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Onomastics

(18 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Names and Naming Practices - Kurdistan Names and Naming Practices - Yemen Norman A. Stillman

Rassemblement Mondial du Judaïsme Marocain

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Zionism in the Maghreb to be combined Norman A. Stillman

La Esperanza

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see La Buena Esperansa, Izmir, 1874-1917, La Buena Esperansa, Izmir, 1842 Norman A. Stillman

Money Lending

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Shortmeqash

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn (al-)Muhājir Norman A. Stillman

Ben Nūrīʾel, Bābāʾī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāʾī ben Nūrīʾel Norman A. Stillman

Pahlavi Dynasty and Islamic Republic

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iran/Persia Norman A. Stillman

Paris

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Blood libels

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism; Damascus Affair (1840) Norman A. Stillman

Turin

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Florida

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Tlemcen

(2,104 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Tlemcen (Ar. Tilimsān) is a city in western Algeria situated 138 kilometers (86 miles) southwest of Oran, 91 kilometers (56 miles) west of Sidi Bel Abbès, and 63 kilometers (40 miles) east of Oujda across the Moroccan border. Nourished by springs and called Pomaria (city of orchards) in Roman times, Tlemcen lies at the crossroads of major east-west and north-south trade routes. Although Arab historians state that Judaizing Berber tribes lived in the area at the time of the Islamic conquests, there is no evidence for a Jewish presence in Tlemcen at that time.  1.  Middle Ages to the Almoh…

Imi-n-Tanout

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Salom

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Shalom Norman A. Stillman

New York

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Al-Andalus

(10,143 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name throughout the Middle Ages for the Iberian Peninsula, including what is today both Spain and Portugal, although with the progress of the Reconquista, the name al-Andalus came to be limited to Muslim-ruled territory, which eventually was only the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. The name al-Andalus (Ar. al-Andalīsh) has been connected to the Vandals, who had given the name Vandalacia to the former Roman province of Baetica. Arabic-speaking Jews used the term, and Moses Maimonides, even years after he had immigrated to Egypt, wo…

Academic Study of Islamicate Jewry

(12,763 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Prior to the second half of the twentieth century, much of the research devoted to the Jews of the Islamic world followed in the paths established by the Wissenschaft des Judentums scholars of the nineteenth century and dealt with the history, literature, and thought of the medieval period. Judeo-Arabic civilization was one of the major foci of Wissenschaft scholarship, as too were aspects of Hispanic Jewish history and culture—but only for the classical Islamic Middle Ages (ca. 850–1250) in the…
Date: 2014-09-03

Amram ben Diwan

(457 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Amram ben Diwan is one of the best-known saints (Heb. ṣaddiqim) in the pantheon of Moroccan Jewish holy men. According to tradition, he was a rabbinical emissary (Heb. shadar or meshullaḥ) from Hebron, who arrived in Morocco with his son, Ḥayyim, sometime in the eighteenth century and took up residence in Fez. When Ḥayyim fell gravely ill, Rabbi Amram prayed, offering his life for that of his son, who miraculously recovered. Shortly thereafter, while on a visit to Ouezzane to collect funds for the religious institutions in Hebron, he fell ill and died and was buried in the nearby cemetery of As…

Sanua, James

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ṣanūʿ (Sanua), Yaʿqūb (James) Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Mishʿal, Aaron

(332 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
According to a legend still current in Morocco, Aaron ibn Mishʿal was a rich Jew who became the ruler over the Muslims living in the Taza region of east-central Morocco early in the second half of the seventeenth century. As tribute Ibn Mishʿal took Muslim maidens into his harem each year until the sharif Mawlāy Rashīd, the founder of the Alawid dynasty (r. 1666–1672), went to his residence disguised as a maiden, killed him to avenge the honor of Muslim maidenhood, and took his wealth. This foundation legend of the Alawid dynasty has been analyzed in detail by the French scholar Pierre de Ceniv…

Aben Danan

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn Danan Norman A. Stillman

Dades

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Judeo-Malayalam

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Jewish Malayalam Norman A. Stillman

LISCA (La Ligue Internationale Scolaire contre l'Antisémitisme)

(19 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see LICA (La Ligue Internationale contre l'Antisémitisme Allemand) Norman A. Stillman

Manastir

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Monastir (Bitola, Manastir) Norman A. Stillman

Bougie

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Béjaïa (Bougie, Bijāya) Norman A. Stillman

Aït Bou Oulli

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Tiferet Yisrael School (Ar. al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya)

(384 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Tiferet Yisrael (Glory of Israel) School in Beirut, known in Arabic as al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya (The Jewish National School), was established by Ḥakham Zakī Cohen and his son Salīm in 1874. It was one of the first and more successful indigenous attempts to create a modern Jewish religious school in the Arab world. Due to financial difficulties, the school closed after one year, but it reopened as a boarding school in 1878 and attracted students from Damascus, Aleppo, Jaffa, and even as far away as Istanbul and Izmir. By 18…

Cohen

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Kohen and Hacohen Norman A. Stillman

Salé

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Rabat-Salé Norman A. Stillman

Geniza

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Cairo Geniza Norman A. Stillman

Court Jews

(3,572 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
As throughout Diaspora history, there were Jews in the Islamic world from the Middle Ages up to and including the modern era who served as officials and retainers at the courts of Muslim rulers. They served in much the same capacities as their coreligionists who served at courts in medieval Western Europe and in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Central Europe as physicians, advisers, bankers, and purveyors of goods and services to the ruler. Like their European counterparts, they often acted as intermediaries (Eur. Heb. shtadlanim) with the authorities on behalf of their brethren. Jewish legal authorities took into account the special role played by Jewis…

Ibn ʿAṭṭār Judah b. Jacob

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben ʿAṭṭār (or Ibn ʿAṭṭār) Family Norman A. Stillman

Isaac Ben Na'im

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Tujjār al-Sultān

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Essaouira (Mogador); Morocco Norman A. Stillman

Lyon

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Miṭrani

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ṭrani Norman A. Stillman

Qajar Dynasty

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iran/Persia Norman A. Stillman

Saints' Tombs

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Pilgrimages and Pilgrimage Rituals, Saints' Tombs Norman A. Stillman

Ibn ʿAṭāʾ, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm (Abraham ben Nathan)

(471 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm Ibn ʿAṭāʾ (Abraham ben Nathan) was leader of Qayrawanese Jewry in the first third of the eleventh century. He was a member of a wealthy elite that included the Ben Berekhiah, Tahertī, and Ibn al-Majjānī families. His father, Nathan, may have been a communal official, although this is not clear. He was a major supporter of the academy ( bet midrash) in Qayrawan and was also a generous contributor to the Babylonian yeshivot, particularly to the Sura yeshiva, the renewal of which he helped to finance. Ibn ʿAṭāʾ served as court physician to the Zirid amirs Bādis (r. 996–10…

Sacred Grottoes, Pools, and Trees

(25 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Pilgrimages and Pilgrimage Rituals, Saints' Tombs (Modern Period), Saints' Tombs Venerated by Jews and Muslims Norman A. Stillman

Yosef ben Isaac Ben Nayim

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Ephraim

(493 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Ephraim ben Israel Anqāwa (fl. late 14th to early 15th century), known to his devotees simply as Rab (Heb. master), was a Sephardi …

Duwayk, Avraham Ezra

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Ben Nāʾīm, Raphael Ḥayyim Moses

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Luṭf, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Luṭf Norman A. Stillman

Mangūbī, Shabbetay Elijah

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Rav ve-Metropolit

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Egyptian Riots (1945, 1947)

(393 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Mass demonstrations against Zionism were called for November 2, 1945 ( Balfour Declaration Day) in the major cities of Egypt by several Egyptian nationalist and Islamist groups, such Miṣr al-Fatāt, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Young Men’s Muslim Association. A report by the British police commissioner of Cairo written three days before the demonstrations noted “considerable ill-feeling . . . against Jews,” but stated that security precautions in place alleviated any cause for concern. Events proved othe…

Ioannina

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Yanina (Yanya, Ioannina) Norman A. Stillman

Rav ha-Kolel

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Sidi Rahhal

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Seattle

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Women

(23 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah; C…

Agdz

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
SeeDra’a Norman A. Stillman Bibliography n

Muqaddam

(850 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Arabic title muqaddam (lit. person placed at the head, i.e., appointee) was used in various parts of the Islamic world from the Middle Ages up to early modern times for the designated head of the Jewish community in a city or country. The functions of the office differed with time and place. Originally, it included religious and temporal leadership, but in later times it was exclusively temporal. In the Maghreb, it was often synonymous with the titles nagid, shaykh al-yahūd, and qāʾid al-Yahūd. 1.    Middle Ages In the documents from the Cairo Geniza, the term muqaddam is fluid and app…

Duwayk, Jacob Saul

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Sābāwī Yūnis al-

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Farhūd Norman A. Stillman

Executive Editor's Introduction

(4,122 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Why an Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World? Until the middle of the twentieth century, over a million Jews lived in the Islamic world, some 800,000 of them in the Arab countries. Some of these Jewish communities were very ancient, as in Iraq and Iran, where there had been a Jewish presence since the destruction of the First Temple and the Babylonian Exile in the sixth century B.C.E. In most other Middle Eastern and North African countries, there had been Jews since Greco-Roman times, long before the Islamic conquests of the seventh centur…

Raphael Hayyim Moses

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Assaka

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Sao Pãulo

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Brazil Norman A. Stillman

Midelt

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains (Morocco) Norman A. Stillman

Izhakova, Barno

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Megorashim

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Toshavim Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Yuli, Elijah ha-Levi

(490 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Elijah ha-Levi, born in the late 1730s or early 1740s, belonged to a distinguished Moroccan family of merchants, scholars and court Jews, and he himself was one of the most powerful Jewish retainers (Ar. aṣḥāb al-sulṭān) of the Alawid sultan …

Anusim

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Mashhad …

Stillman, Yedida Kalfon

(873 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Yedida Kalfon Stillman (née Messodi Khalfon-Poney), world-renowned scholar of Islamic and Jewish culture, was born in the mellah of Fez, Morocco, on April 8, 1946. At age five, she immigrated to Israel with her large family, spending the first two years in a transit camp ( maʿabara

Sharḥ (pl. Shurūḥ)

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bible Translations Norman A. Stillman

Ṣayraf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking (Modern Period) Norman A. Stillman

Hayatizâde Mustafa Efendi

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Abravanel, Moses ben Raphael Norman A. Stillman

Massa

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Shayk al-yahud

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nagid Norman A. Stillman

Henna

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up; Marriage Norman A. Stillman

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Raphael

(429 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Raphael ben Mordechai Anqāwa (Raphaël Encaoua and also Ankaoua in the usual French transcription) was a leading Moroccan halakhic authority. The scion of a distinguished Sephardi rabbinical family, he was born in Salé in 1848. He was a pupil of Issachar Assaraf, the chief rabbi of Salé, whose daughter he married. At the relatively young age of thirty-two, he was appointed dayyan in Salé. His reputation for judicial acumen spread his name throughout Morocco. In 1910, he published his collection of responsa Qarne Reʾem (The Horns of the Buffalo) in Jerusalem, which enhanced his …

Madrid

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Spain Norman A. Stillman

Great Britain

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United Kingdom Norman A. Stillman

Ṣarrāf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking (Modern Period) Norman A. Stillman

Pallache, Samuel b. Isaac I

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Pallache Family Norman A. Stillman

Duwayk, Shaul

(15 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Israel Andalusian Orchestra

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Francos

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italian Jews (Benei Roma); Leghorn (Livorno) Norman A. Stillman

Tamnougalt

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dra’a Norman A. Stillman

Hellenistic sources

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sefer Josippon …

Identité et Dialogue

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Azoulay, André; Assaraf, Robert; Berdugo, Serge Norman A. Stillman

Seleqṣeya

(353 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
In mid-1951, the young and struggling State of Israel adopted a policy of selective immigration (Heb. seleqṣiya) that placed severe restrictions upon poor Moroccan Jews who were unable to pay their for their own immigration, had no family breadwinner accompanying them, or had a family member in need of medical care. Under the new policy, the Jewish Agency accepted for ʿ aliya only families accompanied by a healthy breadwinner between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. The policy also applied to Jews from Tunisia, albeit to a lesser extent. There were two primary rationales for th…

Sefrou

(2,036 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
1.   General Description and History  Sefrou is a large town in north-central Morocco that had over thirty thousand inhabitants at the end of the twentieth century. It is located at an altitude of 850 meters (2,790 feet) in the foothills of the Middle Atlas just above the Sais plain only 30 kilometers (18 miles) south of Fez. The town is situated in a green, picturesque setting surrounded by gardens and fruit orchards (most notably cherry) that give it an oasislike aspect. The area is watered by seve…

HaLevi

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see also Levi Norman A. Stillman

Rome

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Abū Naẓẓāra Zarqā' (Abu Naddara) (Cairo)

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Ṣanūc, Yacqūb Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Farhād, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Farhād…

Cave Sect

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Maghāriyya, al- (The Cave Sect) Norman A. Stillman

Qudsī, Murād al- (Mourad El-Kodsi)

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Maqāma (- āt) (poetic form)

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music, al-Ḥarīzī, Judah ben Solomon (c. 1166-1225) Norman A. Stillman
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