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Vierkaiserjahr

(491 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] Mod. Bezeichnung für das Jahr 69 n. Chr., in dem vier Kaiser z. T. gleichzeitig, z. T. in schneller Abfolge, das röm. Reich regierten (Galba; Otho; Vitellius; Vespasianus), im weiteren Sinn für die Zeit zw. der Revolte des Iulius [II 150] Vindex gegen Nero (Anfang 68 n. Chr.) in Gallien und der Kaisererhebung des Vespasianus (1.7.69 in Äg., 3.7.69 in Syrien) bzw. dessen Anerkennung durch den Senat in Rom (21./22.12.69). Galba [2], aus altem patrizischen Geschlecht, hatte sich dem Aufs…

Amorges

(148 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] (Ἀμόργης). Perser, unehelicher Sohn ( nóthos: Thuk. 8,5,5) des Satrapen von Sardeis Pissuthnes; er nahm den vor 413 v. Chr. gescheiterten Aufstand des Vaters gegen den Perserkönig Dareios [2] II. von Karien aus wieder auf. Spätestens 412 v. Chr. bemühte sich Athen um eine Kooperation mit A. (Thuk. 8,19,2), und zwar unter Bruch eines Vertrags mit Dareios [2] II. (Andok. or. 3,29; vgl. Epilykos), falls Zahlungen an einen athenischen General in Ephesos im J. 414 [1. Nr. 77, Z. 79] schon …

Statthalter

(522 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] Im mod. Begriff S. fließt eine Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Bezeichnungen für reguläre Amts- und Funktionsträger im Alten Orient und in der griech.-röm. Ant. zusammen, deren gemeinsames Kennzeichen die Erfüllung mil. und administrativer Aufgaben fern von der Herrschaftszentrale in geogr. fest umrissenen Bezirken war (

Tirocinium fori

(144 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter

Timoxena

(54 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] (Τιμοξένα). Ehefrau des Plutarchos [2], Tochter des Alexion (Plut. mor. 701d), wohl selbst schriftstellerisch tätig (eine Schrift über Putzsucht erwähnt Plutarch mor. 145a). Aus der Ehe stammten eine gleichnamige Tochter, die jedoch als Zweijährige starb (Trostschrift an T.: Plut. mor. 608a-612b), und vier Söhne; zwei starben ebenfalls früh. Eder, Walter

Tranquillitas

(209 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter
[English version] Die übliche Bed. “Ruhe, Unbewegtheit” (so noch bei Caes. Gall. 3,15,3) wird im 1. Jh. v. Chr. unter dem Einfluß des Stoizismus und der Philos. des Epikuros (analog zum griech. γαλήνη/ galḗnē, “Meeresstille” = “Seelenfrieden”) zum lat. philos. Begriff für “Unbewegtheit des Gemüts” ( maris t.: Cic. Tusc. 5,6,16; t. animi: Cic. fin. 5,8,23; vgl. Sen. dial. 9: De tranquillitate animi). In Verb…

Merismos

(80 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (μερισμός; merismós from μερίζειν; merízein = ‘to divide, distribute’) in Athens the name for the ‘distribution’ of funds from tax incomes by the apodéktai to the appropriate officials ( archaí ). The sums allocated were determined by the council of the polis ( boulḗ ) and had to be struck off immediately after distribution ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 48,1-2). Merismos is not attested before the 4th century BC ( Taxes III. B.). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography Rhodes, 557-560.

Bessas

(101 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Goth of Thracian origin (born around AD 480), whose family did not accompany Theoderic to Italy in AD 488. He served as an officer in Justinian's army against the Persians, under  Belisarius in the reconquest of Italy, as also against the Goths and in his old age in Syrian territory. He achieved high rank ( dux Mesopotamiae 531; mag. mil. vacans in Italy 535-546; mag. mil. per Armeniam 550-554), was even patricius, but was finally banished for having a too nonchalant attitude towards his duty as a consequence of excessive financial dealings. PLRE 2, 226-229. Eder, Walter (B…

Q.

(69 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Abkürzung des röm. Vornamens Quintus; in der Formel SPQR ( SenatusPopulusQueRomanus) für Que

Audoin

(159 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Hatte seit 540/41 n.Chr. die Regentschaft für Walthari (den unmündigen Sohn des Königs Wacho) inne und wurde nach dessen Tod (547/48) König der Langobarden. Er führte die Langobarden nach Pannonien, wo sie von Iustinian angesiedelt und wohl mit der Aufgabe betraut wurden, die Donaugrenze gegen die Franken zu sichern. In den Kämpfen gegen die benachbarten Gepiden wurde er nur unzureichend von Iustinian unterstützt, obgleich A. 552 dem Narses ein stattliches Heer nach It. sandte. D…

Sacrosanctus

(265 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Als s. wurden nach Festus (318, s. v. s.) Gegenstände oder Personen bezeichnet, die durch Eid ( sacramentum ) so geschützt sind, daß deren Verletzung den Schädiger mit der Todesstrafe bedroht. Als Beispiele nennt Festus die Tribune der Plebs ( tribunus plebis ) und fälschlich auch die plebeischen aediles. Die Volkstribunen waren seit ihrer Einsetzung (494 v. Chr.; Ständekampf) durch eine lex sacrata geschützt (Liv. 2,33,1 und 3; Dion. Hal. ant. 6,89,2-4; Cic. rep. 2,58), d. h. durch den Eid der Plebs, jeder Verletzung der Person oder der Ha…

C.

(70 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Abkürzung des verbreiteten röm. Vornamens Gaius. Die Abkürzung muß bereits vor der Einführung des Buchstabens G in das röm. Alphabet durch den Censor Appius Claudius Caecus (312 v.Chr.) erfolgt sein. Im röm. Zahlensystem bezeichnet C den Wert 100 (Centum), entwickelte sich aber wohl aus der griech. Aspirata Θ (über die Form), die im frühlat. Alphabet keine Verwendung als Buchstabe fand. Italien (Alphabetschriften); Zahlensysteme Eder, Walter (Bochum)

Praefectus iure dicundo

(121 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Praefecti i.d. hießen Beauftragte der stadtröm. Gerichtsmagistrate (s. praetor ), die in der Zeit der röm. Republik in It. für röm. Bürger Recht sprachen, welche fernab von Rom und in einer polit. nicht oder nur rudimentär organisierten Gemeinde lebten ( forum, conciliabulum , oppidum I.). P.i.d. übten weder eine Rechtsaufsicht über bestehende Gerichte aus, noch waren sie Appellationsinstanz ( appellatio ). Eine praefectura ist demnach sowohl der (zeitweilige) Sitz des Beauftragten als auch der Gerichtssprengel, für den dieser zuständig is…

A. A.

(45 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Abkürzung des Blankettnamens A(ulus) A(gerius), der im röm. juristischen Schrifttum zur Bezeichnung des Klägers dient ( actio ). Für den Beklagten steht N(umerius) N(egidius). Daneben werden, meist zur Bezeichnung Dritter, die Namen Titius, Gaius oder Sempronius gebraucht. Eder, Walter (Bochum)

Versammlungen

(1,905 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes | Eder, Walter
[English version] I. Alter Orient Der Alte Orient kannte zeitlich und regional verschieden ausgeprägte Formen von kollektiven Körperschaften mit unterschiedlichen Entscheidungsbefugnissen und Durchsetzungsmöglichkeiten. Wesentlich für die Rolle solcher kollektiver Körperschaften war zum einen deren histor. Genese, zum anderen ihre Einbettung in das jeweils vorliegende System von Herrschaft. Volks-V. wie in der klass. Mittelmeerwelt gab es nicht; über V.-Plätze ist nichts bekannt. Für die Frühzeit Mes…

Amyrtaios

(176 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
(Ἀμυρταῖος). [English version] [1] Herrscher von Sais (1. H. 5. Jh. v. Chr.) von Sais, schloß sich zw. 463 und 461 v. Chr. dem vom Libyer Inaros begonnenen und von Athen unterstützten (Thuk. 1,109) ägäischen Aufstand gegen den Perserkönig Artaxerxes I. an und konnte sich nach dem Sieg der Perser (erneut unterstützt von Athen; Thuk. 1,110,4; Plut. Kimon 18) noch mehrere Jahre im Nildelta halten. Sein Sohn Pausiris wurde von den Persern wieder in die Herrschaft eingesetzt (Hdt. 3,15). Eder, Walter (Bochum) [English version] [2] Ägypt. König (404-398 v. Chr.) wohl der Enkel von Nr. 1, b…

Pleminius, Q.

(97 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Propraetor. Legat des Cornelius [I 71] Scipio in Lokroi [2] nach dessen Rückgewinnung im Hannibal-Krieg 205 v.Chr. (2. Punischer Krieg). Eine Beschwerde der Lokrer beim röm. Senat 204 über die von Scipio geduldete Willkürherrschaft des P. und die Plünderung des Persephone-Heiligtums nutzte Q. Fabius [I 30] zum Antrag, Scipio das Kommando zu entziehen (Liv. 29,19,6). Eine scipiofreundliche Senatskommission stellte jedoch in Lokroi dessen Unschuld fest und brachte P. nach Rom, um ihn von den Volkstribunen wegen perduellio vor Gericht s…

L.

(47 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Abkürzung des röm. Vornamens Lucius. Im röm. Zahlensystem bezeichnet L den Wert 50 und entwickelte sich wohl aus der Halbierung der griech. Aspirata Θ (über die Form , die im frühlat. Alphabet keine Verwendung als Buchstabe fand). Italien, Alphabetschriften; Zahlensysteme Eder, Walter (Bochum)

M.

(63 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Abkürzung der lat. Vornamen Marcus und (bereits in der Ant. mit Apostroph: M') Manius. Als Zahlzeichen dient M zur Bezeichnung der Zahl 1000, ist jedoch nicht von mille (lat. Wort für Tausend) abgeleitet, sondern durch Umformung des griech. Großbuchstabens Φ (Phi) gewonnen, der nicht in das lat. Alphabet aufgenommen worden war (s. dazu D als Zahlzeichen). Eder, Walter (Bochum)

Emmeniden

(24 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Sizilische Tyrannendynastie aus Akragas, die eng mit den Deinomeniden in Syrakus verschwägert war (Stammtafel bei den Deinomeniden). Eder, Walter (Bochum)

Portorium

(100 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Allg. röm. Bezeichnung für den Zoll. Urspr. wohl nur im “Hafen” ( portus) erhoben (Herleitung von porta, “Pforte” bei [1. s. v.]), mit der Ausbreitung der röm. Herrschaft in It. und den Prov. auf alle Land- und Seezölle erweitert. Die Erhebung des p. wurde Pachtgesellschaften ( publicani ) überlassen, die sich dazu eines umfangreichen Stabs aus Sklaven und Freigelassenen, den portitores (“Zöllnern”), bedienten. Seit dem 2. Jh. n. Chr. erhob der Staat allmählich den Zoll mit eigenem Personal (vgl. procurator ). Zu zollpflichtigen Waren, H…

R.

(67 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Abkürzung für Romanus (SPQR), für Roma und in der Verbindung mit publicus für res ( res publica ); selten Abkürzung für das Cogn. Rufus. Auf kaiserzeitlichen Mz. steht R häufig für restitutor, den “Wiederhersteller” (des Reiches, der Reichseinheit etc.). Eder, Walter (Bochum) Bibliography …

Aligern

(87 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Sohn des Fredigern, jüngster Bruder des letzten Ostgotenkönigs Teja. Nach dessen Tod (552 n. Chr.) hielt A. die Festung Cumae mit den Königsinsignien und dem Schatz noch über ein Jahr (Agath. 1,8,6; Prok. 8,34,19 f.), bis er sie wohl Ende 553 an Narses übergab (Agath. 1,20,1-7). In seinem Auftrag kämpfte er gegen die Franken (Agath. 1,20,9-11) und war 554 an dessen Sieg über den Alemannen Butilinus bei Casilinum beteiligt (Agath. 2,9,13; PLRE 3A, 48). Eder, Walter (Bochum) Bibliography Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 603 ff.

Attila

(360 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Sohn Mundzuks, seit 434 n.Chr. mit seinem Bruder Bleda König der Hunnen als Nachfolger des Onkels Rua. Nach der Ermordung Bledas 445 i…

Prytaneion

(126 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] (πρυτανεῖον). Amtsgebäude der prytáneis (Prytanen), meist in der Nähe des Buleuterion im Zentrum der griech. Polis (Agora; vgl. etwa Athenai; Messene; Priene) und vorgeblich von hohem Alter (vgl. Thuk. 2,15,2). Als Standort des Staatsherdes, häufig mit stets brennender Flamme, war das P. sakrales Zentrum der Polis und Mittelpunkt zahlreicher Kulthandlungen (Hestia). Nach den Perserkriegen mußten die “verunreinigten” Feuer gelöscht und im P. von Delphi neu entzündet werden (Plut. Aristeides 20,4 f.). Die Teilnahme an den Mahlzeiten im P. ( sítēsis

Ataulfus

(208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Schwager des Alarich (Alaricus [2]), 410-415 n.Chr. König der Westgoten. Wohl im Auftrag des Alarich in Pannonien als Heerführer tätig, wurde A. 408 von ihm gerufen, erreichte 409 It. und wurde vom Usurpator Attalus [11] zum comes domesticorum equitum ernannt. Nach dem Tod des Alarich 410 gab er dessen Afrikapläne auf und begab sich 412 auf Anraten des Attalus nach Gallien zum Usurpator Iovinus. A. geriet bald in Konflikt mit ihm und lieferte ihn 413 an Dardanus, den gallischen Praefekte…

Amalafrida

(71 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Ältere Schwester Theoderichs d. Gr., Mutter der Amalaberga und des Theodahad, heiratete in zweiter Ehe um 500 n. Chr. den Vandalenkönig Thrasamund in Karthago, um die Bündnispolitik ihres Bruders zu unterstützen, was bis zum Tod Thrasamunds 523 auch gelang. Sein Nachfolger Hilder…

B. (Zahl)

(43 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] In den griech. Zahlensystemen bezeichnet β (Beta) im “alphabetischen” System die Zahl 2, mit vorangestelltem diakritischen Zeichen ('β, ,β) die Zahl 2000. Im “akrophonischen” System dient β' als Sonderzeichen für die Bruchzahl 2/3. Rechenkunst; Zahlensysteme. Eder, Walter (Bochum)

Herdonius

(183 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Appius H. Sabinischer Aufständiger in Rom, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Ein Sabiner, besetzt 460 v.Chr. mit 2500 Exilierten und Sklaven (Liv. 3,15,5-18,11; nach Dion. Hal. ant. 10,14,1-17,1 mit 4000 Klienten und Dienern) das Capitol und kommt im Kampf gegen die Truppen des Consuls Valerius und des Dictators von Tusculum, L. Mamilius, um. Die der Verschwörung des Catilina nachgebildete Geschichte weist vielleicht auf ethnische Spannungen im Rom der frühen Republik hin. Eder, Walter (Bochum) Bibliograp…

Herminius

(120 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Gentilname einer röm. Familie etr. Herkunft. Sie stellte nach Vertreibung des etr. Königs am Beginn der Republik zwei Consuln, verschwand dann aber wie die meisten etr. Familien seit der Mitte des 5. Jh. v.Chr. aus der Geschichte. Der Consul von 506 (T.…

Amalaricus

(154 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Sohn des Alaricus [3] II. und einer Tochter Theoderichs d. Gr. Nach Alaricus' Tod (507) herrschte anstelle des etwa 5jährigen A. dessen Halbbruder Gesalech (Gesalicus; Prok. BG 5,12,43; anders Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,37), nach 511 übernahm Theoderich die Herrschaft für den nominell zum König ernannten A. (Prok. BG 5,12,46; Iord. Get. 302 nennt Theudis als Regenten) bis er nach dessen Tod 526 in die volle Königsherrschaft eintrat (Prok. BG 5,13,4 ff.). Er heiratete eine Tochter des Fr…

Partei(en)

(207 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Der mod. Begriff ist auf die Ant. nicht übertragbar. Doch gab es auch in ant. Gemeinwesen Gruppierungen, die sich kurzfristig zur Durchsetzung polit. Ziele zusammenfanden ( hetairía [2]; factiones ), ohne jedoch eine feste Mitgliederschaft und längerfristige polit. Programme zu entwickeln. Es findet sich auch die Aufteilung einer Bürgerschaft in einzelne “Parteiungen”, die ihre unterschiedlichen Vorstellungen über Inhalte und Methoden der Politik quasi-programmatisch untermauerten ( oligarchía / dēmokratía ; optimates / populares )…

Areobindus

(276 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Flavius A. Cos. 434 n. Chr. Vater des Dagalaifus, Großvater des A. [2], 434 n. Chr. Konsul zusammen mit Aspar Ardabur. Besiegte als magister militum ( comes foederatorum?) 422 im Zweikampf einen persischen Offizier, wurde 441 als magister militum von Theodosius II. gegen die Vandalen nach Afrika geschickt, verspielte aber den Erfolg durch langen Aufenthalt in Sizilien. Er unterlag 443 (wie Aspar) dem Attila. Seit 447 patricius; gestorben 449 (PLRE 2, 145 f., A. 2). Eder, Walter (Bochum) [English version] [2] Flavius Areobindus Dagalaifus Areobindus Cos. 5…

S.

(112 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Abkürzung der röm. Vornamen Sextus und Spurius (auch Sp.). S steht auch für senatus in der Formel SPQR, als S. S. für den Senatsbeschluß ( S[enatus] S[ententia]), ebenso als S. C. auf Mz., die im Auftrag des Senats geprägt werden ( [ex] S[enatus] C[onsulto]; Senatus consultum ). Sehr häufig auf Inschr. für das Possessivpronomen der 3. Pers., suus, sua, suum (in allen obliquen Fällen), z. B. S(ua)P(ecunia)P(osuit) (“errichtet mit eigenem Geld”). Auf Mz. vielfach in der Kaiserpropaganda verwendet für Salus (“Heil”), Securitas (“Sicherheit”) oder Spes (“Hoffnung”). E…

Porsenna

(320 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] P., Lars. Etrusker, König von Clusium (h. Chiusi) am E. des 6. Jh. v. Chr. ( Porsena bei Hor. epod. 16,4; Macr. Sat. 2,412; inschr. Porsina, CIL VI 32919; griech. Πορσίνας/ Porsínas: Dion. Hal. ant. 5,21,1; wohl etr. Eigenname, vielleicht auch abgeleitet von zilath purthne , der Bezeichnung für das oberste Amt in etr. Städten). Nach röm. Überl. (Liv. 2,9,1-14,9; Dion. Hal. ant. 5,21,1-34,5) wollte P. den zu ihm geflüchteten Tarquinius Superbus wieder als König in Rom einsetzen, zog aber beeindruckt vom heldenhaften Widerstand der Rö…

Abklatsch

(109 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Als A. (engl. squeeze, frz. estampage) wird der Negativabdruck einer Inschr. auf Papier oder einer Latexfolie bezeichnet. Dabei wird nach der Reinigung des Inschriftenträgers weiches Papier mit einer festen Bürste in die Inschr. geklopft bzw. das flüssige Latex dünn ausgegossen. Der nach dem Trocknen abgelöste A. kann beliebig transportiert und bei günstigem Streiflicht häufig besser gelesen werden als das Original. Große A.-sammlungen befinden sich in der Akademie der Wiss. in Berlin…

Tullia

(553 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter | Strothmann, Meret
[English version] [1] Tochter des Königs Servius Tullius [I 4] Tochter des röm. Königs Servius Tullius [I 4], des Schwiegersohns des Tarquinius [11] Priscus, verheiratet mit ihrem Onkel Arruns. Nach vergeblichen Versuchen, Arruns zur Übernahme der Herrschaft zu überreden, wandte sich T. dessen Bruder Tarquinius (dem späteren Tarquinius [12] Superbus) zu, dem Ehemann ihrer gleichnamigen Schwester. Nach dem Tod des Arruns und ihrer Schwester (durch Mord?; Liv. 1,46,9; Dion. Hal. ant. 4,30,1) heiratete T. Ta…

Butilinus

(71 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Alemannischer Herzog in fränkischen Diensten. Er begleitete 539 n.Chr. König Theudebert I. auf einem Feldzug nach Italien. 552 nahm B. ein Hilfegesuch der Goten an und durchquerte auf eigene Faust mit seinem Bruder Leutharis und angeblich 75000 Mann It. bis zur Straße nach Messina. Nach anfänglichen großen Erfolgen endete das Unternehmen 554 bei Casilinum, wo B. gegen Narses Schlacht und Leben verlor. PLRE 3A, 253f. Eder, Walter (Bochum)

Hellenismus

(506 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] ( hellēnismós). Dient in der Antike wohl schon seit Aristoteles bzw. dessen Schüler Theophrastos als Bezeichnung für den korrekten Gebrauch der griech. Sprache ( hellēnízein = “griech. sprechen”), ist als Begriff jedoch erst im 2. Jh. v.Chr. belegt (2 Makk 4,13) und bezeichnet dort die aus jüdischer Sicht abgelehnte griech. Art und Lebensweise. Ausgehend von der etwa gleichzeitig bei alexandrinischen Gelehrten entstehenden Bed. von H. als “griech. Geisteswelt”, verwenden dann christl. Schriftsteller H. …

Ramnes

(251 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Titi(ens)es und Luceres (so Liv. 1,36,2, jedoch in 1,13,8 und Cic. rep. 2,20,36: R(h)amnenses) sind die etr. (Varro ling. 5,55; dazu [1. 218, 581]) Namen der drei von Romulus [1] eingerichteten (nach Dion. Hal. ant. 4,14,2 und Gell. noct. Att. 15,27: nach Geschlechtern geordneten) tribus , die sich in je 10 curiae gliedern und so die erste Gliederung des röm. Volkes und Heeres bildeten (30×10 Ritter, 30×100 Fußsoldaten: Varro ling. 5,89; Liv. 1,13,8). Die Herleitung der Bezeichnun…

Mutinensischer Krieg

(294 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] ( bellum Mutinense: Oros. 6,18,2). Der M.K. von Dez. 44 bis April 43 v.Chr., benannt nach der Stadt Mutina (h. Modena), war nach Caesars Tod die erste mil. Auseinandersetzung zwischen Antonius [I 9] und einer eigenartigen Koalition, gebildet aus den Truppen des Caesarmörders Decimus Iunius [I 12] …

Gefängnisstrafe

(88 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
[English version] Eine G. als Strafhaft im heutigen Sinn kennt weder das griech. noch das röm. Recht (anders [1]). Der Beschuldigte bleibt in der Regel bis zum Prozeß frei (in Rom ist bei Staatsverbrechen eine Art von Untersuchungshaft möglich), der Verurteilte weilt nur bis zur Vollstreckung im Gefängnis. Auch die seit dem XII-Tafel-Gesetz in Rom genau geregelte private Haft des Schuldners beim Gläubiger soll nicht strafen, sondern die Zahlung erzwingen. Addictus; Carcer; Desmoterion Eder, Walter (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. Eisenhuth, Die röm. Gefängnisstrafe, in: ANRW I …

Bundesgenossenkriege

(946 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Bochum)
Kriege innerhalb oder zwischen ant. Bündnissystemen (Socii; Symmachie; Symmachoi). Strafexpeditionen der Führungsmacht gegen einzelne Bundesmitglieder fallen nicht unter den Begriff B. Bereits in der Ant. wurden folgende Kriege als B. (πόλεμος συμμαχικός,

L.

(55 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Amali

(250 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The A. form the royal dynasty of the East Goths and, with regard to reputation, stand above the royal dynasty of the West Goths, the  Balthi. The family tree of the A., which was developed by Iordanes (died 79) in AD 551 and began with Gaut, indicates godly origin; the eponym of the tribe, Amal, stands only in the fourth place. Iordanes relies upon Cassiodorus, who outlined shortly after the death of the Amal Theoderic the Gr. (526) in his (lost) history of the Goths an origo Gothica, which, in turn, took up an already-existing gentile tradition that had been cultiv…

Ager Romanus

(297 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] As distinct from the ager peregrinus, the 'foreign territory', ager Romanus (AR) was the area of the state of Rome inhabited by Romans (including the city). It consisted of privately owned real estate ( ager privatus) and public lands ( ager publicus ). Parts of the ager publicus could be transformed into ager privatus through the settlement of Roman citizens ( assignatio viritim, 'man by man'; or in closed citizens' colonies, cf.

Topos

(215 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(τόπος/ tópos). [German version] [1] Administrative unit Territorial subdivision of a nome ( nomós [2]), attested from the Hellenistic period onwards in Egypt and in its external possessions (Syria, Palestine, southern Asia Minor); also as an administrative unit under the Seleucids and Attalids (Attalus, with stemma), probably with a similar structure but not understood in detail [1. 440]. In Egypt a topos comprised several villages or kômai (Kome B), and therefore formed a unit of intermediate size, which had no pharaonic antecedent, unlike the nome and kome, but was newly form…

Sarmaticus

(154 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] A victory title assumed by Roman emperors to indicate a military success over the Sarmatians (Sarmatae). After AD 175, Marcus [2] Aurelius and his son Commodus were the first to bear the epithet Sarmaticus following the peace treaty with the Iazyges. Maximinus [2] Thrax and his son Maximus bore the title Sarmaticus maximus from AD 236. Although Sarmatian tribes continued to threaten the Danube border, Diocletianus was the first to accept the title Sarmaticus maximus again in AD 285 (three more times from then on). After Diocletian, all the Augusti of the tetrarchy (Tetra…

Prison sentence

(108 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Neither Greek nor Roman law is familiar with prison sentences as punitive detention in the modern sense (otherwise [1]). As a rule, until the trial the accused remains free (in Rome a kind of pre-trial confinement is permissible for political crimes), a convicted criminal only stays in prison until the execution of the sentence. Also, private detention of a debtor for a creditor, precisely regulated in Rome from the time of the Law of the Twelve Tables onwards, is not to punish but rather to force payment.…

Amyrtaeus

(173 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ἀμυρταῖος; Amyrtaîos). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sais, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC of Sais, joined the Aegean rebellion begun by the Libyan  Inarus and supported by Athens (Thuc. 1,109) against the Persian king  Artaxerxes I and held the Nile delta after the victory of the Persians (again supported by Athens; Thuc. 1,110,4; Plut. Cimon 18) for several years. His son Pausiris was reinstated by the Persians in the rulership (Hdt. 3,15).…

Social Wars

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Wars within or between ancient alliance systems (Socii; Symmachia; Symmachoi). The term does not include punitive expeditions by the leading power against individual alliance members. The following wars were already called SW (πόλεμος συμμαχικός/ pólemos symmachikós, bellum sociale) in Antiquity: [German version] [1] War by Athens against allies of the 2nd Athenian League, 357-355 BC The war by Athens against seceded allies of the Second Athenian League from 357-355 BC, which put Athens into serious military and financial difficulties (Symmoria). Du…

Thesmophylakes

(118 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (θεσμοφύλακες /thesmophýlakes, from thesmós = 'law, ordinance' and phyláttein = 'to guard'). 'Guardians of ordinances', a rarely recorded collegium in Classical Greece (for Elis: Thuc. 47,9) with scarcely identifiable powers. Recorded in the Hellenistic period in Boeotia (IG VII 3172,178; cf. Plut. Mor. 292d thesmophylákios nómos) a…

Pleminius, Q.

(116 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Propraetor. Legate of Cornelius [I 71] Scipio in Locri [2] after it was regained in the war with Hannibal in 205 BC (second of the Punic Wars). In 204 the Locrians' complaint in the Roman Senate about P.' despotism, which was tolerated by Scipio, and about the pillage of the sanctuary of Persephone was used by Q. Fabius [I 30] in his motion to relieve Scipio of his command …

Audoin

(173 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] From AD 540/41 held the regency for Walthari (the minor son of King Wacho) and after Walthari's death (in 547/48) became king of the  Langobards. He led the Langobards to Pannonia, where they were settled by Justinian and probably entrusted with the task of securing the Danube border against the Franks. In the battles against the neighbouring Gepids he was ins…

Governor

(586 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The modern term 'governor' merges numerous designations of regular officials and functionaries in the ancient Near East and Graeco-Roman antiquity into one. The common factor of all these positions was the fulfilment of military and administrative duties (i.e. 'governing') far from the centre of rule, in clearly geographically defined areas (Eparchia; Provincia; satrapy, s. Satrap) and by order of and in the place of the actual political ruler. Representatives and deputies of the …

People

(355 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Editors’ preface

(6,459 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter | Renger, Johannes
1. Aims of the present volume Long lists of dates and endless series of names hardly make for reading that is especially exciting or even interesting: emperors, kings, princes and holders of various offices follow one another, arranged in columns and accompanied by more columns with the dates of their lives and terms in office. The result: a ‘columned’ or compartmentalised history of antiquity that, at first sight, is just as lifeless as the marble of ancient columns. A second look, however, shows tha…

XI. Late-antique Germanic Kingdoms

(10,179 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin | Eder, Walter
This section includes the states of a number of Germanic peoples that emerged from the early fifth century AD onwards on the territory of the late Roman Empire and on its borders. The Huns (Hunni) were admittedly not a Germanic nation (Germani), but they certainly belong in the survey below as their sudden expansion triggered the so-called migrations of the Germanic peoples. Moreover, the rapid collapse of Hunnish rule after the death of Attila led to a recovery of imperial power only in the Eas…

Spartocids

(83 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Ruling dynasty in the Regnum Bosporanum, named after its founder Spartocus [1] I, who took over the power from the Archaeanactids of Panticapaeum in 438/7 BC. The dynasty, which distinguished itself in the Classical and early Hellenistic periods with a brisk trade in corn in the Aegaean (primarily with Athens), came to an end in 109 BC with the handing over of power by its last ruler, Paerisades [6] V, to Mithridates [6] VI of Pontus. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Prothytes

(69 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Προθύτης; Prothýtēs). Theban, leading anti-Macedonian politician who, relying on Athenian help, in 335 BC advocated the secession of Thebes from Macedonia. Swiftly advancing on Thebes, Alexander [4]  the Great (Diod. 17,8,2) demanded in vain his surrender (Plut. Alexandros 11,7). He was probably killed in the defence of the city, which involved heavy losses (Arr. Anab. 1,8,1-8; Diod.  Sic. 17,14,1; Plut. Alexandros 11,12). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Areobindus

(290 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius A. Cos. 434 AD Father of Dagalaifus, grandfather of A. [2], in AD 434 consul together with Aspar Ardabur. As magister militum ( comes foederatorum?) he defeated a Persian officer in single combat in 422, in 441 Theodosius II sent him as magister militum against the Vandals to Africa but he missed his opportunity because he stayed too long in Sicily. He was defeated by Attila in 443 (as was Aspar). In 447 patricius; died in 449 (PLRE 2, 145 f., A. 2). Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius Areobindus Dagalaifus Areobindus Cos. 506 AD Son of Dagalaifus,…

Year of four emperors

(516 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the year AD 69, in which four emperors – some at the same time, some in swift succession – ruled the Roman Empire (Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian), and in the broader sense for the period between Iulius [II 150] Vindex's revolt against Nero (beginning of AD 68) in Gaul and the elevation to emperor of  Vespasian (1 July 69 in Egypt, 3 July 69 in Syria) or its recognition by the Senate in Rome (21/22 December 69). Galba [2], from an ancient patrician family, sided with Iulius Vindex's rebellion, was proclaimed empe…

A. A.

(52 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the blanket name A(ulus) A(gerius), which, in Roman juristic writing, serves as the designation for the plaintiff (  actio ). N(umerius) N(egidius) stands for the defendant. In addition, the names Titius, Gaius or Sempronius are used for the designation of a third party. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Toparches

(29 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τοπάρχης; topárchēs). 'Leader (ἄρχειν/ árchein = rule) of a district ( tópos)'; in the Hellenistic period the highest civil administrative official in a tópos (q.v.). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Amalaberga

(96 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Daughter of  Amalafrida and niece of Theoderic the Great, married to the king of the Thuringians Herminafridus (Iord. Get. 299; Procop. 5,12,22; 8,25,11; Cassiod. Var. 4,1) c. AD 510 in order to cement an alliance against the Franks. After the conquest of the Thuringian kingdom and the death of her husband in 534 she fled to her brother Theodahad in Ravenna. Her son Amalafridus and a daughter went to Constantinople after the taking of Ravenna by  Belisarius, where Justinian married the daughter to the Langobard Audoin (PLRE 2, 63). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Eparchos

(160 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (ἔπαρχος; éparchos). Head of an   eparchía , a territorial administrative unit in Hellenistic states, especially in the  Seleucid kingdom. It is disputed whether eparchos ever was an official title for the holder of civil and military power in a subdivision of the satrapy ( Satrap) because in this context it is not attested epigraphically. The first appearance of the term eparchos for a governor in Seleucid territory in Polybius [2] (5,46,7) suggests that eparchos was formed as an analogy to the term eparchía (the Greek term for a Roman province) and describes …

Amorges

(150 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμόργης/ Amórgēs). Persian, illegitimate son ( nóthos: Thuc. 8,5,5) of the satrap of Sardis Pissuthnes; from Caria he resumed his father's rebellion against the Persian king Darius [2] II, which had failed before 413 BC. No later than 412 BC Athens made an attempt at cooperation with A. (Thuc. 8,19,2), in breach of a treaty with Darius [2] II (And. Or. 3,29; cf. Epilycys), if payments to an Athenian general in Ephesus in the year 414 [1. no. 77, Z. 79] were for assistance for A. (as in…

Severan dynasty

(979 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The SD, also referred to as 'The Severans', 'Severan era', or, owing to the origins of the family in Africa and Syria, the 'African/Syrian emperors', lasted c. 40 years from the accession of their founder, Septimius [II 7] Severus (AD 193-211), via his sons by Iulia [12] Domna, Caracalla (198-217) and Geta [2] (209-211), to Iulia Domna's great nephews Elagabalus [2] (218-222) and Severus [2] Alexander (222-235). The sequence of Severan emperors was interrupted for about a year (April 217-mid 218) by the rul…

Telonai

(317 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τελῶναι/ telônai, Sg. τελώνης/ telṓnēs; 'tax leaseholders', from τέλη/ télē = 'taxes' and ὠνή/ ōnḗ = 'buying, lease'); private entrepreneurs or businesses in the Greek domain, comparable with the Roman publicani (see Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1,1,33). They either purchased for a lease guaranteed to the state, the right to collect taxes and tolls for a certain period in a defined area as well as the right to exploit mines, or they received a certain sum of money from the state and had to provide an agr…

Hellenic League

(343 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the league of c. 30 Greek states (31 in Plut. Themistocles 20,3; cf. Snake column) which swore an oath to unite against the Persians in the autumn of 481 BC, immediately prior to the attack of Xerxes [1] I and whose representatives ( próbouloi: Hdt. 7,172,1) met regularly in the sanctuary of Poseidon on the Isthmus of Corinth, beginning no later than the spring of 480. The first meeting took place in 481 in Sparta (Paus. 3,12,6), the leading Greek power of the time (cf. Thuc. 1,18,2), or on the Isthmus (Hdt. …

Quaesitor

(127 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ('examiner') can, in general Latin usage, mean any chairman of a jury ( quaestio ) in criminal proceedings; however, the chairman selected for an individual trial is usually meant, in contrast to the permanent chairman appointed for a year ( praetor, iudex quaestionis) [1, vol. 2. 2234; 2. 48-50]. He also did not have a vote [2. 1629] and was bound by the decision of the committee which he led. A juristic connection of the quaesitor to the ancient quaestores parricidii ( parricidium ) is disputed, but accepted by [2. 44 f., 132], who sees i…

Puer, pueri

(274 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In Latin puer is used: (1) to describe male slaves of any age (like the Greek παῖς/ paîs); (2) to distinguish a free male child from a female one ( puella); and (3) to indicate a stage of life (Dig. 50,16,204). According to Festus (307), 'the ancients' ( antiqui) named their slaves Marcipor, Quintipor, etc., to express the master-slave relationship of Marcus or Quintus to each por = puer. A slave remained a puer until freed because his physical development, unlike that of a free child, would not lead to legal majority (Sen. Ep. 47,7). Latin lacks a ter…

Amalaricus

(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Son of Alaricus [3] II and a daughter of Theoderic the Great. After Alaricus' death (507), his half-brother Gesalech ruled instead of the c. five-year-old A. (Gesalicus; Procop. Goth. 5,12,43; differently Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,37). After 511 Theoderic took over rulership for A., who had been nominally named king (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46; Iord. Get. 302 names Theudis as regent) until after Theoderic's death in 526 when A. took up full rulership (Procop. Goth. 5,13,4 ff.). He married a daughter of the Frank C…

Ardabur

(456 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius, cos. 427 AD Flavius, of Alan descent, father of Aspar A. Consul in AD 427. As magister utriusque militiae, he led a successful campaign against the Persian commander Narses in AD 421-422. In AD 424, he was, as magister utriusque mil. (praesentalis?), sent to Italy by Theodosius II, together with his son, against the usurper Iohannes who had seized power after the death of Honorius in AD 423; however, he was already captured during the crossing and held in Ravenna as Iohannes' prisoner, but freed by his son in AD 425 (PLRE 2, 137 f., A. 3). Eder, Walter (Berlin) …

B (Number)

(56 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In Greek numerical systems, β (beta) designates the number 2 in the ‘alphabetic’ system. In the same system, it can also designate the number 2,000 when prepositioned with a diacritical symbol ('β, ,β). In the ‘acrophonic’ system, β' is the symbol for the fraction 2/3.  Arithmetics;  Numerical systems Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Census

(641 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The ancient census had its origins in the effort to establish the military potential of a community, and was thus at first restricted to the part of the population that was capable of and qualified for military service, i.e. adult male citizens. Because the prevailing principle of self-provision of equipment made military service as cavalryman, heavy infantryman ( hoplitai ), light infantryman or military auxiliary dependent on the citizen's economic standing, a classification according to wealth was made by estimation ( census ; cf. time ), int…

Zilath

(206 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (also zilat, zilach, zilac). Name of an office in Etruscan cities, known from inscriptional evidence from the 4th cent. BC onwards; most of the evidence is from the territory of Tarquinii, more from Vulci, Volsinii, Volaterra and Clusium [1. 246 f.]. The zilath seems (to some extent with other officials also described as zilath but charged with other duties) to have been at the apex of the city administration which evolved after the dissolution of the kingdom and the decline of aristocratic power in Etruria (Etrusci). Zilath also appears in connection with mechl rasnal…

Attila

(394 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Son of Mundzuk, from AD 434 together with his brother Bleda king of the Huns as successor to his uncle Rua. After the murder of Bleda in 445, A. is until 453 sole ruler of a Hun empire reaching from the Rhine to the Caucasus, which also includes Iranian and Germanic tribes. The strict central organization of the Hunnish tribes, begun already by Rua, increasingly replaces the earlier, looser federation. Probably after the model of the Roman Empire but not with the goal of its destr…

Civil War

(927 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Already in Hdt. Greek ἔμφυλος στάσις/ émphylos stásis; πόλεμος/ pólemos; Latin bellum civile). Fight between armed citizens of the same state on its territory, which could be particularly fierce in Graeco-Roman antiquity given that ‘citizens’ and ‘soldiers’ were identical and therefore battle-experienced troops encountered each other. The causes lay in social conflicts, political differences or the power aspirations of individuals. Because the boundaries of civil wars are undefined, differentiation from ‘revolts’ and ‘uprisings’ is difficult. [German version] I. Greece Th…

Acropolis

(374 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (ἀκρόπολις/ akrópolis, 'upper city'), the highest part ( ákros = 'located at the top') of a Greek settlement, in Greece and in the Aegean area often with fortification walls, rarely so in the colonies of Sicily and Lower Italy (Fortifications). The original reference to these elevated settlements as pólis (on the Mycenaean roots of the word s. Polis I) was preserved in the designation of the Acropolis of Athens as pólis up into the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,15,6; cf. Aristoph. Nub. 69; Paus. 1,26,6). When settlements began to extend down the slopes begi…

Sacrosanctus

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] According to Festus (318, s. v. s.) s. described objects or persons who were protected by oath ( Sacramentum ) in such a way that by harming them the culprit came under the threat of the death penalty. As examples Festus gives the tribune of the plebs ( Tribunus plebis ) and, incorrectly, also the plebeian aediles. From their inception (in 494 BC; Struggle of the orders), the people's tribunes were protected by the lex sacrata (Liv. 2,33,1 and 3;  Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,89,2-4; Cic. Rep. 2,58), i.e. by an oath of the plebs to have every injury to a tribu…

Squeeze

(125 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] 'Squeeze' (German abklatsch, French estampage) is the term for a negative impression of an inscription on paper or a latex sheet. After the inscribed surface has been cleaned, soft paper is pressed with a firm brush, or a thin film of liquid latex is poured, on to the inscription. After drying the squeeze can be detached and transported at will; under suitable lighting it can often be read better than the original. Large collections of squeezes can be found in the Akademie der Wissens…

Bouleuterion

(45 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Building where the  boule met. Attestable from the archaic period, from the 4th cent. BC the bouleuterion was regularly one of the public buildings at or in the vicinity of the  agora. On function and construction  assembly buildings. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Prytaneion

(140 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (πρυτανεῖον/ prytaneîon). Official building of the prytáneis , usually near the bouleuterion in the centre of a Greek polis (Agora; cf., e.g., Athens; Messene; Priene) and ostensibly of great age (cf. Thuc. 2,15,2). As the location of the state hearth, often with a constantly burning flame, the prytaneîon was the sacred centre of the polis and at the middle of numerous cult activities (Hestia). After the Persian Wars the 'contaminated' fires had to be extinguished and rekindled by Delphi in the prytaneîon (Plut. Aristides 20,4 f.). Participation in meals in the prytaneî…

S.

(125 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman forenames Sextus and Spurius (also Sp.). S stands also for senatus in the formula SPQR, as S.S. for the Senate's resolution ( S[enatus] S[ententia]) and as S.C. on coins that were minted on behalf of the Senate ( [ex] S[enatus] C[onsulto]; s enatus consultum ). Very often to be found on inscriptions instead of the possessive pronouns of the 3rd person suus, sua, suum (in all the oblique cases), such as S(ua)P(ecunia)P(osuit) ('built with one's own money'). On coins, frequently used within imperial propaganda for s alus ('health'), s ecuritas

Coriolanus

(168 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Marcius C., Cn, received the epithet C. for his deeds of heroism in the capture of Corioli in 493 BC (Liv. 2,33,5). The unyielding patrician's proposal to exploit a famine in order to render the plebs submissive led to his banishment in 491, and to his attempt to return home at the head of the Volsci enemy. According to tradition (Liv. 2,39-41; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,14-36), his mother Veturia and wife Volumnia persuaded him to turn back before the gates of Rome, and this cost him…

Catualda

(75 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Marcomannian noble who had fled from  Marbod to the Gothic Gutones. At the instigation of Drusus he invaded the kingdom of Marbod in c. AD 18 with the help of the Gutones who wanted to free themselves from Marcomanni subjugation and drove him into exile in Ravenna. Shortly afterwards he himself was driven out by the Hermundurian Vibilius and fled to Forum Iulii (Fréjus) (Tac. Ann. 2, 62-63). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Teispes

(136 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τείσπης; Teíspēs). According to the testimony of a cylinder inscription of Cyrus [2] II (TUAT I 409,21) an ancestor of his grandfather Cyrus [1] I and hence probably, like him, of Persian descent and a ruler in Fars (Persis) in the 7th cent. BC. The genealogical connection with the Achaemenids [2] in Hdt. 7,11, who puts into the mouth of Xerxes I a family tree with a T. as the son of Achaemenes [1] and another T. as great-great-grandson, can presumably be traced to Darius [1]. The…

Balthi

(226 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The B. (‘the Bold’) are the royal line of the Visigoths, which is held in lesser esteem than the  Amali line of the Ostrogoths. Although the B. are also considered to be a line of ‘kings and heroes’, in contrast with the Amali, the memory of divine descent was lost. The historical descent of the royal family also remains obscure, because the relationship of the first identifiable Balthi prince, Alaric I ( Alaricus [2], died AD 410), to the three Terwingian judges of the 4th cent. …

Tullianum

(217 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Part of the Roman state prison ( carcer ) for prisoners sentenced to death by strangulation, including the fellow conspirators of Catilina and the leaders of subjugated people paraded in triumphs (Triumph/Triumphal procession, with map). The name Tullianum led ancient authors to suppose that it was built by Tull(i)us Hostilius[4] or Servius Tullius [I 4] (Varro, Ling. 5,151; Fest. 490), but modern scholars think that it may have originally been a spring house (cp. Fest. 492: tullios = 'wellsprings'). Liv. 1,33,8 ascribed the construction of the carcer itself to An…

Timoxena

(68 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τιμοξένα; Timoxéna). Wife of Plutarchus [2], daughter of Alexion (Plut. Mor. 701d), probably herself an author (a writing on obsessive cleanliness is mentioned by Plutarch Mor. 145a). The marriage produced a daughter of the same name, but she died at the age of two (writing of condolence to T.: Plut. Mor. 608a-612b), and four sons; two of these also died young. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Herdonius

(194 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appius H. Rebellious Sabine in Rome, 5th cent. BC A Sabine who in 460 BC seized the Capitol with the help of 2,500 exiles and slaves (Liv. 3,15,5-18,11; according to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,14,1-17,1 with 4,000 clients and servants). He died in the battle against the troops of consul Valerius and L. Mamilius, the dictator of Tusculum. This story, modelled on the conspiracy of  Catilina, might be a possible indication of ethnic tensions in early Republican Rome. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography P. M. Martin, Des tentatives de tyrannies à Rome, in: Eder, Staat, 49-72…

C.

(82 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the widespread Roman name Gaius. This abbreviation must have occurred already before the introduction of the letter G into the Roman alphabet by the censor Appius  Claudius Caecus (312 BC). In the Roman system of numbers, C represents the value 100 ( centum), but it probably developed from the Greek aspirate Θ (via its form), which did not have any application as a letter in the early Latin alphabet.  Italy (alphabetic scripts);  Numerical systems Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Skytalismos

(139 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (σκυταλισμός; skytalismós). The killing of 1200 (Diod. 15,57,3-58,4; in Plut. Mor.  814B: 1500) rich citizens in Argos (in the autumn of 370 BC) by beating them with clubs ( skytálē: 'stick, club'). The occasion was an attempt by an oligarchic group, with the help of mercenaries, to gain power in order to prevent a radicalization of democracy in Argos, probably after the defeat of Sparta at Leuctra (in 370 BC). The attempt was betrayed (Aen. Tact. 11,7-10) and 30 respected citizens were executed; the ensuing atmosphere of turmoil resulted in the skytalismós, to which ev…

Mutina, war of / Bellum Mutinense

(330 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The bellum Mutinense (Oros. 6,18,2)of December 44 to April 43 BC, named after the City of Mutina (modern Modena), was the first military dispute, after Caesar's death, between Antonius [I 9] and a curious coalition formed out of the troops of Caesar's murderer Decimus Iunius [I 12] Brutus, of Caesar's heir Octavianus (the later Augustus) and of the Senate, and it was at the same time the last and unsuccessful attempt by the Senate to deprive Antonius of power and to once again acquire political leadership. When D. Brutus was faced with the threat of losing his province Galli…

Porphyrogennetos

(181 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (πορφυρογέννητος/ porphyrogénnētos, 'born in the purple') was used as a cognomen (not a title) for children born to an emperor in his period of office (Konstantinos [1] VII). The Greek porphyrogénnētos was applied to both sexes, the Latin form distinguished ( porphyrogenitus or porphyrogenita). A similar Latin version ( natus in purpure) is recorded as early as for Honorius [3] (born AD 384), a Greek one (ἐν τῇ πορφύρᾳ/ en tȇi porphýrāi) for Theodosius II (born 401). In official texts the adjective appears in Latin form in the 8th cent., in Greek not…

T.

(20 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] As an abbreviation in names, T. stands for the Roman given name Titus. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Herminius

(138 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Nomen gentile of a Roman family of Etruscan origin. After the expulsion of the Etruscan king at the beginning of the republic, it produced two consuls but then disappeared from history like most Etruscan families from the middle of the 5th cent. BC. The consul of 506 (T.H. Aquilinus) is mentioned, partly with his colleague Sp. Larcius (likewise of Etruscan origin), in the battle against the Etruscans and Latins (Liv. 2,10,6f.; 11,7-10; 20,8f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,22,5; 23,2 and…

A.

(35 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the common Roman name Aulus. A. is of Etruscan origin (Aules?) and was also used as a cognomen in the imperial period. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography Salomies, 11, 24, 165.

P.

(73 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is used as an abbreviation of the Roman name Publius and very often appears on coins and in inscriptions to stand for functions and titles (e.g. PM = pontifex maximus; PP = pater patriae). For the numerous meanings of P in numismatics and epigraphics see [1. 310-319] and [2. XLIV-XLIX]. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, Epigrafia, 1974 2 H.Cohen, J.C. Egbert, R. Cagnat, Coin-Inscriptions and Epigraphical Abbreviations of Imperial Rome, 1978.
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