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Messius

(865 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Gens name of Oscan origin. During the Republican period there is evidence of individuals bearing this name in Campania (e.g. ILS 5347) and in the Greek areas (IG XII 9,845). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Tribune of the plebs 57 BC, called for Cicero's return from exile In 57 BC as people's tribune, M. called for Cicero's return from exile (initially without success: Cic. P. red. in sen. 21). Partisan of Pompey (Cic. Att. 4,1,7; 8,11D,2). 55 (plebeian?) aedile (organizer of the Floralia : Val. Max. 2,10,8). In 54 subsequently discovered…

Ranius

(207 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. R. Castus Legate of the procos. of Asia, AD 126/7 Senator whose nomen gentile could also be Granius. Legate of the procos. of Asia in AD 126/7, PIR2 R 23. Perhaps identical with the cos. suff. Castus of the year 142 [1] whom fragment S of the Fasti Ostienses mentions [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, P. Weiß, Tusidius Campester, cos. suff. unter Antoninus Pius und die Fasti Ostienses zum J. 141/2, in: ZPE 134, 2001, 251-260. 2 FO2 52. [German version] [2] L. R. Optatus Senator, cons. suff. probably under Septimius Severus Senator; his career is known …

Neapolitanus

(71 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Tribunus militum in one of the Syrian legions. In AD 66, the governor C. Cestius [II 3] Gallus sent him to Jerusalem, in order to report on the unsettled situation there which was attributed to the behaviour of Gessius Florus (Jos. BI. 2,16,1-2). In the following year as praefectus alae he protected the town of Scythopolis (see Beisan) against the insurgent Jews PIR2 N 36. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Saenius

(344 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an Italic gens of Etruscan origin [1. 93; 228]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., L. Senator in 63 BC, obtained evidence against the Catilinarian Manlius [I 1] Senator (from Etruria?) in 63 BC, who obtained evidence from Faesulae against the Catilinarian Manlius [I 1] (Sall. Catil. 30,1). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Consul suffectus, 30 BC Probably a son of S. [I 1], possibly recorded as a senator in 39 BC (MRR 3,34). In 30 he became cos. suff. with Octavian (Augustus: InscrIt 13,1,510), possibly as a reward for his services against…

Furius

(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…

Lollia

(230 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. Paulina Wife of P. Memmius [II 4] Regulus, taken away from her husband by Caligula in 38 AD Probably the granddaughter of Lollius [II 1], cos. of 21 BC. Married to P. Memmius [II 4] Regulus, governor of Achaea, Macedonia and Moesia. Caligula took her away from her husband in AD 38 and married her shortly after the death of his sister Drusilla. He, however, disowned her again the following year and ordered that she was never again to have sexual relations with a man. In 48 the freedman Callistus sugg…

Mevius

(347 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Poet and critic of Virgil, Augustean period Supposedly a poet (Porph. in Hor. Sat. 2,3,239) of the Augustean period, brother of Bavius, with whom he allegedly quarreled over a woman (Domitius Marsus fr. 1 M.). M was a critic of Virgil (Serv. Georg. 1,210), which made the poets of the circle around Maecenas count him among their opponents (Verg. Ecl. 3,90; Hor. Epod. 10; Domitius Marsus fr. 5 M.). Some notes may have been obtained from Suet. De poetis via the life of Domitius [III 2] Marsus. The possibility of guild banter can not be excluded. Schmidt, P…

Cannutia Crescentina

(26 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Vestal. Sentenced by Caracalla for incest, she took her own life (Cass. Dio 77,16,1; 3; PIR2 C 400). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Hordeonius

(262 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] M.H. Patrimonial procurator of Narbonensis under Tiberius Evidently the patrimonial procurator of Narbonensis under Tiberius (CIL VI 92 = 30690). Probably the father of H. [2]; originating from Puteoli. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography G. Camodeca, in: EOS 2, 128f. [German version] [2] M.H. Flaccus Son of H. [1]. Cos. suff. in 47 AD Son of H. [1]. Cos. suff. in the year AD 47 (AE 1988, 325; 1991, 474; [1]). In the summer of 68, already as senex, he replaced Verginius Rufus as legate of the army of Upper Germany. When the troops refused to take the…

Cornelia

(926 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Mother of the Gracchi Younger daughter of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus and Aemilia Tertia, b. c. 190 BC; c. 176/5 she married Tiberius  Sempronius Gracchus. Of her 12 children only three survived early childhood: Tiberius, Gaius and Sempronia. C. is known as ‘Mother of the Gracchi’ (CIL VI 31610), with whose politics she was already associated in antiquity [1. 108-120; 127; 2. 48-89]. In a partly popular, partly elite tradition, the sources give an uneven picture of C.'s views and influence. She…

Commodus

(1,133 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Roman emperor in AD 180-192. Son of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina II. He was born on 31 August 161 in a villa near Lanuvium. His twin brother T. Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus died at the age of four (PIR2 A 1512). His name was originally L. Aurelius Commodus. On 12 October 166 he and his brother both received the title of Caesar: L. Aurelius Commodus Caesar. He was thereby designated as the natural successor, and the ideological concept of  adoptive emperorship was avoided altogether. For the same purpose, he was admitted into all priestly colleges and designated as princeps iuven…

Licinianus

(201 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] [- - - ] L. Cos. Suff. between 149 and 160 AD Senator, whose funerary inscription has been preserved in CIL VI 1441 = XIV 2927 = VI Suppl. VIII Add. ad 1441. After commanding a legion and holding another office he became governor of Aquitania and consul suffectus under Antoninus Pius, between c. AD 149 and 160. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Alföldy, Konsulat, 193 PIR2 L 169. [German version] [2] Lucius (Valerius) L. Friend of Martial, from Bilbilis From Bilbilis, like his friend, the poet Martial; a friend of Licinius [II 25] Sura as well. He was a w…

Arrecinus

(171 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Clemens, M. Praefectus praetorio under Caligula A knight from Pisaurium, praef. praetorio under Caligula (Tac. Hist. 4.68.2; Suet. Tit. 4,2); one of the conspirators involved in the murder of Caligula in AD 41 (Ios. Ant. Iud. 19,37ff.; Suet. Cal. 56,1). Father-in-law of Titus [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Clemens, M. Cos. suff. 73, 83/84 AD Son of [1], related to the Flavians (Suet. Tit. 4.2; Tac. Hist. 4.68.2). Although he was a senator, Mucianus made him praef. praetorio in AD 70; cos. suff. in 73, consular governor of Tarraconensis (AE 194…

Epaphroditus

(558 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἐπαφρόδιτος; Epaphróditos). [German version] [1] Freedman of Octavian Freedman of Octavian, who in the year 30 BC was supposed to keep Cleopatra from committing suicide, but was allegedly outwitted by the queen (Plut. Antonius 79,6; Cass. Dio 51,13,4f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography K. Kraft, KS 1, 1973, 38f. [German version] [2] Freedman of Nero Freedman of Nero, therefore Ti. Claudius Aug(usti) lib(ertus) E. by his full name. First accepted as an imperial freedman into the city of Rome's decuriae, i.a. apparitor Caesarum and viator tribunicius; later a libellis o…

Aurelius

(2,999 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium (ThlL 2,1482-87), which in ancient etymology is derived from Sabine and was derived via the older form Auselius from sol (sun) (Fest. p. 22; from this the modern derivation from the Sabine * ausel over Etruscan usil ‘Sun god’, cf. [1. 36; 2. 468]). The family attained noble status in the 1st Punic War with Aur. [3] and provides numerous consuls in the 2nd cent. BC from the branches of the Cottae, Orestae and Scauri. This, however, does not completely explain the building stages and assignment of various viae Aureliae in the 2nd cent. [3; 4]. The late R…

Lusius [II]

(481 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name [1. 184, 359]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Nephew of C. Marius [I 1] Son of the sister of C. Marius [I 1], military tribune in the Cimbrian War in Gaul. When attempting to rape a young soldier, he was stabbed by the latter, but the perpetrator was acquitted by the military tribunal because he had been defending himself (Cic. Mil. 9 with Schol. Bobiensia 114 Stangl; Val. Max. 6,1,12; Plut. Marius 14,4-9). This acquittal was a popular theme in Roman rhetoric instruction (Cic. Inv. 2,124; Quint. Inst. 3,11,14 et passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imper…

Antonia

(772 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hanslik, Rudolf (Vienna) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] First spouse of M.  Antonius [I 9] Daughter of C. Antonius Hybrida, cousin and spouse of M.  Antonius [I 9], who divorced her in 47 BC under the pretext of adultery with P. Cornelius Dolabella (Cic. Phil. 2,99; Plut. Ant. 9,1-2). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of A. [1] and of M.  Antonius [I 9], wife of Pythodorus of Tralleis Daughter of A. [1] and of M.  Antonius [I 9],  between 54 and 49 BC; already 44 engaged to the son of the triumvir Aemilius Lepidus, after the disintegration of this political union her f…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Veranius

(402 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Q. V. Equestrian, made procurator [1] of his stepson Claudius [II 24] Drusus by Augustus; later pro legato of Augustus in Germany; father of V. [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography A. Balland, Fouilles de Xanthos, vol. 7, 1981, 81-98. [German version] [2] Q. V. Son of V. [1]. Senator; comes of Germanicus [2] in the East; carried out duties in Cappadocia, and was appointed its legate (Tac. Ann. 2,56,4). In the lawsuit against Calpurnius [II 16] Piso he was an insistent supporter of the theory that Ge…

Cingius Severus, C.

(84 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cos. suff. before 183, as he probably is identical to the curator aedium sacrarum in CIL VI 36874 (in 183 BC). If his proconsulate in Africa (Tert. Scap. 4,3) fell into the year 190/191 (ILAfr. 265 [1. 864ff.]), he was already suff. in about 175. After  Commodus' death, he as pontifex demanded the destruction of all his statues (SHA Comm. 20,3ff.). Executed by Septimius Severus (SHA Sev. 13,9; PIR2 C 735). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 C. Letta, in: Latomus 54, 1995.

Helvia

(195 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Mother of Cicero Mother of Cicero, never mentioned by him, described by his brother as a painstaking housewife (Cic. Fam. 16,26,2), led a blameless life (Plut. Cicero 1,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wife of Seneca the Elder, 1st cent. AD Wife of Seneca the Elder whom she lost in AD 40 (Sen. Dial. 12,2,4; 19,4).  Seneca the Younger, one of her three sons, wrote for her in exile the consolatory discourse Ad Helviam. PIR2 H 78. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [3] Sister-in-law of Seneca the Elder, 1st cent. AD Elder sister of H. [2]. Her…

Scribonius

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus

Paquius

(207 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an Italian gens, a variant of Pacuvius [1. 476]. [German version] [1] Paquuius Rufus, Q. Legate of M. Antonius in 42 BC Legate of M. Antonius [I 9] in 42 BC, he conducted a colony of veterans to Philippi (MRR 2, 366). P. was presumably from Verulae (cf. NSA 1922, 253f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Paquius Paquius Scaeva Senator in the Augustan Period From Histonium. He was presumably brought into the Senate by Octavian (Augustus). P.'s career, which is described in detail and reflects the still extant flexibility in the awarding of off…

Anteius

(249 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Senator of praetorian rank (1st half of the 1st cent. BC) Senator of praetorian rank entrusted by Germanicus with the construction of a fleet in AD 16 (Tac. Ann. 2,6,1); although the name has been queried [1] (PIR2 A 727). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Senator (1st half of the 1st cent. BC) Senator, banished and killed under Caligula (Jos. AJ 19,125; PIR2 A 728). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Son of [2], died 41 AD Son of [2], senator; after the murder of Caligula in 41 was killed by the latter's German bodyguard (Jos. AJ 19,125 f.); PIR2 A 729. Eck, W…

Plaria Vera

(60 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of an important Ostian, A. Egrilius Rufus, and thus mother of the two senators M. Acilius Priscus Egrilius [1] Plarianus and A. Egrilius [2] Plarianus. For her possible second marriage see [1. 215ff.]. PIR2 P 447. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 C. Bruun, Zwei Priscillae aus Ostia und der Stammbaum der Egrilii, in: ZPE 102, 1994, 215-225.

Praefectus Aegypti

(1,315 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Governor of the province of Egypt, which Augustus created in 30 BC after the taking of Alexandria [1]; the full official title was praefectus Alexandreae et Aegypti (Greek ἔπαρχος Αἰγύπτου/ éparchos Aigýptou, P.Oxy 237; ὁ τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἄρχων/ ho tȇs Aigýptou árchōn, Cass. Dio 54,51). The first incumbent was Cornelius [II 18] Gallus, an equestrian; he had three legions at his disposal. The political situation still uncertain, Octavian (Augustus) had him granted by lex 'the jurisdiction of a magistrate comparable to that of a proconsul'(Dig. 1,17,1: imperium ad simil…

Entellus

(46 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Imperial freedman who performed the task of a libellis under Domitian. He participated in the plot against Domitian. His domus and his gardens are mentioned by Martial 8,68. His property became part of the imperial patrimonium. PIR2 E 66. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Marcia

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Possibly daughter of Q. Marcius Philippus (cos. 281 BC) Possibly daughter of Q. Marcius [I 16] Philippus ( cos. 281 BC), wife of M. Atilius [I 21] Regulus, mother of two sons (Sil. Pun. 6,403-409; 576). As a widow she allegedly took revenge on two Carthaginians who had promised to protect her husband (Diod. Sic. 24,12; HRR I 144f. fr. 5). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Grandmother of Caesar According to Suet. Iul. 6,1 from the royal family of the Marcii Reges, grandmother of Caesar. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [3] Probably daughter of…

Celsus, [II]

(730 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Commonly occurring cognomen (cf. PIR2 2, 145-147). [German version] [1] C. Friend of Ovid, c. 0 AD Friend of Ovid and of Aurelius Cotta Maximus; Ovid consoles Cotta on the death of C. (Pont. 1,9) [1. 90]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Eques from Alba Pompeia, c. 100 AD Eques from Alba Pompeia, admitted to the Senate by Trajan (CIL V 7153; PIR2 C 647). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Conspirator against Antoninus Pius (?), 2nd cent. AD Supposed conspirator against Antoninus Pius; fictitious letter in SHA Avid. Cass. 10,1. (PIR2 C 644). Eck, Werner (Cologne) …

Antistia

(126 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Mother-in-law to Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Wife of Ap. Claudius Pulcher ( cos. 143 BC) and mother-in-law to Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. Ti. Gracch. 4,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] First wife of Pompey First wife of Pompey, who separated from her at Sulla's behest in 82 BC (Plut. Pomp. 4,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Politta Daughter of L.  Antistius [II 12] Vetus (middle of the 1st cent. AD) Daughter of L.  Antistius [II 12] Vetus, and wife of Rubellius Plautus, who was banished to Asia for associ…

Manlia Scantilla

(43 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of Didius [II 6] Iulianus, who after his acclamation as emperor (AD 193) conferred on her the title Augusta. According to the Historia Augusta (HA Did. 8,9f.) she outlived her husband. PIR2 M 166. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Graecinius

(111 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] P.G. Laco. Knight from Verona. Successor of Sutorius Macro as praefectus vigilum in AD 31; he supported him in the elimination of Seianus ( Aelius [II 19]); therefore, the Senate bestowed upon him the ornamenta quaestoria. He was procurator in Gallia under Claudius during the Britannia campaign, possibly entrusted with a special logistic function for the campaign. He was honoured with a statue and ornamenta consularia by the Senate in 44 at the request of Claudius; in addition, he received a seat in the Senate as often as he escorted Claudius…

Apronia

(64 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Died 24 AD Daughter of L.  Apronius [II 1], cos. suff. AD 8, in 24 killed by her husband Plautius Silvanus (Tac. Ann. 4,22). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Caesia Wife of Lentulus Gaetulicus, cos. ord. 26 AD Second daughter of L. Apronius, cos. suff. AD 8, wife of Lentulus Gaetulicus, cos. ord. 26. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Vogel-Weidemann, 76 f.

Aemilius

(4,870 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Nomen gentile Name of a very old patrician line (more often written Aimilius), after which the tribus Aemilia, one of the oldest rustic tribes, is also named. Republican pseudo-genealogy traced the gens back to Mamercus, said to be the son of Pythagoras or of Numa, or to Trojan ancestors: Aemilia, a daughter of Aeneas; Aimylos, a son of Ascanius; or to King Amulius himself (Plut. Aemilius 2; Numa 8; Romulus 2; Fest. 22 L; Sil. Pun. 8,294-296) [1]. The Aemilii belonged to one of the most respected lines in the R…

Vestricius

(289 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] T. V. Spurinna. Senator, possibly homo novus, probably of Etruscan origin, but according to [2. 542] rather from an Etruscan family that had migrated to Transpadana. Born in c. AD 25, since, according to Plin. Ep. 3,1,10, in c. 101 he had completed his 78th year. He entered the Senate no later than under Nero [1]. In 69 he was appointed by Otho a commander in the battle with the followers of Vitellius [II 2] (Tac. Hist. 2,11; 18 f.; 23; 36). The tradition after that is silent until the year 97. According to Pliny t…

Matidius

(112 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. Salonius M. Patruinus. Senator from Vicetia in Upper Italy. He was praetor before 78 AD, when he acted as magister of the Arvales fratres . He died the same year (CIL VI 2056). An inscription from Vicetia refers to another senator who was elevated to the Senate by Claudius; whether he became a patrician at the same time is disputed [1; 2. 324ff.]. He is either M. or his father. M. was married to Trajan's sister, Ulpia Marciana. Their daughter was Matidia [1] the Elder. PIR2 M 365; 366. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Alföldy, Ein Senator aus Vicetia, in: ZPE 39, 1…

Sabucius

(73 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. S. Maior Caecilianus. Senator; after the praetorship, he took six praetorian offices, including the office of a praef. aerarii militaris, of a praetorian imperial governor of Gallia Belgica shortly after AD 180, and of a procos. of Achaia. C os. suff. in 186 (RMD 1, 69). His grandson, C. S. Maior Faustinus, also had senatorial rank (CIL VI 1510 = ILS 1123a). PIR S 34. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Ducenius

(216 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] A.D. Geminus Cos. suff. 61 or 62 AD Originally from Patavium. Cos. suff. in 61 or 62. In 62 appointed, with two senators, curator vectigalium publicorum by Nero (Tac. Ann. 15,18,3); the issuing collection of regulations, the tax law of the Province of Asia, are now known through an inscription from Ephesus (H. Engelmann, D. Knibbe, EA 14, 1989 = SEG 39, 1180 = AE 1989, 681). Subsequently legate of Dalmatia; appointed praef. urbi by Galba but quickly replaced by Flavius Sabinus. If ILS 963 refers to him, he became proconsul of Asia under Vespasian. PIR2 D 201. Eck, Werner …

Medicus

(92 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Victory title Victory title (victory over the Medes = Persians), first awarded to Marcus [II 6] Aurelius and Lucius Verus, evidently as the result of a victorious campaign against Media Atropatene in AD 165/6. This title next appears as an epithet for Probus, Diocletian, and his co-rulers, then for Constantine, in each case with the addition maximus. The title has been erroneously ascribed to other rulers. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography P. Kneissl, Die Siegestitulatur der römischen Kaiser, 1969, 99ff.; 211; 247. [German version] [2] see Medicine see Medicine

Fulvius

(3,286 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman plebeian gentes name, derived from fulvus (‘reddish yellow, brownish yellow’ [1. 1,561], probably named after hair colour); further evidence: [2. 170], inscriptions also Folvius (ILLRP 124 et passim). The Roman gens probably came from Tusculum (Cic. Planc. 20; cf. Cic. Phil. 3,16; Plin. HN 7,136), where F. [I 15] also had put up works of art from the spoils of war. The most important branches are initially the Centumali, Curvi and Paetini, since the 3rd cent. BC the Flacci and Nobiliores. Genealogical tree: [3. 231f.]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F. Bambalio…

Lucas (Luke)

(718 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Stegemann, Ekkehard (Basle)
[German version] [2] Leader of the rebellious Jews in 115 AD in Cyrenaica (Greek Lukuas, Λουκούας/ Loukoúas). According to Eusebius (Hist. eccl. 4,2,3-234), leader of the rebellious Jews in AD 115 in the Cyrenaica, from where he penetrated into the Thebaid in Egypt; allegedly proclaimed king. In the Christian tradition he generally bears the name Lucas; probably the Andreas mentioned in Cassius Dio (68,32,1) is identical with him. The rebellion was finally suppressed by Q. Marcius [II 14] Turbo. PIR2 L 351. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography M. Pucci, La rivolta ebraica al tempo d…

Tineius

(415 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Q. T. Clemens Senator; cos. ord. in AD 195; son of T. [6]. On the family of the Tineii, s. [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 O. Salomies, Die Herkunft der senatorischen T., in: ZPE 60, 1985, 199-202. [German version] [2] Q. T. Demetrius Praefectus Aegypti in AD 189/190, [1. 489; 2. 511; 3. 138, 143]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. Bureth, Le préfet d'Egypte (30 av. J. C. - 297 ap. J. C.), in: ANRW II 10.1, 1988, 472-502 2 G. Bastianini, Il prefetto d'Egitto, in: ANRW II 10.1, 1988, 503-517 3 F. Goddio et al., L'épigraphie sous-marine dan…

Servilia

(468 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Half-sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, 1st cent. BC Born in c. 100 BC, daughter of Q. Servilius [I 13] Caepio and Livia [1], half-sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato. In c. 85, she married M. Iunius [I 9] Brutus (d. in 77) and became the mother of the future murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus. S.'s second husband, the lacklustre D. Iunius [I 30] Silanus with whom she had three daughters probably owed his consulate to her. The intelligent, independent and poised woman who remained close to Caesar even aft…

Ventidius

(893 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of Q. Cornificius [3] in Africa vetus, killed in 42 BC in the battle against T. Sextius [I 2] (App. B Civ. 4,228; 236). Perhaps the V. who was proscribed in 43 and fled ( ibid. 4,198). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., P. Presumed father of V. [I 3]. Scholarship often saw him as an Italic leader in the Social War [3], settled in Asculum, where he was said to have died with the entire local nobility in 89 BC (Oros. 5,18,26; cf. CIL IX 5254: freedman of a P. V.). However, Ventidii…

Vibullius

(397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Uncommon Roman gens name, possibly of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 405). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Rufus, L. Follower and close confidant of Cn. Pompeius [I 3] Magnus, from no later than 49 BC his praefectus [8] fabrum. In 56 BC he was sent to Cicero to stop him resisting Caesar's land distribution in Campania (Cic. Fam. 1,9,10); in 54 he was a courier for Caesar (Cic. Ad Q. fr. 3,1,18). At the outbreak of the civil war in 49 BC he was sent to Picenum to enlist troops for Pompey (Caes. B Civ. 1,15,4). He took over…

Celerius, P.

(81 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] (in editions of Tacitus erroneously P. Celer); patrimonial procurator in Asia to Claudius and Nero (I. Eph. 7,2,3043/44; SEG 39, 1172). At the end of 54, C. murdered Iunius Silanus, procos. Asiae, at the behest of  Agrippina; in 57 accused in the Senate by the Province of Asia; but the trial was dragged out until his death (Tac. Ann. 13,1,2. 33,1). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, in: Splendissima Civitas, Études ... en hommage à F. Jaques, 1996, 67ff.

Bassaeus Rufus, M.

(94 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Of low descent, lacking the usual education (Cass. Dio 71,5,2f.). In the army, he advanced to the office of primus pilus, held procuratorial positions in Spain, Noricum, and Gallia/Germania, and became a rationibus, praef. vigilum, praef. Aegypti in 168/169 [1. 297], praef. praetorio from 169 to before AD 180. He was honoured with the ornamenta consularia and, after his death, with three statues in Rome (CIL VI 1599=ILS 1326 [2. 389-393]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, Lista dei Prefetti d'Egitto dal 30a al 299p, in: ZPE 17, 1975 2 Pflaum, 1.

Arrius

(618 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin gentile name of Italian origin. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Made fun of by Catull (Carm. 84) due to affected pronunciation. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., C. Neighbour of Cicero Neighbour of Cicero at his Formianum (Cic. Att. 2.14.2; 15.3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] A., L. City praetor of Cales City praetor of Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor in 73 BC Praetor in 73 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-423. …

Pompeia

(437 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Granddaughter of Sulla, second wife of Casesar Granddaughter of Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, sister of Q. Pompeius [I 6] Rufus. From 67 BC onwards, the second wife of Caesar (Plut. Caesar 5). Within the context of the Bona Dea scandal, Caesar separated from her in 62, alleging that he suspected P. of infidelity (Cic. Att. 1,13,3; Plut. Caesar 10,8-9; Plut. Cicero 29,9; Suet. Iul. 6,3; 74,2; Cass. Dio 37,45,2). Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of Pompeius Magnus Daughter of Pompeius [I 3] Magnus and Mucia Tertia, engaged to be married to …

Celer

(305 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Cognomen, the origin of which is given in a story by Plutarch (Coriolanus 11,4); also a nickname [1. 66,248]. [German version] [1] Military tribune Military tribune who intervened in Judaea against internal Jewish disturbances. Sent for judgement to Rome, he was returned to Jerusalem by the emperor and there beheaded (Ios. Ant. Iud. 20,132-136; Bell. Iud. 2,244-246). PIR C 617. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Legatus iuridicus 92 AD In AD 92 legatus Augusti pro praetore Hispaniae cit. or legatus iuridicus (Mart. 7,52,1-4). PIR C 620. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) …

Mansuanius

(30 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. M. Severus. Legate of the legio I Italica; not identical with Cossonius Gallus (see addenda), as has been suggested (AE 1998, 1131). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Galba

(956 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] King of the  Suessiones and commander-in-chief of the coalition of Belgic tribes against Caesar in 57 BC. Following his victory over the Belgae and the capture of  Noviodunum, the main town of the Suessiones, Caesar took two of G.'s son as hostages (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,7; 2,13,1; Cass. Dio 39,1,2). ‘Galba’ appears frequently as a cognomen of the Roman gens Sulpicia, but its Celtic origin (Suet. Galba 3,1) is not certain [1. 1621ff.; 2. 349-350]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 Evans. [German version] [2] Rom. emperor AD 68-9 Roman emperor f…

Dunius

(22 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L.D.Severus. Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia under Claudius. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography PIR2 D 207 W. Weiser, in: ZPE 123, 1998, 275-290.

Aburnius

(89 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Caedicianus, Q. (2nd cent. AD.) A. Caedicianus, Q., legatus Augusti, probably to a legion in Dacia under Trajan (CIL III 1089); became suffect consul together with C. Bruttius Praesens under Hadrian in AD 118 or 119; owner of the figlinae furianae and tempesinae between AD 123 and 140 (CIL XV 227-230; 603-605; 607-608). He was mentioned by Marcus Aurelius, εἰς ἑαυτόν 4,50 (FPD, 213 f.; PIR A 21). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] A. Valens, see  Fulvius. A. Valens, see  Fulvius. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Apronius

(432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin name with Etruscan parallels [1] (regarding distribution see ThLL 2,211). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Tribunus plebis 449 BC C., people's tribune in 449 BC after the end of the Decemvirate (Liv. 3,54,13). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] Cn. 3rd cent. BC as a former aedile he was extradited by Rome in 266 with his colleague Q. Fabius because of a physical attack on a delegation from Apollonia, but then was returned by that city (MRR 1,201). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] Q. Tax collector of verres in Sicily One of Verres' ta…

Verax

(47 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] He and his mother's brother, the Batavian Iulius [II 43] Civilis, attacked the auxiliary fort of Vada in 70/1 AD; they were repelled by Petillius [II 1] Cerealis but were able to escape into free Germania (Tac. Hist. 5,20; 5,21,1 f.). Batavian Revolt Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Cosconius

(328 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family, attested since the 3rd cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,663f.). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Commander in the Social War in Apulia 89 BC Fought successfully in 89 BC in the Social War in Apulia (as praetor or legate?, Liv. Per. 75), proconsul in Illyria from 78-76 (Cic. Clu. 97 etc.); perhaps identical with the C. mentioned in Valerius Maximus(8,1 para. 8). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., C. Praetor 63 BC, record-keeper during the case against the Catilinarians As praetor he was in 63 BC the record-keeper during the Senate d…

Fuficius

(325 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Q.F. Cornutus Senator, praetorian governor, beginning of his career under Trajan or Hadrian Senator originating from the region of Histonium. His career started under Trajan or Hadrian. After the praetorate iuridicus of Asturia et Callaecia in the north of Spain, legionary legate in Moesia, praetorian governor in Pannonia inferior from at least AD 145 to 147, cos. suff. in 147; consular governor of Moesia inferior between 148 and 155. In Histonium a large monument, possibly a quadriga, was erected in his honour with public funds on the order of the council of decurion…

Ninnius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer from a distinguished Campanian family seem to have offered Hannibal accomodation in Capua in 216 BC Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer belonged to a distinguished Campanian family. They seem to have offered Hannibal sumptuous accommodation in Capua in 216 BC (Liv. 23,8). Punic Wars Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im 2. Punischen Krieg, 1975, 30-31. [German version] [2] N. Crassus Republican writer, translator of the Iliad in Latin Republican writer, who translated the ‘Iliad into Latin…

Acratus

(72 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀκρατος; Ákratos) Greek personal name, especially common among slaves and freedmen [1]. A., freedman of Nero, collected artworks at his order in Achaea and Asia, including images of gods with which the domus aurea was supposed to be outfitted; he encountered resistance in Pergamum, only Rhodes eluded him (Tac. Ann. 15,45,2; 16,23,1; Dio Chrys. 31,149; PIR2 A 95). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 H. Solin, Die griech. PN, vol. 2, 1982, 727.

Septimius

(3,206 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Et al.
Nomen gentile, probably originally Etruscan, occurred at Rome only from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A certain S. from Camerinum was commissioned to recruit followers for Catilina at Picenum in 63 BC, presumably because he was of the Umbrian-Picenan municipal nobility (cf. CIL I2 1921; 1929) (Sall. Catil. 27,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Friend of Horace's; he hoped to enter the cohors amicorum of a member of the imperial household through his relationship with the latter (Hor. Carm.…

Actis, ab

(116 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Someone occupied with the documentation and care of formal and formless administrative records (  acta ) of a public authority. Ab a. coincides only partially with the designation   act(u)arius , who held a higher rank in public service (Cod. Iust. 2,7,26). The optio ab a. (CIL VI 3884) is a military administrative official of the imperial era; the ab a. senatus (also curator actorum senatus), a senator with quaestorial rank, produced the senate records in the second and 3rd cents. AD; the procurator ab a. urbis directed the office for the acta diurna.  Commentariis, a Eck,…

Marcianus

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer from Heraclea, between AD 200 and 530, Marcianus I Greek [1] (Μαρκιανός; Markianós). Geographer from Heraclea [7] between AD 200 (he used the geographer Protagoras) and 530 (he is often quoted by Steph. Byz.), possibly after 400 (GGM 1, CXXX; [2. 272; 3. 997; 6. 156f.]) or even closer to Steph. Byz. [1. 46]. Personal information about him is not available. Only 21 quotes from his Epitome of the eleven books of the Geōgraphía by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus have been handed down by Steph. Byz. and one as Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,859 (GGM 1,…

Calvia Crispinilla

(94 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Woman of senatorial rank, close confidante of Nero, after whose death she attempted to incite Clodius Macer to rebel. After her return to Rome in AD 69, she enjoyed the protection of all emperors, partly due to her marriage to a consular senator (Tac. Hist. 1,73; Raepsaet-Charlier no. 184; PIR2 C 363). For brick stamps from Tergeste bearing her name, see [1. 168], for property ownership suppl. It. 8,38, no. 6; AE 1972, 102. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 C. Zaccaria, M. Župančič in C. Zaccaria (ed.): I laterizi di età romana nell' area nordadriatica, 1993.

Egrilius

(265 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] M. Acilius Priscus E. Plarianus Roman magistrate and pontifex Volcani after 105 AD An E. by birth but adopted by a M. Acilius Priscus. The family came from Ostia. Senator. He rose via the proconsulate in the Narbonensis, the command of the legio VIII Augusta, to the praefectura of the aerarium militare and then the aerarium Saturni 126 [1. 301]. It is unknown if he became consul. In Ostia pontifex Volcani after 105. PIR2 E 48 [1. 285-308]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] A.E. Plarianus Cos. suff. 128 AD pater. Cos. suff. in 128. Vidman, FOst 49 [1. 302]. Eck, We…

Milonia Caesonia

(121 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Daughter of Vistilia [2], born around 5 AD. Although she was not exceptionally beautiful and was already the mother of three daughters, Caligula had a relationship and a close personal bond with her. He married her when she was pregnant, shortly before the birth of a daughter who was given the name Iulia [14] Drusilla. However, Nero did not grant M. the name Augusta. She was murdered together with Caligula and her daughter at the beginning of the year 41 by a centurio. Nothing in CIL VI 32347 (Acts of the Arval brethren) points to the deletion of her name. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bib…

Pullaienus

(57 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. Albius P. Pollio. Cos. suff. under Domitianus [1] in the year of crisis, AD 90; he was therefore supposed to have been one of the emperor's loyal followers. Proconsul of Asia probably in 104/5. Possibly identical with the owner of a number of brickworks in 123. PIR2 P 1076. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Bassus

(181 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Friend of Ovid Among his best friends, Ovid mentions  Propertius,  Ponticus, and Bassus quoque clarus iambis (Ov. Tr. 4,10,45-47). This B. could therefore likely be the addressee of Prop. 1,4,1 and perhaps Horace's friend (Carm. 1,36,14). No fragments exist whatsoever. It cannot be determined whether the iambographer is also identical with  Iulius B., the rhetor mentioned by the older Seneca, who consectari ... solebat res sordidas (Contr. 10,1,13). Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) Bibliography H. Bardon, 2, 52. [German version] [2] Military aid to praef…

Ummidia

(121 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] U. Cornificia Faustina Daughter of U. [3], niece of Marcus [2] Aurelius. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Raepsaet-Charlier, Nr. 827. [German version] [2] U. Quadratilla Daughter of U. [1]. For her possible marriage and descendants see [1. 662-665]. Pliny (Epist. 7,24) describes her as an extravagant woman, who even at a great age kept a group of mimes; in her home city of Casinum she had an amphitheatre and a temple built (ILS 5628). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Syme, RP 2 Raepsaet-Charlier, Nr. 829. [German version] [3] U. (Quadratilla) Married to th…

Didymus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δίδυμος; Dídymos). [1] of Alexandria Important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC [German version] A. Philological activity The most important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. The biographical entry in the Suda (δ 872) tells us that he was still alive in the reign of Augustus, and mentions a nickname ‘Chalkenteros’ (Χαλκέντερος, ‘Brazen-guts’, cf. the Suda ι 399, χ 29). To his strong constitution he attributed an untiring assiduity that extended to different branches of p…

Magius

(793 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Family name of Oscan origin. [I 184]. The family was prominent in Capua (M. [I 3], cf. Cic. Pis. 24) and M.'s [I 5] sons were the first to be admitted to the Senate in the 1st cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Grandfather of the poet Vergilius on his mother's side Grandfather of the poet Vergilius on his mother's side; was allegedly an official messenger ( viator ; Donat. Vita Vergilii 1). Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) [German version] [I 2] M., Cn. Governor of Numidia AD 256-258. From Larinum in Samnium, died about 88 BC; heir of his (half…

Cilnius

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an important family in Arretium (Schulze, 149); involved in a dispute with the town's citizens in 302 BC (Liv. 10,3,2 i.a.). Augustus called  Maecenas a Cilnian, which presumably only referred to his maternal ancestors (Macrob. Sat. 2,4,12). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] C. Proculus, C. Cos. suff. 87 AD From Arretium. Cos. suff. in AD 87 (AE 1949, 23). Father of C. [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Proculus, C. Senator, governor, c. 100 AD Senator from Arretium (CIL XI 1833 and AE 1926, 123 belong together: [1. 239ff.] = AE 1985,…

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] O., C. Author of a law of 215 BC to limit displays of wealth Restricted the opportunities for women to display wealth by his law of 215 BC (Liv. 34,1,1-3 et alibi; MRR 1, 255). In 195, this legislation was repealed despite the res…

Pasidienus

(108 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. P. Firmus Cos. suff. AD 75 Cos. suff. in AD 75; related to P. [2], presumably his son. PIR2 P 138. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. P. Firmus Office Holder (1st cent. AD) Senator. Praetorian Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia under Claudius [III 1]. He became cos. suff. in AD 65, replacing Iulius Vestinus Atticus, who had been forced to withdraw; P. would probably never have attained the consulate without this sudden vacancy. He was probably already quite old, at least over 50, which explains the short interval pr…

Sextilius

(473 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, historically attested at Rome from the 3rd cent. BC. The name was a common one, but its bearers were politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of L. Licinius [I 26] Lucullus in 69 BC. Distinguished himself in the Armenian war (Plut. Lucullus 25,4-6; App. Mithr. 381-385), but fell into Parthian hands in 68 (Cass. Dio 36,3,2 f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Praetor before 67 BC, together with his colleague Bellinus, he was kidnapped by pirates (Plut. Pompeius 24,6). Fündling,…

Asiaticus

(148 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Honorary name that replaced the older form Asiagenus/-genes in the Augustan period, common among the Cornelii Scipiones, in the Imperial period also among the Valerians; first adopted as a victor's title by P.  Cornelius Scipio Asiagenus ( cos. 190), then continued by his descendants. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Aristocrat from Gaul (died 69 AD) Aristocrat from Gaul ( dux Galliarum), who fought for Julius Vindex in AD 68; executed by  Vitellius upon the soldiers' wish in 69 (Tac. Hist. 2,94,2; PIR2 A 1215). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Valerius Asi…

Statoria

(64 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] S. Marcella. Wife of C. Minicius [4] Fundanus, sister of Statorius Secundus, mother of two daughters, including Minicia Marcella, whose death is mentioned in Plinius (Ep. 5,16). The ara of her tomb was found together with the ara of her daughter on Monte Mario in Rome (CIL VI 16632). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, Tra epigrafia, prosopografia e archeologia, 1996, 239.

Lygdus

(51 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Slave and eunuch of Drusus [II 1], the son of Tiberius. Aelius [II 19] Seianus instigated L.'s poisoning of Drusus in AD 23. When Apicata, the wife of Seianus, testified about her husband in 30, L. was also convicted and executed. PIR2 L 465. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Lurius Varus

(61 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Consular representative who in AD 57 through mediation on the part of Otho was re-admitted to the Senate by Nero after he had been expelled from the committee for extortion (PIR2 L 428). According to Syme [1. 366ff.], he could have been consular legate in Pannonia or Dalmatia. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Syme, RP, vol. 4.

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

[?Arr]enus Sabinus

(60 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Senator from Interamna Praetuttiorum. He entered the Senate under Augustus, became quaestor, people's tribune, praetor, proconsul of an unnamed province, and finally legate to Augustus, probably in the province of Galatia. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography M. Buonocore, W. Eck, Teramo tra storia ed Epigrafia, in: Atti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia, Ser. 3. Rendiconti, 72, 1999/2000, 221 ff.

Statores

(105 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] (from stare, 'to stand at someone's side'; in the military realm = ordinance). Soldiers who in the Imperial Period belonged to the staff of military commanders and governors with troops. They could belong to the troops from the city of Rome or to those in the provinces. Their tasks are difficult to determine; they might have functioned as letter couriers and prison wards. However, these tasks were probably only an (occasional) part of their duties. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography R. Haensch, A commentariis und commentariensis, in: Y. Le Bohec (ed.), La hiérarchie…

Erucius

(320 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian family name (possibly originating in Etruria, Schulze, 112, 170), attested from the 1st cent. BC but not of any significance until the 2nd cent. AD. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Sex. E. Clarus Partaker in the Parthian War of Trajan Son of the E. Clarus named in Pliny (Ep. 2,9,4), grandson of the later Praetorian prefect Septicius Clarus; father or grandfather of E. [2]. Pliny supported him in the early stages of his career. He took part in Trajan's Parthian War, in which he conquered Seleucia probably in AD …

Appuleia

(58 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A. Varilla, daughter of Sex. Appuleius, granddaughter of  Octavia, the sister of Augustus; in AD 17 she was accused of adulterium and lèse majesté against Augustus and Tiberius but after the princeps' intervention she was merely removed 200 miles from Rome (Tac. Ann. 2,50). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Syme, AA, 317, 327 PIR2 A 968.

Accenna

(60 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [M.?] A. Verus. Suffect consul in AD 125 together with P. Lucius Cosconianus [1; 2]. Like the other senatorial Accennae he was from Baetica; cf. [3. 27 ff.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck et al., Neue Militärdiplome mit neuen Konsulndaten, in: Chiron 32, 2002, 401-426 2 W. Eck, P. Weiß, Hadrianische Suffektkonsuln: Neue Zeugnisse aus Militärdiplomen, in: ibid., 449-489 3 Caballos, vol. 1.

Quinctilius

(2,074 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family, derived from the praenomen Quintus; in inscriptions and MSS also Quintilius. In the annalistic tradition the family was one of Rome's oldest, supposed to have arrived in Rome under the king Tullus Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7; cf. Liv. 1,30,2, though he has Quinctii); of a consul recorded in 453 BC and a consular tribune in 403 nothing further is known. In the historical period, members of the family are known from the end of the 3rd cent. on (bearing the inherited cognomen Varus), but they achieved no lasting noble status. The most promin…

Livinus

(75 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [ - - -] L. Proconsul of Creta-Cyrenae under Nero Proconsul of Creta-Cyrenae under Nero; the nomen gentile of the senator has been erased for unknown reasons ([1. 200f.]; cf. [2. 200 no. 3]). Possibly, his cognomen was Livi<a>nus [cf. 3. 205f.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, G. Preuss, in: ZPE 80, 1990, 189-202 2 Ergon 1975 3 M. A. Welborn Baldwin, Fasti Cretae et Cyrenarum, thesis Ann Arbor 1983.

Cornelius

(14,783 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Stroh, Wilfried (Munich) | Et al.
Name of one of the oldest and most celebrated Roman patrician families; during the Roman Republic the largest and most extensive gens, giving its name to the tribus Cornelia. Its patrician branches probably stem from the Maluginenses, frequently attested in the 5th cent. BC (C. [I 57-58]); the sequence was probably as follows: in the 5th cent. the Cossi [I 20-22]; in the 4th cent. the Scipiones [I 65-85], Rufini [I 62] and Lentuli [I 31-56]; from the 3rd cent. the Dolabellae [I 23-29], Sullae [I 87-90], Blasiones [I 8-10],…

Ovinius

(271 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin family name, derived from the Oscan praenomen Ovius. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune before 312 BC, author of the Lex Ovinia People's tribune before 312 BC and author of the Lex Ovinia, which entrusted the censors with keeping the roll of senators (Fest. 290 L.). MRR 1,158. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] L.O.Curius Proculus Modianus Africanus 3rd cent. AD official Cos. suff. probably in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 1479 = ILS 8093 = CIL VI Suppl. VIII ad 1479). PIR2 O 185. Eck, Werner (Cologne) …

Annius

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin, in Rome a plebeian gentilicium, which also occurs in Etruscan and Oscan inscriptions [1]. The Etruscan king Anius, after whom the  Anio was supposedly named (Plut. Mor. 315E-F), is a scholarly invention. In Rome Annii were active from the 3rd cent. BC in public life, produced in the 2nd cent. from the family of the Lusci two consuls and were notorious in the 1st cent. because of T.  A. [14] Milo. In the imperial era the name is widespread, various families are present (e.g. cognomina: Bas…

Placidus

(330 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Equestrian military tribune in the Syrian army (1st cent. AD) Equestrian military tribune in the Syrian army, sent by the governor of Syria, Cestius [II 3] Gallus, against the rebellious Jews in AD 66. From 67, he served under Vespasian (Vespasianus) in the same capacity, fighting the Jewish military commander Flavius Iosephus [4] on several occasions, the last in 67, when the city of Iotapata was conquered (Jos. BI 3,144; 323-326). The last reference to him is from  68, when he subjugated Transjordanian Perea (Jos. BI 4,419-439). PIR2 P 437. Eck, Werner (Cologne) …

Aemilia

(261 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Vestalis maxima probably 178 BC Vestalis maxima probably 178 BC (Obseq. 8; Val. Max. 1,1,6-7; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,68,3-5 [1]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Vestal, died 114 BC Vestal, condemned in a sensational trial and executed in 114 BC, because of incest, with other colleagues (MRR 1,534; 537). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Wife of Pompey Daughter of M. Aemilius Scaurus (cos. 115 BC), first married to M'. Acilius Glabrio (cos. 67), forced by Sulla 82 (?) to marry Pompey (Plut. Sull. 33,4; Pompon. 9,1). Elvers, Karl-Lu…

Iasdius

(112 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L.I. Aemilianus Honoratianus Postumus Son of Frater Arvalis, 2nd cent. AD Son of I. [2]. Frater Arvalis AD 240-241. CIL VI 41225. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Scheid, Collège 464ff. [German version] [2] L.? I. Domitianus Senator, homo novus, praetor, several magistr. Entered the Senate as homo novus. After being a praetor he commanded two legions, became curator viae Aemiliae and simultaneously praefectus alimentorum. Was praetorian governor and suffect consul between about AD 215 and 225. Subsequently, consular legate of Germania i…

Vespronius

(118 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. V. Candidus Sallustius Sabinus. Praetorian governor of Numidia, cos. suff. in the same province, c. AD 176. Consular governor of Tres Daciae (Daci, Dacia C) c. 183-186. Probably proconsul of Africa (Africa 3) at the end of the reign of Commodus. According to Tertullianus [2] (Ad Scapulam 4,3) he treated Christians with leniency. At the beginning of 193 he was sent by the emperor Didius [II 6] Iulianus with a senatorial legation to meet the approaching Septimius [II 7] Severus; at this event he was all…

Vettius

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
Widespread Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., L. Roman equestrian from Picenum, c. 106-59 BC. In 89 BC, V. probably served on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILS 8888; [1. 161 f.]) and subsequently enriched himself as a favourite of L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla (Sall. Hist. 1,55,17). He later joined the conspiracy of Catilina (Q. Tullius Cic. commentariolum petitionis 10), but betrayed it to Cicero in 63 BC (Cass. Dio. 37,41; Oros. 6,6,7). In 62, it seems that opponents o…

Sutorius

(15 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Q. Naevius Cordus S. Macro see Naevius [II 3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Eppia

(32 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of a senator, who under Domitian allegedly left her husband to follow a gladiator to Egypt (Juv. 6,82-114; cf. PIR2 E 79, F 91). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Julio-Claudian dynasty

(376 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] This term describes the first five sole rulers of Rome (including their families) after the end of the Republic and the Civil Wars: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius [III 1], and Nero. If we begin Augustus' monarchical status with his victory at Actium ( Actium) on 2 Sept. 31 BC, the dynasty's rule lasted almost 99 years, until the suicide of Nero on 9 (?) June, AD 68. It descends from four families ( Augustus: stemma ‘The Julio-Claudian dynasty’): the familia Iulia, familia Octavia, familia Claudia and familia Domitia. But in reality the dynasty unfolded al…

Lappius

(176 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A. Bucius L. Maximus. Senator. Legate of the legio VIII Augusta at Argentorate around AD 77/78; Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia under Domitian [1]. Suffect consul in 86, then consular legate in Germania inferior. When Antonius Saturninus revolted against Domitian at Mainz in late 88/early 89, L. put down the rebellion with his provincial troops; L. is described on his wife's funerary inscription (CIL VI 1347 = 37049 = ILS 1006) as confector belli Germanici, indicating acceptance of the official propaganda according to which the uprising was in reality a …

Phaon

(312 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Ferryman from Lesbos (Φάων/ Pháōn, ‘ the radiant’). Ferryman from Lesbos who carries Aphrodite in the guise of an old woman, from Lesbos to the mainland without a charge. In reward, she gives him a rejuvenating and beautifying ointment. This story of the origin of P.'s radiant beauty only appears in later sources (Ael. VH 12,18; Serv. Aen. 3,279; Palaephatus 48; Lucian. Dialogi mortuorum 19(2),2 ). Initially, he is primarily encountered in comedy: Cratinus (PCG IV fr. 370) presents hi…
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