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Onomastics

(18 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Names and Naming Practices - Kurdistan Names and Naming Practices - Yemen Norman A. Stillman

Rassemblement Mondial du Judaïsme Marocain

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Zionism in the Maghreb to be combined Norman A. Stillman

La Esperanza

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see La Buena Esperansa, Izmir, 1874-1917, La Buena Esperansa, Izmir, 1842 Norman A. Stillman

Money Lending

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Shortmeqash

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn (al-)Muhājir Norman A. Stillman

Ben Nūrīʾel, Bābāʾī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāʾī ben Nūrīʾel Norman A. Stillman

Pahlavi Dynasty and Islamic Republic

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iran/Persia Norman A. Stillman

Paris

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Blood libels

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism; Damascus Affair (1840) Norman A. Stillman

Turin

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Florida

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Tlemcen

(2,104 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Tlemcen (Ar. Tilimsān) is a city in western Algeria situated 138 kilometers (86 miles) southwest of Oran, 91 kilometers (56 miles) west of Sidi Bel Abbès, and 63 kilometers (40 miles) east of Oujda across the Moroccan border. Nourished by springs and called Pomaria (city of orchards) in Roman times, Tlemcen lies at the crossroads of major east-west and north-south trade routes. Although Arab historians state that Judaizing Berber tribes lived in the area at the time of the Islamic conquests, there is no evidence for a Jewish presence in Tlemcen at that time.  1.  Middle Ages to the Almoh…

Imi-n-Tanout

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Salom

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Shalom Norman A. Stillman

New York

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Al-Andalus

(10,143 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name throughout the Middle Ages for the Iberian Peninsula, including what is today both Spain and Portugal, although with the progress of the Reconquista, the name al-Andalus came to be limited to Muslim-ruled territory, which eventually was only the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. The name al-Andalus (Ar. al-Andalīsh) has been connected to the Vandals, who had given the name Vandalacia to the former Roman province of Baetica. Arabic-speaking Jews used the term, and Moses Maimonides, even years after he had immigrated to Egypt, wo…

Amram ben Diwan

(457 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Amram ben Diwan is one of the best-known saints (Heb.

Sanua, James

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ṣanūʿ (Sanua), Yaʿqūb (James) Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Mishʿal, Aaron

(332 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
According to a legend still current in Morocco, Aaron ibn Mishʿal was a rich Jew who became the ruler over the Muslims living in the Taza region of east-central Morocco early in the second half of the seventeenth century. As tribute Ibn Mishʿal took Muslim maidens into his harem each year until the sharif Mawlāy Rashīd, the founder of the Alawid dynasty (r. 1666–1672), went to his residence disguised as a maiden, killed him to avenge the honor of Muslim maidenhood, and took his wealth. This foundation legend of the Alawid dynasty has been analyzed in detail by the French scholar Pierre de Ceniv…

Aben Danan

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn Danan Norman A. Stillman

Dades

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Judeo-Malayalam

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Jewish Malayalam Norman A. Stillman

LISCA (La Ligue Internationale Scolaire contre l'Antisémitisme)

(19 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see LICA (La Ligue Internationale contre l'Antisémitisme Allemand) Norman A. Stillman

Manastir

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Monastir (Bitola, Manastir) Norman A. Stillman

Bougie

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Béjaïa (Bougie, Bijāya) Norman A. Stillman

Aït Bou Oulli

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Tiferet Yisrael School (Ar. al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya)

(384 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Tiferet Yisrael (Glory of Israel) School in Beirut, known in Arabic as al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya (The Jewish National School), was established by Ḥakham Zakī Cohen and his son Salīm in 1874. It was one of the first and more successful indigenous attempts to create a modern Jewish religious school in the Arab world. Due to financial difficulties, the school closed after one year, but it reopened as a boarding school in 1878 and attracted students from Damascus, Aleppo, Jaffa, and even as far away as Istanbul and Izmir. By 18…

Cohen

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Kohen and Hacohen Norman A. Stillman

Salé

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Rabat-Salé Norman A. Stillman

Geniza

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Cairo Geniza Norman A. Stillman

Court Jews

(3,572 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
As throughout Diaspora history, there were Jews in the Islamic world from the Middle Ages up to and including the modern era who served as officials and retainers at the courts of Muslim rulers. They served in much the same capacities as their coreligionists who served at courts in medieval Western Europe and in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Central Europe as physicians, advisers, bankers, and purveyors of goods and services to the ruler. Like their European counterparts, they often acted as intermediaries (Eur. Heb. shtadlanim) with the authorities on behalf of their br…

Bône (Būna)

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Annaba (Bône) Norman A. Stillman

Ibn ʿAṭṭār Judah b. Jacob

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben ʿAṭṭār (or Ibn ʿAṭṭār) Family Norman A. Stillman

Babovitch, Tuvia

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Isaac Ben Na'im

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Tujjār al-Sultān

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Essaouira (Mogador); Morocco Norman A. Stillman

Lyon

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see France Norman A. Stillman

Miṭrani

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ṭrani Norman A. Stillman

Ḥaviv ha-Sephardi

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano) Norman A. Stillman

Qajar Dynasty

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Iran/Persia Norman A. Stillman

Saints' Tombs

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Pilgrimages and Pilgrimage Rituals, Saints' Tombs Norman A. Stillman

Ibn ʿAṭāʾ, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm (Abraham ben Nathan)

(471 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm Ibn ʿAṭāʾ (Abraham ben Nathan) was leader of Qayrawanese Jewry in the first third of the eleventh century. He was a member of a wealthy elite that included the Ben Berekhiah, Tahertī, and Ibn al-Majjānī families. His father, Nathan, may have been a communal official, although this is not clear. He was a major supporter of the academy ( bet midrash) in Qayrawan and was also a generous contributor to the Babylonian yeshivot, particularly to the Sura yeshiva, the renewal of which he helped to finance. Ibn ʿAṭāʾ served as court physician to the Zirid amirs Bādis (r. 996–10…

Sacred Grottoes, Pools, and Trees

(25 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Pilgrimages and Pilgrimage Rituals, Saints' Tombs (Modern Period), Saints' Tombs Venerated by Jews and Muslims Norman A. Stillman

Yosef ben Isaac Ben Nayim

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Ephraim

(493 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Ephraim ben Israel Anqāwa (fl. late 14th to early 15th century), known to his devotees simply as Rab (Heb. master), was a Sephardi rabbinical scholar, philosopher, and physician who became a leading saint in the Maghrebi Jewish pantheon of holy men (Heb. ṣaddiqim). His tomb in Tlemcen became an important site of pilgrimage (Ar. ziyāra). Ephraim was born in Toledo, where his family had lived since the twelfth century and had their own synagogue, established by his great-uncle Abraham ben Samuel, who was murdered in 1341. Ephraim’s father, Israel ha-Qadosh (Heb. the martyr), was the …

Duwayk, Avraham Ezra

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Ben Nāʾīm, Raphael Ḥayyim Moses

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Luṭf, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Luṭf Norman A. Stillman

Mangūbī, Shabbetay Elijah

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Rav ve-Metropolit

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Egyptian Riots (1945, 1947)

(393 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Mass demonstrations against Zionism were called for November 2, 1945 ( Balfour Declaration Day) in the major cities of Egypt by several Egyptian nationalist and Islamist groups, such Miṣr al-Fatāt, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Young Men’s Muslim Association. A report by the British police commissioner of Cairo written three days before the demonstrations noted “considerable ill-feeling . . . against Jews,” but stated that security precautions in place alleviated any cause for concern. Events proved othe…

Ioannina

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Yanina (Yanya, Ioannina) Norman A. Stillman

Rav ha-Kolel

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi) Norman A. Stillman

Sidi Rahhal

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains Norman A. Stillman

Seattle

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of America Norman A. Stillman

Women

(23 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah; Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up; Education; Life Cycle Practices; Marriage; Prostitution; Polygyny; Veiling Norman A. Stillman

Agdz

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
SeeDra’a Norman A. Stillman Bibliography n

Muqaddam

(850 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Arabic title muqaddam (lit. person placed at the head, i.e., appointee) was used in various parts of the Islamic world from the Middle Ages up to early modern times for the designated head of the Jewish community in a city or country. The functions of the office differed with time and place. Originally, it included religious and temporal leadership, but in later times it was exclusively temporal. In the Maghreb, it was often synonymous with the titles nagid, shaykh al-yahūd, and qāʾid al-Yahūd. 1.    Middle Ages In the documents from the Cairo Geniza, the term muqaddam is fluid and app…

Duwayk, Jacob Saul

(16 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Sābāwī Yūnis al-

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Farhūd Norman A. Stillman

Executive Editor's Introduction

(4,122 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Why an Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World? Until the middle of the twentieth century, over a million Jews lived in the Islamic world, some 800,000 of them in the Arab countries. Some of these Jewish communities were very ancient, as in Iraq and Iran, where there had been a Jewish presence since the destruction of the First Temple and the Babylonian Exile in the sixth century B.C.E. In most other Middle Eastern and North African countries, there had been Jews since Greco-Roman times, long before th…

Raphael Hayyim Moses

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Assaka

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Sao Pãulo

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Brazil Norman A. Stillman

Midelt

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Atlas Mountains (Morocco) Norman A. Stillman

Izhakova, Barno

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Megorashim

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Toshavim Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Yuli, Elijah ha-Levi

(490 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Elijah ha-Levi, born in the late 1730s or early 1740s, belonged to a distinguished Moroccan family of merchants, scholars and court Jews, and he himself was one of the most powerful Jewish retainers (Ar. aṣḥāb al-sulṭān) of the Alawid sultan Sīdī Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh (r. 1757–1790). His father,  Judah, was a prosperous merchant in Rabat-Salé and shaykh (nagid) of its Jewish community. Like his father, Elijah was one of the so-called sultan's merchants (Ar. tujjār al-sulṭān), not only conducting business on the ruler’s behalf, but also acting as an intermediary with foreign consuls…

Anusim

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Mashhad Norman A. Stillman

Stillman, Yedida Kalfon

(873 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Yedida Kalfon Stillman (née Messodi Khalfon-Poney), world-renowned scholar of Islamic and Jewish culture, was born in the mellah of Fez, Morocco, on April 8, 1946. At age five, she immigrated to Israel with her large family, spending the first two years in a transit camp ( maʿabara) tent. The family hebraicized her name to Yedida. She grew up in the overcrowded, prefabricated housing of the Katamonim section of Jerusalem, a neighborhood overwhelmingly populated by Jews from Arab countries. There she developed her talent for languages, picking up more than a s…

Sharḥ (pl. Shurūḥ)

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bible Translations Norman A. Stillman

Ṣayraf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking (Modern Period) Norman A. Stillman

Hayatizâde Mustafa Efendi

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Abravanel, Moses ben Raphael …

Massa

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sous Norman A. Stillman

Henna

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up; Marriage Norman A. Stillman

Anqāwa (Al-Naqawa), Raphael

(429 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Raphael ben Mordechai Anqāwa (Raphaël Encaoua and also Ankaoua in the usual French transcription) was a leading Moroccan halakhic authority. The scion of a distinguished Sephardi rabbinical family, he was born in Salé in 1848. He was a pupil of Issachar Assaraf, the chief rabbi of Salé, whose daughter he married. At the relatively young age of thirty-two, he was appointed dayyan in Salé. His reputation for judicial acumen spread his name throughout Morocco. In 1910, he published his collection of responsa Qarne Reʾem (The Horns of the Buffalo) in Jerusalem, which enhanced his …

Madrid

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Spain Norman A. Stillman

Great Britain

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United Kingdom Norman A. Stillman

Ṣarrāf

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Banking (Modern Period) Norman A. Stillman

Pallache, Samuel b. Isaac I

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Pallache Family Norman A. Stillman

Duwayk, Shaul

(15 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Norman A. Stillman

Club National Israélite (Beirut and Damascus)

(236 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Although preceded by a number of Jewish cultural and youth organizations with a modern Hebrew and Zionist orientation in the cities of Greater Syria (e.g., the Maccabee League, the Kadima Club, and the Hebrew National Schools for Boys and Girls), the Club National Israélite (Ar. al-Nādī al-Qawmī al-Isrā'īlī) was the first self-described Syro-Lebanese Zionist organization. It was founded on June 3, 1924 by Toufic (Tawfīq) Mizrahi, a journalist and advertising agent, in cooperation with former chief rabbi Salomon Tagger in Beirut and seven provisionary committee members in…

Tekinalp, Munis

(10 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Kohen, Moise (Tekinalp) Norman A. Stillman

Israel Andalusian Orchestra

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music Norman A. Stillman

Francos

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italian Jews (Benei Roma); Leghorn (Livorno) Norman A. Stillman

Tamnougalt

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dra’a Norman A. Stillman

Hellenistic sources

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Sefer Josippon Norman A. Stillman

Identité et Dialogue

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Azoulay, André; Assaraf, Robert; Berdugo, Serge Norman A. Stillman

HaLevi

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see also Levi Norman A. Stillman

Rome

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Italy Norman A. Stillman

Abū Naẓẓāra Zarqā' (Abu Naddara) (Cairo)

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
See Ṣanūc, Yacqūb Norman A. Stillman

Ibn Farhād, Bābāī

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bābāī ben Farhād Norman A. Stillman

Cave Sect

(12 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Maghāriyya, al- (The Cave Sect) Norman A. Stillman

Qudsī, Murād al- (Mourad El-Kodsi)

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Karaism Norman A. Stillman

Maqāma (- āt) (poetic form)

(17 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music, al-Ḥarīzī, Judah ben Solomon (c. 1166-1225) Norman A. Stillman
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