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Zāk̲h̲ir

(406 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
, ʿAbd Allāh , polemicist, copyist, translator, printer and painter, born in Aleppo 1680, died at the Monastery of Mār Yuḥannā, al-S̲h̲uwayr, Lebanon, 30 August 1748. The son of a Greek Orthodox goldsmith, Zāk̲h̲ir learned his father’s trade before studying with Christian scholars and the Muslim s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sulaymān al-Naḥwī He worked as a copyist for the Catholic missionaries in Aleppo amongst others, especially for the Jesuits, whose translations of works of theology and spirituality he also rend…

Al-Shābushtī

(352 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad al-Shābushtī (or Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq) Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Probably Iraq Date of Death: 999 or 1008 Place of Death: Cairo Biography Al-Shābushtī is said to have descended from a Daylamī family in the service of the Būyids. All that is known with certainty of his life before he became the librarian of the Fatimid Caliph al-ʿAzīz (r. 975-96) is that he spent some time in Basra, studying with a scholar of the history of the Prophet’s family who was also a keen music-lover ( Al-diyārāt, p. 269). Given his knowledge of the Iraqi lite…

 Kitāb al-diyārāt

(663 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
Monasteries Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣbahānī Date: Before 973-74 Original Language: Arabic Description Abū l-Faraj’s Kitāb al-diyārāt has not survived. The Kitāb al-diyārāt li-Abī l-Faraj al-Iṣbahānī (‘Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣbahānī’s Monasteries’) edited by Jalīl al-ʿAṭiyya (London, 1991) is in fact a compilation of passages that mention monasteries drawn from writings by Abū l-Faraj and other Muslim authors of belles-lettres and geographers of the ʿAbbāsid and post-ʿAbbāsid periods. Some 20 passages may be considered quotations from the original Kitāb al-diyārāt preserved in later w…

Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣbahānī

(480 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
Abū l-Faraj ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn al-Haytham al-Umawī al-Iṣbahānī (al-Iṣfahānī) Date of Birth: 897 Place of Birth: Probably Baghdad Date of Death: About 973-74 Place of Death: Probably Baghdad or Basra Biography A man of letters, historian, musicologist and poet, Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣbahānī (both al-Iṣbahānī and al-Iṣfahānī are found in the sources) was a descendant of the Umayyads and belonged to a family of higher civil servants. After studying in Kūfa and Baghdad with renowned scholars, including the histori…

 Kitāb al-diyārāt

(941 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
Al-diyārātThe book of monasteries, The monasteries Al-Shābushtī Date: Unknown, but probably after 975 Original Language: Arabic Description The Diyārāt as published by Kūrkīs ʿAwwād runs to 313 pages of printed text (with footnotes), reproducing the Berlin unicum. The beginning of the manuscript is lost; thus the preface explaining the author’s reasons and aim in writing the book is lacking. The date of writing is unknown, but since it refers to al-ʿAzīz as caliph (p. 289), the book was probably written after 975…

Zāk̲h̲ir

(444 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
, ʿAbd Allāh, polémiste, copiste, traducteur, imprimeur et peintre, né à Alep en 1680, mort au Monastère de Mār Yuḥannā, à al-S̲h̲uwayr, au Liban, le 30 août 1748. Fils d’un orfèvre grec orthodoxe, Zāk̲h̲ir apprit le métier de son père avant d’étudier auprès d’érudits chrétiens et du s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ musulman Sulaymān al-Naḥwī. Il travailla comme copiste, entre autres, pour les missionnaires catholiques d’Alep, en particulier pour les Jésuites, dont il retravailla les traductions d’ouvrages de théologie et de spiritualité pour les rendre conformes…

 Two poems on Christians killed by Muslims

(446 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
- Niqūlā al-Ṣāʾigh, al-Khūrī Niqūlāwus al-Ṣāʾigh al-Ḥalabī l-Rūmī Date: 1. 1742; 2. 1749 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionFor a discussion of Qaṣīda fī naql Ibrāhīm al-shahīd ibn Dīmītrī ibn Yaʿqūb al-mukannā bi-l-Dallāl min millat al-Rūm bi-Ḥalab sanat 1742 masīḥiyya (‘Poem on the demise of Ibrāhīm the martyr, son of Dīmītrī son of Yaʿqūb, called al-Dallāl, of the Greek community in Aleppo in 1742 of the Christian era’), see the entry on ‘The martyrdom of Ibrahīm al-Dallāl (1742) as reflected in contemporary Christian Arabic writings’ in this volume. Rithāʾ aḥad al-ābāʾ min…

Niqūlāwus al-Ṣāʾigh

(830 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
Niqūlā al-Ṣāʾigh, al-Khūrī Niqūlāwus al-Ṣāʾigh al-Ḥalabī l-Rūmī Date of Birth: 1692 Place of Birth: Aleppo Date of Death: 17 December 1756 Place of Death: Zūq Mīkhāʾīl, Mount Lebanon BiographyNiqūlāwus al-Ṣāʾigh was born into a Greek Orthodox family of goldsmiths at a period when Roman Catholic missionaries in the Levant were working to bring Christians of the Eastern Churches to recognise papal authority. Precise information about his education is lacking. Cheikho (Shaykhū) and Ḥājj list him among the students of Jirmānūs…

 Ten poems for non-Christian notables

(591 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
- Niqūlā al-Ṣāʾigh, al-Khūrī Niqūlāwus al-Ṣāʾigh al-Ḥalabī l-Rūmī Date: 1725-56 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionEight of these ten poems are addressed to emirs of the Sunnī Muslim Shihāb family and the Druze Banū l-Lamʿ family; two of the eight were commissioned from Niqūlāwus by notables. Niqūlāwus celebrates the addressee’s noble origin, intelligence, perspicacity, generosity and bravery according to the conventions of Arabic poetry in praise of rulers and the elaborate rhetorical style of the time. H…

 Al-badīʿiyya

(484 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
‘Poem in praise of Christ and his disciples’ Niqūlā al-Ṣāʾigh, al-Khūrī Niqūlāwus al-Ṣāʾigh al-Ḥalabī l-Rūmī Date: 1724 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionThe  badīʿiyya ( Dīwān, pp. 80-4) is a poem of 156 verses. The themes are as follows: address to the poet’s travelling companions and praise of them; attacks on critics and complaints about the unfaithfulness of former patrons; repentance and turning to Christ; praise of the Son and the Father; praise of the Apostles and saints as missionaries, preachers, healers…