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Terministic Controversy

(373 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] The terministic controversy in Lutheran Protestantism was sparked by a common practice based on CA 12 (Augsburg Confession): at death’s door, after confession and communion (Eucharist) eternal bliss (Blessedness) was promised regardless of whether the person dying had lived a recognizably Christian life. In response Pietist theologians –especially P.J. Spener, appealing to J.K. Dannhauer – cited Heb 3:7–11 in support of the view that God has determined a set period of grace for repentance ¶ ( tempus peremtorius gratiae); at its end, the sinner is cut off fr…

Curcellaeus, Stephanus

(157 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Etienne de Courcelle; May 2, 1586, Geneva – May 20, 1659, Amsterdam) was, alongside S. Episcopius, J. Clericus and P. van Limborch, one of the most important representatives of 17th century Arminian theology (Arminians). He studied in Zürich, Basel, Heidelberg, and was pastor in Fontainebleau, Amiens and Vitry from 1614; he moved to Amsterdam, where he was professor of theology in the Arminian Seminary after 1643. His position, following J. Acon…

Kortholt, Christian

(180 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Jan 15, 1633, Burg on Fehmarn Island – Apr 1, 1694, Kiel) studied theology in Rostock, Jena, Leipzig, and Wittenberg, was awarded a Dr.theol. and appointed professor of Greek in Rostock (1665), then professor of theology in Kiel (1665; pro-chancellor in 1666). Kortholt is regarded as the pioneer of Pietism in Schleswig-Holstein. Strongly influenced by the devotional theology of J. Arndt, J. Lütkemann, and H. Müller, he supported P. Spener's Pia desideria, initially in his writings, though without embracing its specific innovations (conventicles, hop…

Elert, Werner

(351 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] August Friedrich Immanuel (Aug 19, 1885, Heldrungen/Thüringen – Nov 21, 1954, Erlangen), one of the most prominent and controversial theologians of the 20th century, studied theology, history and philosophy from 1906 to 1910 in Breslau, Erlangen, and Leipzig. After service in World War I as a field chaplain, Elert became director of the Theological Seminary of th…

Nadere Reformatie

(232 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] The term nadere reformatie denotes a movement in the Netherlands Reformed tradition (Reformed churches), under personal (W. Ames) or literary Puritan influence, tending toward a “second Reformation,” “reaching further” and “more closely” into believers' personal way of life. Its aim was to deepen and take further the renewal of doctrine achieved in the “first Reformation,” in the direction of ethically binding devotional practice of ascetic stamp. The term nadere reformatie occurs in reform proposals of the Utrecht Consistory of 1665, influenced by…

Ritschl

(1,183 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Kaufmann, Thomas
[English Version] 1.Albrecht , (25.3.1822 Stettin – 20.3.1889 Göttingen). Nach Studium in Bonn (1839–1841 bei K.I. Nitzsch), Halle (1841–1843 bei F.A. G. Tholuck, Julius Müller, J.E. Erdmann, K. Schwarz), philos. Promotion daselbst (Expositio doctrinae Augustini de creatione mundi, peccato, gratia, 1843), erstem Examen 1844, weiterem Studium in Heidelberg (1845 bei R. Rothe) und Tübingen (1845/46 bei F. Ch. Baur, E. Zeller, A. Schwegler, F. Th. Vischer) Habil. in Bonn (1846 mit einer Arbeit über M…

Arminians

(2,586 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas | Bangs, Carl
[German Version] I. Origins and Spread – II. Great Britain – III. North America I. Origins and Dissemination The public criticism of the Calvinist doctrine of predestination by J. Arminius was increasingly associated after his death (1609) with church-political and general political motives and opened up a dynamic which created a deep split in the Reformed churches of the Dutch General States for ar…

Orthodoxy

(11,720 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Hünermann, Peter | Wallmannb, Johannes | Kaufmann, Thomas | Morgenstern, Matthias | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Islam I. Terminology The term orthodoxy derives from Greek ὀρϑός/ orthós, “right, true, straight,” and δόξα/ dóxa, “opinion, teaching.” The word and its derivatives appear in pre-Christian literature (Liddell & Scott, s.v.) but acquired their specifically religious sense only in the context of Christianity, where confession of Jesus as Lord or Christ plays a constitutive role in religious practice (Rom 10:10; Matt 10:32f.) and the need appeared early on to identify a…

Orthodoxie

(10,261 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger | Hünermann, Peter | Wallmann, Johannes | Kaufmann, Thomas | Morgenstern, Matthias | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Der Begriff O. leitet sich aus dem griech. ο᾿ρϑο´ς/ortho´s, »gerade, recht, richtig«, und δο´ξα/do´xa, »Meinung, Absicht, Lehre«, her. Der Begriff und seine Derivate sind auch vorchristl. bezeugt (Liddell/Scott s.v.), gewannen aber ihre spezifisch rel. Bedeutung erst im Kontext des Christentums, in dem das Bekenntnis zu Jesus als dem Herrn bzw. als dem Christus eine für den rel. Vollzug konstitutive Rolle hat (Röm 10,10; Mt 10,32f.) und früh die Notwendigkeit entstand, in einer V…

Eucharist/Communion

(26,590 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Ferdinand | Markschies, Christoph | Angenendt, Arnold | Kaufmann, Thomas | Koch, Ernst | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Liturgical History – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology I. New Testament 1. Background Sacred meals are common to all religions. Before examining them in the context of the NT, it is necessary first to inquire into their background in the OT and in Judaism, whereupon it becomes evident that sacrificial meals play no role in them. Only the dai…

Office

(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology I. Religious Studies Over the course of history, the word office has been used for a wide variety of functions. In every case, however, what is peculiar to the term is that it refers to an activity independent of the unique personal characteristics of the officeholder. In the context of religious studies, what first comes to mind is the office…
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