Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ et habitée par les Sulayḥ, branche des Hamdān. Le massif est ainsi nommé en souvenir de Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, ancêtre du prophète S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam qui est cité dans le Ḳurʾān (sourate VII, 83 sq. et XI, 85 sq.); S̲h̲u’ayb…

al-Ḥāḍina

(237 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A. K.
, petite région indépendante de l’Arabie du Sud, aujourd’hui dans le sultanat du Haut-ʿAwlaḳī. C’est une des régions les plus fertiles de l’Arabie du Sud, irriguée par des canaux venant du Wādī ʿAbadān. Les produits du sol, qui est d’origine volcanique, comprennent l’indigo, exporté à al-Ḥawṭa, le d̲h̲ura et le millet. Al-Ḥāḍina est habitée par la tribu des Ahl Ḵh̲alīfa qui prétend descendre des Hilāl [ q.v.]: quand ces derniers émigrèrent de l’Arabie du Sud, elle resta sur place, d’où son nom de Ḵh̲alīfa. Dans le passé, elle ne reconnaissait, en temps normal,…

Hamdān

(568 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, grande tribu arabe du groupe yéménite dont la généalogie complète est: Hamdān (Awsa’a) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-Ḵh̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Son territoire, situé au Nord de Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], s’étend à l’Est jusqu’à Maʾrib [ q.v.] et Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], au Nord jusqu’à Ṣaʿda [ q.v.] et à l’Est jusqu’à la côte (Abū Arīs̲h̲). La moitié orientale du territoire appartenait à la sous-tribu des Bakīl et la moitié occidentale aux Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.] où ils se trouvent encore. Dans la Ḏj̲āhiliyya, les Hamdān adoraient l’idole Yaʿūḳ (mais probablement pas Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ co…

Hilāl

(2,768 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, eponymous ancestor of the tribe of the Banū Hilāl whom the Arab genealogists trace back to Muḍar according to the following lineage: Muḍar → ʿAylān → Ḳays → K̲h̲aṣafa → ʿ Ikrima → Manṣūr → Hawāzin → Bakr → Muʿāwiya → Ṣaʿṣaʿa →ʿ Amīr → Hilāl. Its three main divisions were the At̲h̲bad̲j̲, the Riyāḥ and the Zug̲h̲ba. This tribe naturally played its part along with the other groups of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa in the pre-Islamic tribal struggles or Ayyām al-ʿArab [ q.v.] and in the affairs connected with the beginning of Islam such as that of Biʾr Maʿūna [ q.v.]. It is likely that it did not support I…

al-Ḥāḍina

(237 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a small independent region of South Arabia, now in the Upper ʿAwlaḳī Sultanate. It is one of the most fertile districts of South Arabia and is irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān. The products of the soil, which is of volcanic origin, include indigo, which is exported to al-Ḥawṭa, d̲h̲ura and millet. Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe Ahl K̲h̲alīfa which claims descent from the Hilāl [ q.v.]. When the Hilāl emigrated from South Arabia they remained behind, whence their name K̲h̲alīfa. In the past they ordinarily acknowledged no authority, but in time of …

Ḥabbān

(417 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in the Wāḥidī Sultanate of the former Aden Protectorate, situated in the wādī of the same name. It is very old and may be referred to as early as 400 B.C. in the inscription RES 3945. Many ancient graffiti have been copied in the vicinity and a subterranean water-conduit leading to a cistern within the city may be pre-Islamic. The population figure is not known but was estimated at 4,000 in the mid-nineteenth century. The town is dominated by the walled fortress of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir which stands on an isolated hill in the midd…

Had̲j̲arayn

(340 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a town in Ḥaḍramawt on the D̲j̲abal of the same name, about five miles south of Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī [ q.v.] on the Wādī Dūʿan. Situated amid extensive palm-groves, it is built against the slopes of the D̲j̲abal. The surrounding land is very fertile and produces d̲h̲ura . Irrigation is provided through channels from the say ! and from very deep wells. The town is of importance as a centre on the motor road between Mukallā and S̲h̲ibām. Its houses are built of brick and are large but the streets are narrow and steep. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaytīs of S̲h̲ibām [ q.v.] who are represented in it by a member…

ʿAḳrabī

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Stern, S.M.
(plural: ʿAḳārib), a Soutb Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of Aden. Their territory, stretching on the coast line from Biʾr Aḥmad to Raʾs ʿImrān, is very small (a few square miles only). It is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥid̲j̲, which here is nearly always dry; as rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmad, with a few hundred inhabitants and the castle of the sultan. The ʿAḳārib, according to the Rasūlid al-As̲h̲raf, Turfat al-Aṣḥāb (Zetterstéen), 56, 57, belonged to the Kuḍāʿa (text obs…

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(567 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
, name (“Crow Castle”) of a mountain bearing on its summit the ruins of an ancient castle, situated on the southern coast of Arabia in the territory of the Wāḥidī [ q.v.] sultanate at the eastern end of the South Arabian Federation, near the small town of Bīr ʿAlī (14° N., 48° 19′ E.). The mountain, which is of volcanic origin like several small islands in its vicinity and has its name because of its conspicuous blackish brown colour, is connected with the mainland, as it was already in the 1st century A…

Ḥud̲j̲riyya

(506 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
(Ḥogariyya), name of a tribe, and of an administrative division ( ḳaḍāʾ , district) in the Yaman, one of the four districts in the province ( liwāʾ ) of Taʿizz. It is to the east of the ḳaḍāʾ of al-Mak̲h̲āʾ and to the south-west of Taʿizz, on the frontier of the South-Arabian Federation. The area is entirely mountainous, well-cultivated (coffee, cereals) and rich in livestock; according to Hey worth-Dunne it is famous for producing a kind of ass called sawriḳiyya . The number of inhabitants in this district was given by the same author in 1952 as 192,3…

Ḥaḍūr

(482 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
( Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb ), a mountain massif in the Yemen on the eastern edge of the Sarāt Alhān, some twelve miles west of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], lying between the wādīs Sihām and Surdūd. It is separated from the Ḥarāz range to the west by the Ḥaymat al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲iwa [ q.v.], known in Hamdānī’s time as the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ and inhabited by the Sulayḥ, a branch of Hamdān. The massif is named after Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the Prophet S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam, who is mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra VII, 83 f. and XI, 85 f.). He had been sent to preach to an…

Hilāl

(2,573 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, ancêtre éponyme de la tribu des Banū Hilāl que les généalogistes arabes font descendre de Muḍar selon cette filiation: Muḍar — ʿAylān — Ḳays –––Ḵh̲aṣafa ––––ʿIkrima –––– Manṣūr –––– Hawāzin ––––Bakr ––––Muʿāwiya ––––Ṣaʿṣaʿa ––– ʿĀmir –––Hilāl. Ses trois principales fractions étaient les At̲h̲bad̲j̲, les Riyāḥ et les Zug̲h̲ba. Cette tribu joua naturellement son rôle aux côtés des autres groupes des ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa dans les luttes tribales préislamiques ou Ayyām al- ʿArab [ q.v.] et dans les affaires du début de l’Islam du genre de celle de Biʾr Ma’ūna [ q.v.]. Elle ne se rallia sans…

ʿAḳrabī

(234 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Stern, S.M.
(pluriel: ʿAḳārib), tribu sudarabique, au voisinage d’Aden. Son territoire, s’étendant dans la bande côtière entre Biʾr Aḥmad et Raʾs ʿImrān, est très exigu (quelques km. carrés seulement). Il est traversé par le cours inférieur de la rivière de Laḥid̲j̲, qui en cet endroit est presque toujours à sec; les pluies étant à peu près inexistantes, le sol est dénudé et ne produit pas grand’chose. La ville principale est Biʾr Aḥmad, qui renferme quelques centaines d’habitants et le palais du sultan. Les ʿAḳārib, selon le rasūlide al-As̲h̲raf, Ṭurfat al-aṣḥāb (Zetterstéen), 56, 57, faisai…
▲   Back to top   ▲