Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Barthold, W." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Barthold, W." )' returned 430 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Aḳ Masd̲j̲id

(178 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
“White Mosque”, name of two towns: 1. Town in the Crimea (local pronunciation: Aḳ Mečet), founded in the 16th. century by the k̲h̲āns of the Crimea in order to protect their capital, Bāg̲h̲če Sarāy, from nomad incursions. It was the residence of the crown prince ( kalg̲h̲ay sulṭān ), whose palace was outside the town, according to Ewliyā Čelebi, vii, 638-41. The town was destroyed by the Russians in 1736, and rebuilt in 1784 under the name of Simferopol (although the local population continued to use the Turkish name). 2. A fortress on the Si̊r Daryā, which belonged to the Ḵh̲ānate …

Bāyḳarā

(363 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a prince of the house of Tīmūr, grandson of its founder. He was 12 years old at the death of his grandfather (S̲h̲aʿbān 807/February 1405) so he must have been born about 795/1392-3. His father ʿUmar S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ had predeceased Tīmūr. Bāyḳarā is celebrated by Dawlat-S̲h̲āh (ed. Browne, 374) for his beauty as a second Joseph and for his courage as a second Rustam; he was prince of Balk̲h̲ for a long period. In the year 817/1414 he was granted Luristān, Hamadān, Nihāwand and Burūd̲j̲īrd by S̲h̲āh…

ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲

(429 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Persian general, brother and successor of Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ [ q.v.[, the founder of the Ṣaffārid [ q.v.] dynasty in Sid̲j̲istān. Said to have been a mule-driver in his youth, and later on a mason, he was associated with his brother’s campaigns and in 259/873 captured for Yaʿḳūb the Ṭāhirid capital Naysābūr. After Yaʿḳūb’s defeat at Dayr al-ʿĀkūl and subsequent death (S̲h̲awwāl 265/ June 879), ʿAmr was elected by the army as his successor. He made his submission to the caliph, and was invested with the provin…

Bāysong̲h̲or

(38 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of another prince, of the Aḳ-Ḳoyunlū dynasty in Persia, son and successor of Sulṭān Yaʿḳūb; he only reigned for a short period from 896-7/1490-2 and was overthrown by his cousin Rustam. (W. Barthold)

Batman

(244 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, usually written bāṭmān or bātmān, in Ḳirghiz batpan, a Turkī word, applied to a “heavy weight” ( batpandai = “weighing a hundredweight”); it is probably connected with the verbal root bat “to sink” although F. W. K. Müller ( Sitzungsberichte Preuss. Akad., 1907, p. 847) says that the word is Middle Persian and “like many other Iranian words has reached Mongolian through Uigur” (examples are not given). What weight was originally meant by this word, is unknown; at the present day in the Turkī dialects as elsewhere (cf. the European “pound”, the Arabic “ mann” and “ riṭl” etc.), the same wor…

ʿAbd Allāh

(843 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Iskandar, a S̲h̲aibānide, the greatest prince of this dynasty, born in 940 (1533-1534; the dragon year 1532-1333 is probably more accurately given as the year of the cycle) at Āfarīnkent in Miyānkāl (an island between the two arms of the Zarafs̲h̲ān). The father (Iskandar Ḵh̲ān), grandfather (Ḏj̲ānī Beg) and great-grandfather (Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Muḥammed, son of Abu ’l-Ḵh̲air [s. d.]) of this ruler of genius are all described as very ordinary, almost stupid men. Ḏj̲ānī Beg (d. 935 = 1528-1529) had at the distribution of 918 (1512-1513) received Karmī…

Ānī

(2,288 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, an Armenian town, the ruins of which are found on the right bank of the Arpa-Cai (called by the Armenians Ak̲h̲uryan) at a distance of about 20 miles from the point where that river flows into the Araxes. The origin of the name is unknown, though the suggestion has been made that the town may owe its name to a temple of the Irānian goddess Anāhita (the Greek Anaϊtis). It is certain at any rate that the district was inhabited in the pre-christian period, pagan tombs having been found in the imm…

Ḳas̲h̲ḳāi

(539 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish people in Persia. The name is said to be the Turkish ḳas̲h̲ḳā “horse with a white spot on its forehead” (W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörter buches der türk. Dialecte, ii. 395). The Ḳas̲h̲ḳāi are said to be descended from the Turkish Ḵh̲alad̲j̲ (cf. also B. G. A., i. 158: Ḵh̲ald̲j̲) mentioned by al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī ( B. G. A., vol. i.) and later writers in the country between India and Slstān. The Ḵh̲alad̲j̲ are said to have migrated first to the Persian ʿIrāḳ where a district near Sāwa is still called Ḵh̲alad̲j̲istān; there is still said to be a Turkish speaking people there ¶ (private informa…

K̲h̲alīl Sulṭān

(596 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a ruler of the Tīmūrid dynasty, grandson of Tīmūr, son of Mīrān-s̲h̲āh and Suyūn-beg Ḵh̲ānzāda, grand-daughter of the Ḵh̲ān of the Golden Horde, Özbeg; born in 786 ¶ (1384), died Wednesday, Rad̲j̲ab 16, 814 (Nov. 4, 1411), reigned in Samarḳand 807—812 (1405—1409). His education was entrusted to Tīmūr’s eldest wife, Sarāi Mulk Ḵh̲ānum. He is said to have distinguished himself on Tīmūr’s India campaign (1399) when only 15 years of age; he also took part in the so-called “Seven Years” (actually only 802—807=1399—1404) war i…

Buk̲h̲ārā

(7,919 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a city in Turkestān, on the lower course of the Zarafs̲h̲ān. We have only the scantiest notices of the history of the city in pre-Muḥammadan times. There can be little doubt, however, that the Iranians had settlements and even towns on the Zarafs̲h̲ān at a very early period; even in the time of Alexander the Great of Macedon there was another town in Sogdiana besides Matakanda (Samarḳand) on the lower course of the river; but whether this town corresponded to the modern Buk̲h̲ārā may be questi…

Altūntās̲h̲

(414 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
al-Ḥād̲j̲ib (Abū Saʿid; his alleged second name Hārūn is only mentioned in one passage by Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornb., ix. 294), probably as the result of an oversig̲h̲t of the ¶ author or of a copyist), was a Turkish slave, later general to the G̲h̲aznawid Sebuk-Tegīn and to his two successors. Even while under Sebuk-Tegīn he attained the highest rank in the bodyguard of his sovereign, that of a “Great Ḥād̲j̲ib”; under Maḥmūd be commanded the right wing in the great battle against the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids (22 Rabīʿ II 398 = 4 Jan. …

Kāt̲h̲

(563 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the ancient capital of Ḵh̲wārizm, the modern Ḵh̲īva; according to Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 222, the name meant a wall ( ḥāʾiṭ) in the desert in the language of the Ḵh̲wārizmīs, even if there were no buildings within this. The fullest accounts of the old town and citadel of Fīl or Fīr, which was gradually washed away by the Āmū-Daryā (the last traces of it are said to have disappeared in 384 = 994), are given in al-Bīrūnī’s [q.v.] Kitāb al-Āt̲h̲ār al-Bāḳiya, p. 35, on which E. Sachau based his Zur Geschichte una Chronologie von Ḵh̲wārizm ( Sitzungsber. der phil. hist. Cl. d. K.K…

Ti̇rmid̲h̲

(1,960 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town on the north bank of the Āmū Daryā [q. v.] near the mouth of the Surk̲h̲ān. As Samʿānī, who spent 12 days there, testifies, the name was pronounced Tarmīd̲h̲ in the town itself ( G. M. S., xx., fol. 105b) which is confirmed by the Chinese Ta-mi (e. g. Hiouen Thsang, Mémoires sur Its contrées occidentales, I, 25). Russian officers in 1889 also heard the pronunciation Termiz or Tarmi̊z ( Sbornik materialov po Azii, lvii. 393 and 399). The town is now officially known as Termez. Tirmid̲h̲ does not seem to have been touched by Alexander the Great and is not mentioned in antiqui…

Burāḳ-K̲h̲ān

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Mongol prince in Central Asia, great-grandson of Čag̲h̲atāi [q. v.] grandson of the Mütügen who had fallen at Bāmiyān in 1221 [see above, p. 644]. His father Yisūn-Tuwa had taken part in the events of the year 1251 [cf. the article bātū k̲h̲ān, p. 681] and shared the fate of the other rebellious princes. Like the rest of the children of Čag̲h̲atāi and Ügedei, Burāḳ and his brothers were educated in Mongolia; some years after the accession of the Great Ḵh̲ān Ḵh̲ubilāi (1260—1294) they received permission to return to their home and to …

Sart

(991 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, originally an old Turkish word for “merchant”: it is used with this meaning in the Ḳuḍatḳu-Bilik (quotations in Radloff, Versuch eines Wörtcrbuches der Türk. Dialecte, iv. 335) and by Maḥmūd Kas̲h̲g̲h̲ārī (e. g. i. 286). In the Uighur translation (from the Chinese, of the Saddharma puṇḍarīḳa the Sanskrit word sārthavāha or sārthalūha “caravan-leader” is translated sartpau; this word is explained as the “senior merchant” sati̊ḳči̊ uludg̲h̲i). Radloff therefore concludes that Turk, sart is an Indian loan-word ( Kuan-si-in Pusar, Bibl. Buddh, St. Petersburg 1911, xiv. p. 37).…

Aḥmad b. Sahl

(221 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. hās̲h̲im , of the aristocratic dihḳān family Kāmkāriyān (who had settled near Marw), which boasted of Sāsānian descent, governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. In order to avenge the death of his brother, fallen in a fight between Persians and Arabs (in Marw), he had under ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲ stirred up a rising of the people. He was taken prisoner and brought to Sīstān, whence he escaped by means of an adventurous flight, and after a new attempt at a rising in Marw he fled for refuge to th…

Gardīzī

(328 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd , Persian historian who flourished in the middle of the 5th/11th century. Nothing is known of his life. His nisba shows that he came from Gardīz [ q.v.]; since he says that he received information about Indian festivals from al-Bīrūnī [ q.v.], he may have been his pupil. His work, entitled Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār, was written in the reign of the G̲h̲aznawid Sultan ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd (440/1049-443/1052). It contains a history of the pre-Islamic kings of Persia, of Muḥammad and the Caliphs to the year 423/1032, and a d…

Tirmid̲h̲

(1,924 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town on the north bank of the Oxus river [see āmū daryā ] near the mouth of its tributary, the Surk̲h̲ān river (lat. 37° 15’ N., long. 67° 15’ E.), now the town of Termez in the southernmost part of the Uzbekistan Republic. As Samʿānī, who spent 12 days there, testifies, the name was pronounced Tarmīd̲h̲ in the town itself ( K. al-Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābad, iii, 41) which is confirmed by the Chinese Ta-mi (e.g. Hüan Tsang, tr. St. Julien, Mémoires sur les contrées occidentales, i, 25). Russian officers in 1889 also heard the pronunciation Termiz or Tarmi̊z ( Sbornik materialov po Azii

Altūntās̲h̲

(422 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
al-ḥād̲j̲ib , abū saʿīd (his alleged second name Hārūn which occurs in a single passage of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 294, is probably due to an error of the author or of a copyist), Turkish slave, later general of the G̲h̲aznawid Sebuk Tegīn and his two successors and governor of Ḵh̲wārizm. Already under Sebuk Tegīn he attained the highest rank in the bodyguard, that of a "great ḥād̲j̲ib "; under Maḥmūd he commanded the right wing in the great battle against the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids (22 Rabīʿ II 398/4 Jan. 1008, and in 401/1010-1 he is mentioned as governor of Harāt. After the conquest of k̲h̲wārizm in 408/1…

ʿAbd al-Karīm Bukhārī

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233/1818 a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲oḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī) down to his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222/1807-8 and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246/1830, and wrote his book for t…

Manṣūr b. Nūḥ

(508 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of two amīr s of the Sāmānid dynasty of Tranoxania and K̲h̲urāsān. 1. Manṣūr b. Nūḥ I, Abū Ṣaliḥ, ruler of K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania (350-65/961-76), succeeded his brother ʿAbd al-Malik b. Nūḥ I. Ibn Ḥawḳal is able ¶ to describe the internal conditions of the Sāmānid kingdom under Manṣūr as an eye-witness; cf. especially BGA, ii, 341: fī waḳtinā hād̲h̲ā ; 344 on the character of Manṣūr “the justest king among our contemporaries, in spite of his physical weakness and the slightness of his frame”. On the vizier Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad Balʿamī, see balʿamī , where a…

Ḥaydar Mīrzā

(676 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(his real name was Muḥammad Ḥaydar; as he himself says, he was known as Mīrzā Ḥaydar; Bābur calls him Ḥaydar Mīrzā), a Persian historian, author of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ras̲h̲īdī , born in 905/1499-1500, died in 958/1551 (for his descent see dūg̲h̲lāt ); through his mother he was a grandson of the Čag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān Yūnus and a cousin of Bābur. Most of our knowledge of his life is gleaned from his own work; Bābur (ed. Beveridge, p. 11) devotes a few lines to him; the Indian historians Abu ’l-Faḍl and Firis̲h̲ta give some information about his later years. After the assassination of his father (91…

Bālik

(123 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Turko-Mongol word for “town” = or “castle” (also written bāliḳ and bālig̲h̲ ); appears frequently in compound names of towns, such as Bīs̲h̲bāliḳ (“Five Towns”, at the present day in ruins at Gučen in Chinese Turkestan), Ḵh̲ānbāliḳ (the “Ḵh̲ān’s Town”), Turko-Mongol name for Pekin (also frequently used by European travellers in the middle ages in forms like (Cambalu), Ilibāliḳ (on the River Ili, the modern Iliysk) etc. As the town of Bās̲h̲bāliḳ is mentioned as early as the Ork̲h̲on i…

Abu ’l-K̲h̲ayr

(686 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, ruler of the Özbegs [see uzbeks ] and founder of the power of this nation, descendant of S̲h̲aybān, Ḏj̲uči’s youngest son [see s̲h̲aybānids ], born in the year of the dragon (1412; as the year of the hid̲j̲ra 816/1413-4 is erroneously given). At first he is said to have been in the service of another descendant of S̲h̲aybān, Ḏj̲amaduḳ Ḵh̲ān. The latter met his death in a revolt; Abu ’l-Ḵh̲ayr was taken prisoner, but was released and shortly after proclaimed k̲h̲ān in the territory of Tura (Siber…

Ḳurama

(754 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, according to Radloff ( Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte , St. Petersburg 1899, ii, 924) “a Turkish tribe in Turkistan”; the same authority gives the Kirgiz (i.e. Ḳazaḳ) word ḳurama (from ḳura , “to sew together pieces of cloth”) with the meaning “a blanket made of pieces of cloth sewn together”. In another passage ( Aus Sibirien 2, Leipzig 1893, i, 225) Radloff himself says that the Kurama are “a mixed people of Özbegs and Kirgiz” and their name comes from the fact, asserted by the Kirgiz, that “they are made up of patches from many tribes” ( kura to “patch…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Iskandar

(830 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a S̲h̲aybānid [ q.v.], the greatest prince of this dynasty, born in 940/1533-4 (the dragon year 1532-3 is given, probably more accurately, as the year of the cycle) at Āfarīnkent in Miyānkāl (an island between the two arms of the Zarafs̲h̲ān). The father (Iskandar Ḵh̲ān), grandfather (Ḏj̲ānī Beg) and great-grandfather (Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Muḥammad, son of Abu ‘l-Ḵh̲ayr [ q.v.]) of this ruler of genius are all described as very ordinary, almost stupid men. Ḏj̲ānī Beg (d. 935/1528-9) had at the distribution of 918/1512-3 received Karmīna and Miyānkāl; Iskandar …

Bāysong̲h̲or

(187 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, second son of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of Samarḳand, grandson of Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd [ q.v.], born in the year 882/1477-8, killed on 10 Muḥarram 905/17 Aug. 1493. In the lifetime of his father he was prince of Buk̲h̲ārā; on the death of the latter in Rabīʿ II 900/30 Dec. 1494/27 Jan. 1495, he was summoned to Samarḳand. In 901/1495-6, he was deposed for a brief period by his brother Sulṭān ʿAlī and in 903, towards the end of Rabīʿ I November 1497, finally overthrown by his cousin Bābur. Bāysong̲h̲or then betook himself to…

Alti S̲h̲ahr

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, or alta s̲h̲ahr (the word "six" is always written alta in Chinese Turkistān), "six towns", a name for part of Chinese Turkistān (Sin-kiang) comprising the towns of Kuča, Aḳ Su, Uč Turfān (or Us̲h̲ Turfān), Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, Yārkand and Ḵh̲otan. It appears to have been first used in the 18th century (cf. M. Hartmann, Der Islamische Orient , i, 226, 278). Yangi Ḥiṣār, between Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar and Yārkand, is sometimes added as the seventh town (though it also frequently counted as one of the six, in which case either Kuča or Uč Turfān is…

Ḏj̲uwainī

(771 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, brother of the preceding, a Persian statesman; as Ṣāḥib-Dīwān, he was at the head of the administration of Persia under Mongol rule in the reigns of Hūlāgū (to 1265), Abāḳā (1265— 1282) and Aḥmad (1282—1284); according to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (ed. Quatremère, p. 392 et seq., 402), he was appointed to the office in 661 = 1262-1263. It is not known whether he was older or younger than his brother; nor do we know anything of his career before the year 661; he is not mentioned by his brother. In 677 = 1278 he was …

Gaik̲h̲ātū

(456 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Mongol prince ( īlk̲h̲ān) of Persia (690—694 = 1291—1295), brother and successor of Arg̲h̲ūn (q.v., i. 430b et seq.); he received the name Īrand̲j̲īn Dūrd̲j̲ī (in Waṣṣāf Tūrd̲j̲ī) “most precious jewel”, which he bears on his coins, after his accession from his Buddhist priests (according to Waṣṣāf from Chinese); the same name was, according to Waṣṣāf, also placed on the currency notes issued in Gaik̲h̲ātū’s reign. Before his accession he was governor of Asia Minor. Muslims were particularly favoured in his reig…

Baraba

(430 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a steppe in Western Siberia, between 52° and 57° N. lat., is bounded on the west and east by the ranges of hills on the banks of the Irtis̲h̲, and Ob (Obi). The largest of the numerous salt lakes of this steppe is the Čani. The ground is as a rule marshy, so that traffic is rendered very difficult in the wet season, but not generally unfertile; the Russian villages on the border districts of the steppe are described as being particularly prosperous. The native Tatar (Turkish) population is called Barabintsi by the ¶ Russians; in the xviith century they were driven into the unfertile parts …

Ḳučan

(522 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town in Persia, in the northern part of the province of Ḵh̲orāsān [q. v.] on the upper course of the Atrek [q. v.], perhaps the ancient As̲h̲ak or Arsaka, in the older Arab geographers Ḵh̲abūs̲h̲ān, later Ḵh̲ūd̲j̲ān, e.g. Muḳaddasī, B.G.A., iii. 319, 3 and Baihaḳī, ed. Morley, p. 761; also Yāḳūt under Ustuwā (i. 243, 20) according to Samʿānī ( G.M.S., xx., f. 31a); according to Yāḳūt, ii. 487, 21, the usual local pronunciation was Ḵh̲ūs̲h̲ān; Samʿānī, f. 211a, here also has only the form Ḵh̲ūd̲j̲ān (Samʿānī had himself been there). The origin of the pronunciation Ḳučan …

K̲h̲alk̲h̲a

(406 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of a lake and of a river flowing from it into the Buyir-Nor on the frontier between Manchuria and Mongolia. The river Ḵh̲alk̲h̲a is mentioned in the xiiith century in the “Secret History of the Mongols” (Russian translation by Palladius in Trudi̊ Ross, Duk̲h̲ovnoi Missii v Pekinie, iv., St. Petersburg 1866, p. 90, 91, 102 and 118 (the edition of the text promised by Pelliot has not yet appeared); in Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Berezin, in Trudi̊ Vost. Otd. Russkago Ark̲h̲. Obs̲h̲č., xiii., St. Petersburg 1868, Pers. text, p. 216, vol. xv., ibid. 1889, Pers. text, p. 3 sq.: Ṛalā. Since the xvit…

Arslān-k̲h̲ān

(393 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Muḥammad b. Sulaimān, Ḳarak̲h̲ānid, Prince of Transoxania. His father Sulaimān-Tegīn, grandson of the “great” Tamg̲h̲ās̲h̲-Ḵh̲ān Ibrahīm, had governed the country for a short time about 490 (1097) as vassal of the Sultan Barkiyāruḳ. On the conquest of Transoxania by Ḳadr-Ḵh̲ān Ḏj̲ibraʾîl of Turkistān the young Prince Muḥammad fled to Ḵh̲orāsān; after this Ḳarāk̲h̲ānid had been defeated by the Sultan Sand̲j̲ar the Prince was appointed ruler in Samarḳand with the title Arslān-Ḵh̲ān (495 = 1102); hi…

Abk̲h̲āz

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a tribe of West Caucasia, on the Black Sea. The country of Abk̲h̲āzia comprises the region extending from the main ridge of the Caucasus to the sea-coast, between Gagry in the north and the mouth of the Ingur in the south. Before the union with Russia it was divided politically into three parts: 1) Abk̲h̲āzia proper, on the coast from Gagry to the Galidzga under the princely family of S̲h̲erwas̲h̲idze; 2) the Highlands of Tzebelda (without any centralized government); 3) the country of Samurza…

Ḳarategin

(1,131 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district on the Wak̲h̲s̲h̲ or Surk̲h̲āb (Turk. Ḳizil Ṣū), one of the rivers which form the Āmū Daryā, called Rās̲h̲t by the Arab geographers [cf. i. 339]. The principal place (or “the fortress”, al-Ḳalʿa, al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, p. 340) of Rās̲h̲t corresponded as regards its situation perfectly with the modern Garm, the only town in Ḳarategin. Rās̲h̲t then formed one of the frontier lands of Islām and was defended on the east against the inroads of the Turks by a wall built by Faḍl b. Barmak [on him cf. i. 665, ii. 37]. In ancient tim…

Banākitī

(319 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Abū Sulaimān Dāwud b. Muḥammad, Persian poet and historian (died 730 = 1329-1330). According to his own statement he was appointed “king of poets” ( malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ by G̲h̲āzān-Ḵh̲ān, Mongol ruler of Persia, in the year 701 (1301-1302); one of his poems is given by Dawlats̲h̲āh (ed. Browne, p. 227). His history bears the title Rawḍat ūli ’l-albāb fī tawārīk̲h̲ al-akābir wa ’l-ansāb and was composed in 717 (1317-1318) in the reign of Ḵh̲ān Abū Saʿīd [q. v., p. 103]; the preface is dated 25th S̲h̲awwāl of this year (31st Dec. 1317). With the exception of some short n…

Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar

(980 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town in Chinese Turkestān, called Su-le in the oldest Chinese sources; the same name is still used in Chinese official documents. The name Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar first appears in Chinese transcription (K’iu-cha) in the T’ang-s̲h̲u; cf. E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux,St. Petersburg 1903, p. 121 sq. On the pre-Muḥammadan Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar and the ruins of Buddhist buildings in the vicinity see A. Stein, Ancient Khotan, Oxford 1907, i. 52 sq.; do., Serindia, Oxford 1921, p. 80 sq. Arab armies did not reach Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar; the story of Ḳutaiba’s campaign in 9…

As̲h̲ḳabad

(124 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly ʿIs̲h̲ḳâbād ( ʿAs̲h̲ḳ,Turk. form of the Arab.-Pers. ʿIs̲h̲ḳ, “love”), Russ. Ask̲h̲abad, capital of the Trans-Caspian region; 19, 428 inhabitants (1897); first became a township under the Russian regime; previous to 1881 was the most important Turkoman-Aul (500 tents) in the district of Ak̲h̲al-Tekke [q. v.]. The town possesses a museum (contains also ethnological exhibits of the Turkomans) and a public library (possesses also some Persian Mss.). Some 4-5 mls. to the West are the ruins of the t…

Ḳazān

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Ḳāzān, in the xvth and xvith centuries the capital of a Tatar principality, in the xixth century a Russian university town, now capital of the Tatar Soviet Republic. According to legend, the town was built by Bātū. In 1391 Ḳazān was destroyed by Russian freebooters from Novgorod, and again in 1399 by the Prince Ywriy Dmitriyewič. About 1445 a powerful kingdom was founded here by Ulu-Muḥammad and his son Maḥmūdek (in Russian works Mak̲h̲mutek) who had been banished from the Golden Horde; in the same…

Bāg̲h̲če Sarāi

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish “Garden palace”) Russian Bachčisirai, a Tatar town on the Crimean peninsula in the district of Taurus 20 miles from Simferopol, the capital of the district and about the same distance from the sea shore. The town lies in the narrow valley of the Čirik-Ṣu, according to Pallas “Dschuruk Su” = stinking water; the ravine of Salačik runs in an easterly direction to the mountain fortress now called Čufut-Ḳalʿa (“the fort of the Jews”), the oldest settlement in the neighbourhood of Bāg̲h̲če Sarāi. This was the ¶ chief settlement of the Jews (Karaeans) in the Crimea during the T…

Abāḳā

(582 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, second Mongol (Ilk̲h̲ān) prince of Persia (1265—1282), born in Mongolia in March 1234. He came to Persia with his father Hūlāgū [q. v.] in 1256, and, after the death of the latter, was elected as prince by the representatives of this dynasty; five years later, the great k̲h̲ān Ḵh̲ubilai confirmed his election. The struggle with the Mamlūks of Egypt, begun by Hūlāgū, was continued by Abāḳā, but unsuccessfully, although the Mongols of Kipčāk, who had formerly been allied with the Mamlūks, had at…

Ilek-K̲h̲āns

(652 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish dynasty in Central Asia, iv.th—vii.th (x.th—xii.th)centuries. From this house which ruled the lands north and south of the Thian-S̲h̲an came the first Turkish conquerors of Mā warāʾ al-Nahr in the Muslim period; the first monument of Muslim literature in Turkish, the Ḳudatḳu-Bilik or Ḳutadg̲h̲u Bilik, was written about 462 = 1069-1070 for a prince of this dynasty. In Persian histories the dynasty is usually called “family ( āl) of Afrāsiyāb (q. v., i. 175b) sometimes also “Ḵh̲āns of Turkistān”, the name “Īlek princes” or “Īlek-Ḵh̲āns” was introduced by Europ…

Īs̲h̲ān

(233 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Persian pronoun 3rd pers. plur. The word is used in Turkestan in the meaning of s̲h̲aik̲h̲, murs̲h̲id, ustād̲h̲, pīr, teacher, guide [see derwīsh i. 950a], in contrast to murīd, adherent, pupil. When the term first appears has still to be investigated; it certainly existed in the middle ages; the celebrated Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Aḥrār (died 895 = 1490 in Samarḳand) is always called īs̲h̲ān in his biography. The rank of īs̲h̲ān is frequently transmitted from father to son. The īs̲h̲ān lives with his followers in a dervish monastery ( k̲h̲ānḳāh, in Central Asia pronounced k̲h̲ānaka), sometimes also…

Abū Muslim

(808 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muslim (so also on his coins, but according to other statements he assumed this name much later), general, and powerful chief, leader of the religious and political mouvement in Ḵh̲orāsān, through which the Umaiyads were over-thrown and the ʿAbbāsides attained the throne. Abū Muslim was of Persian origin, probably a native of Iṣpahān (his native place is variously given in different sources), and in Kūfa he had attached himself to the ʿAbbāside Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammed. ¶ In the year 128 (745-746), being then according to Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornb., …

G̲h̲ud̲j̲duwān

(196 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a large “village likea town” (according to the Ras̲h̲aḥāt ʿAin al-Ḥayāt of ʿAli b. Ḥusain al-Kās̲h̲ifī, MS. of the University of St. Petersburg, Or. 293, f. 12a) six farsak̲h̲ from Buk̲h̲ārā, the birthplace of the saint ʿAbd al-Ḵh̲āliḳ G̲h̲ud̲j̲duwānī (vith = xiith century) is mentioned at quite an early date by Nars̲h̲ak̲h̲ī (ed. Schefer, p. 66 at the foot) in his account of Muḳannaʿ (second = viiith century) and probably dates from the pre-Muslim period. In the vith = xiith century there was a much frequented weekly market there (cf. the text of Samʿānī in Barthold, Turkestan v epok̲h̲u…

Takas̲h̲

(549 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish pronunciation: Tekes̲h̲) b. īl-Arslān, king of Ḵh̲warizm [q. v.] 567—596 (1172—1200), of the fourth and most glorious dynasty of Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āhs [q. v.], was, before his accession governor of Ḏj̲and on the lower course of the Si̊r-Daryā [q. v.]; he had to fight for his throne with his younger brother Sulṭān S̲h̲āh, and in the struggle at first Takas̲h̲ and then his brother received the support of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itai [q. v.]. When the fight was finally decided in favour of Takas̲h̲, Sulṭān S̲h̲āh succeeded with the help of the Ḳara Ḵh̲itai in establishing him…

Abu’ l-Ḥasan

(297 words)

Author(s): BARTHOLD, W.
(or Abu ’l-Ḥusain) Muḥammed b. Ibrāhīm b. Sīmd̲j̲ūr, hereditary vassal prince of Kūhistān; under three Sāmānide princes: ʿAbd al-Malik I, Manṣūr I and Nūḥ II, he was three times governor of Ḵh̲orāsān in the years 347—349, 35°—371, 376—378 (958— 960, 962—982, 986—989). During his second governorship of 20 years’ duration he practically enjoyed the esteem of an independent prince and obeyed the Sāmānides „only as far as pleased him." On the accession of Nūḥ II (365 = 976) he was overwhelmed with the high…

Īl-K̲h̲āns

(481 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Mongol dynasty in Persia, vii.th-viii.th (xiii.th-xiv.th) century. On the foundation of the kingdom and the meaning of the title of its rulers see the article hūlāgū (ii. 332b sq.); on the later rulers see the articles abāḳā (i. 4), Arg̲h̲ūn (i. 430a), gaik̲h̲ātū (ii. 128), bāidū (i. 591), g̲h̲āzān (ii. 149b sq.) and abū saʿīd (i. 103b sq.). With the death of the latter on Rabīʿ II 736 (Nov. 30 1335), the main branch became extinct in the male line; till 754 = 1353-1354, several princes, mainly from branch lines and even a princess, Sātī-Beg, sister …

K̲h̲wārizm

(4,435 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or Ḵh̲īwa, a country on the lower course of the Amū-Daryā [q. v.]. Being a fertile delta area, Ḵh̲wārizm must from the earliest times have been of importance for the development of civilisation in Central Asia; in spite of the objections made by Nöldeke ( Z. D. M. G., lvi. 434 sq.), J. Marquart’s view ( Ērānšahr, Berlin 1901, p. 155) that “the much contested Airyanemwaed̲j̲ō, the home of the Awestā, is identical with Ḵh̲wārizm”, has much in its favour. According to Herodotos (iii. 117), the valley of the river Akes, which was of international importance, before Persian rule belonged to the Ḵh̲wā…

Balaklava

(622 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Balaclava), Tatar Bāliḳlava, a small seaport town in the southwest of the Crimean peninsula (Government of Taurus), 8 miles from Sebastopol. The town is mentioned as early as Strabo (Chap. 312) under the name of Palakion and is said to have received this name from Palakos, the son of the Scythian prince Skiluros (second or first century B. C.). There are only popular etymologies in explanation of the name at the present day: 1. Turk, baliḳ “fish” + Greek λαβά or λαβή “catching”; 2. Ital. bella chiave “beautiful spring”. The town lies on a bay which is called by Strabo (Ch. 308) …

Ak̲h̲alčik̲h̲

(100 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Russian Ak̲h̲altsik̲h̲, Turkish Ak̲h̲isḳa or Ak̲h̲isk̲h̲a, nowadays the capital of a district of the government of Tiflis, was originally a Georgian fortress (the name means in Georgian “new fortress”). In the year 1045 (1635) it was taken by the Ottomans after a siege of 23 days and is later on mentioned as the chief town of a separate Wilāyet. After having been taken by the Russians in 1828, the fortress had to be yielded to Russia at the peace of Adrianople (1829). About Ak̲h̲alčik̲h̲ under Turkish government comp. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-numā p. 408 et seq. (W. Barthold)

Ak̲h̲sīkat̲h̲

(157 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
was in the 4th (10th) century the capital of Farg̲h̲āna; under Bābār it was the second of the large towns and was then called Ak̲h̲sī; still in the 11th (17th) century the present capital Namangān is spoken of in the Baḥr al-asrār (Ethé, India Office no. 575, fo. 108b as one of the less important sisters ( tawābiʿ) of Ak̲h̲sī. According to Bābar, Ak̲h̲sīkat̲h̲ was situated on the right bank of tie river Sir, near the place where the Kāsan-Sai joins it. At present there still exist (near the villages Ak̲h̲sī and S̲h̲āhand) the ruins of the old citadel …

Bāliḳ

(117 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Turkī-Mongol word for “town” (also written Bāliḳ and Bālig̲h̲); appears frequently in compound names of towns, such as Bīs̲h̲bāliḳ (“Five Towns”, at the present day in ruins at Gučen in Chinese Turkestan), Ḵh̲ānbāliḳ (the “Ḵh̲ān’s Town”), Turko-Mongol name (also frequently used by European travellers in the middle ages as a name of Pekin (Cambalu)), Ilibāliḳ (on the River Ili, the modern Ilijsk) amongst others. As the town of Bīs̲h̲bāliḳ is mentioned as early as the Orkhon inscriptions (viiith century a. d.), Bāliḳ, in the meaning of town, is one of the oldest of Turkī wor…

K̲h̲otan

(945 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
a town in Chinese Turkestān. In the oldest Chinese records (from the 2nd cent. a. d.) the town is called Yu-tien for Yotḳan; this is the name still given to the ruins of the pre-Muḥammadan town, the most eastern part of which lies 5 miles west of the modern town. Later the name is written K’iu-tan and Ho-tan (cf. E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Toukine [ Turcs] occidentaux, St. Petersburg 1903, p. 125). The Indian name Kustana or Kustanaka “breast of the earth” in Chinese transcription Kiu-sa-tan-na is explained by Sir Aurel Stein, Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan, 1903, p. 402, as a learned et…

Altai

(191 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a mountain system in the region where the Ob and the Irtis̲h̲ take their source. The oldest Turkish name for the southern Altai is Altin-Yis̲h̲ (“gold-mountains”; so in the Orchon inscriptions), in Chinese Kin-s̲h̲an; the same mountain-chain is occasionally denoted in scientific geography by the name of Ektag (evidently Ak-Tag̲h̲ “white mountain”) which arose from Greek traveller’s reports in the 6th century a. d., but according to later investigations the mountain-range mentioned by the Greeks must be sought not in the Altai, but in the Thien-s̲h̲an (E. Chavannes, Documents sur l…

Alp-tegīn

(352 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
was the founder of the dominion of the G̲h̲aznawides. Like most of the praetorians of his time, he was enrolled as a purchased Turkish slave in the bodyguard of the Sāmānides and gradually rose to the dignity of “Ḥād̲j̲ib of the Ḥād̲j̲ibs” (the chief-officer of the bodyguard). It was in this position that he appeared as the real ruler during the reign of the youthful ʿAbd al-Malik I [q. v.]; through his influence Abū ʿAlī al-Balʿamī was appointed Wezīr and was not permitted to do anything “with…

Tekuder

(214 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(the name is also written Tagudar and Teguder in learned works), as a Muslim called Aḥmad (e. g. on his coins with inscriptions in the Mongol alphabet and language), a Mongol ruler (Īlk̲h̲ān, q.v.) of Persia, 681—683 = 1282—1284. On his brother and predecessor see abāḳā, on his fall and successor see arg̲h̲ūn. Tekuder is said to have been baptised in his youth with the name Nicolas ( Moshemii Historia Tartarorum Ecclesiastica, Helmstedt 1741, p. 71). Immediately after his accession, his conversion to Islām was announced. According to some sources he turned churches…

Ḳi̊zi̊l-Ḳum

(221 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(t. “Red Sand”), a desert between the Si̊r-Daryā and the Āmū-Daryā, cf. above, p. 741, ḳarā-ḳum. The country is less uniform, especially in the central part, than in the Ḳarā-Ḳum; the desert is crossed by several ranges of hills. The Ḳi̊zi̊l-Ḳum becomes more and more inhospitable as one goes southwards. The region called Adam-Ḳi̊ri̊lg̲h̲an (“where man perishes”) between the Āmū-Daryā and the cultivated region of Buk̲h̲ārā consisting of sandhills ( bark̲h̲ān) is considered especially uninviting and dangerous. In the summer there is absolutely no life in the desert,…

Alma

(40 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a small river in the Crimea, south of Simferopol, is only known through the battle of September 20/8., 1854 (victory of the allied armies of the French, English and Turks over the Russians under Mens̲h̲ikow). (W. Barthold).

S̲h̲īrwāns̲h̲āh

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a title of the rulers of S̲h̲īrwān, probably dating from the pre-Muḥammadan period (Baladitnrf, p. 196 infra). In the history of the conquest this ruler is called simply king ( malik) or lord ( ṣāḥib) of S̲h̲īrwān (ibid., 204 and 209). Yazīd b. Usaid al-Sulamī, governor of Armenia under the Caliph Manṣūr, took possession of the naphtha-wells ( naffāṭa) and saltworks of S̲h̲īrwān ( mallāḥāt); the eastern part of the land was therefore at that date of greater importance than the western (cf. what is said above on S̲h̲āberān as the capital of S̲h̲īrwān). The t…

Aḳ Ṣu

(343 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(t.), “white water”, is very often used as the name of a river in the countries where Turkish is spoken. When a canal is made to branch off from a river, that part of the water which flows on along the original bed is as a rule called Aḳ Ṣu or Aḳ Daryā, and the artificial canal is called Ḳarā Ṣu or Ḳarā Daryā (black stream); but still many single streams and brooks bear the name of Aḳ Ṣu. The name has often been extended from rivers to towns and villages; specially well-known is Aḳ Ṣu in East-Turkistān on the river Aḳ Ṣu, a tributary of the river Yārkand-Daryā or Tarim. The Turkish name is not found until the 8t…

Sug̲h̲dāḳ

(787 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, once a great seaport, now a little town in the Crimea, Greek Σουγδαΐα or Σουγδαία, also Σουγδία, Latin and Italian Soldaia or Soldachia, Old Russian Surož; the Arabic form S̲h̲olṭāṭia in Idrīsī (transl. Jaubert, ii. 395) is probably connected with the Italian form. The name is connected with Sog̲h̲d [q. v.], the name of a country in Central Asia and explained as Iranian; its foundation is therefore ascribed to the Alans (see allān). The Alans are mentioned in the region (east of the Tauric Chersonese) as late as the xiiith and xivth centuries. Like the Greek cities, Sugdaia had an er…

Turkistān

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or turkestan, a Persian word meaning the “land of the Turks”. To the Persians of course only the southern frontier of the land of the Turks, the frontier against Īrān, was of importance and this frontier naturally depended on political conditions. On their very first appearance in Central Asia in the sixth century a. d., the Turks reached the Oxus (cf. āmū-daryā). In the time of the Sāsānians therefore the land of the Turks began immediately north of the Oxus; according to the story given in Ṭabarī (i. 435 sq.) the Oxus was settled by an arrow-shot of Īras̲h̲ as the frontier between…

Asad

(260 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī (according to the Arabic sources; according to the Persian al-Ḳus̲h̲airī), governor of Ḵh̲orāsān under the Caliph His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Mālik, 106—109 (724—727) and 117—120 (735—738). Especially during his first term of office he conducted himself in relation to the Arabs as a fanatical adherent of the Yemenite party. With the Persian Dihḳāns (landowners) he was in high favour and was praised by them as a prudent “householder” (Katk̲h̲udā) of his province. Sāmān-Ḵh̲udāt, the an…

Abd al-Karīm

(155 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Buk̲h̲ārī, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233 (1818) a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲ōḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmed S̲h̲āh Durrānī [q. v.] till his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222 (1807-1808) and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople ; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246 (1830), a…

Kučum K̲h̲ān

(539 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Tatar Ḵh̲ān of Siberia, in whose reign this country was conquered by the Russians. Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī (ed. Desmaisons, p 177). is the only authority to give information regarding his origin and his genealogical relation to the other descendants of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān. According to this source, he reigned for forty years in “Turan”, lost his eyesight towards the end of his life, was driven from his kingdom by the Russians in 1003 (1594/1595), took refuge with the Mang̲h̲i̊t (Nogai) and died among them. …

Ismāʿīl

(368 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Aḥmad, Abū Ibrāhīm, a Sāmānid prince (amīr) of Mā warāʾ al-Nahr, who laid the foundations of the power of his dynasty, born in Farg̲h̲āna in S̲h̲awwāl 234 (28 Apr.— 26 May 849), from 260 (874) to 279 (892) governor for his brother Naṣr in Buk̲h̲ārā; he continued to reside in this town even after he became amīr of Mā warāʾ al-Nahr by the death of his brother and in 280 (893) was confirmed in this position by the caliph. In the same year he undertook a campaign as far as Ṭarāz (the modern Awliyā-A…

Ḳaragözlü

(159 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(“Black-eyed”), a Turkish people around Hamadān, to which they pay their tribute (Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, London 1892, ii. 270 and 472). The Ḳaragözlü are several times mentioned in the history of the domestic troubles in Persia in the second half of the xviiith century; cf. J. v. Hammer, Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches 2, Pest 1836, iv. 475; Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Zandīya, ed. Beer, Leiden 1888, p. 33, 42 and 93. In the first half of the xixth century the Ḳaragözlü are said to have numbered some 12,000 souls (C. Ritter, Erdkunde, viii. 404 and ix. 78). Ḳaragözlü is also the …

Ḥaidar-Mīrzā

(605 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Persian historian, author of the Taʿrīk̲h̲-i Ras̲h̲īdī, born in 905 = 1499-1500, died in 958 = 1551. On his descent cf. the article Dūg̲h̲lāt (i. 1079 et seq.) ; through his mother he was a grandson of the Čag̲h̲atāi Ḵh̲ān Yūnus and a cousin of Bābur. Most of our knowledge of his life is gleaned from his own work; Bābur (ed. Beveridge, p. 11) devotes a few lines to him; the Indian historians Abu ’l-Faḍl and Firis̲h̲ta give some information about his later years. His real name was Muḥammad Ḥaidar; as he himself says, he was known as Mīrzā Ḥaidar; Bābur calls him Ḥaidar Mīrzā. ¶ After the assassinat…

S̲h̲aibānids

(1,287 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, descendants of the Mongol prince S̲h̲aibān, a brother of Bātū Ḵh̲ān [q. v.]. The naines of the twelve sons of S̲h̲aibān and their earlier descendants are given by Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn ( Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Tawārīk̲h̲, ed. Blochet, p. 114 sqq., with notes by the editor from the anonymous Muʿizz al-Ansāb; on its importance as a source see W. Barthold, Turkestan v epok̲h̲u mongolskago nas̲h̲estwiya, ii, 56). Later writers give information on S̲h̲aibān and his descendants which is more legendary than historical; the bias of these tales is decided by the political conditio…

Basd̲j̲irt

(894 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Bas̲h̲d̲j̲ird, Bas̲h̲g̲h̲irt, Bās̲h̲g̲h̲ird and Bas̲h̲ḳird (or Bās̲h̲ḳurd), the Arabic name for the Bās̲h̲ḳirs and Magyars. The Bās̲h̲ḳirs whose territory corresponds roughly to the modern districts of Ufa and Orenburg are first briefly mentioned by Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (ed. de Goeje, p. 225 and 227) and a more detailed account of ¶ them is given by Ibn Faḍlān (Yāḳūt, i. 468 et seq.). The land of the Bās̲h̲ḳirs was then, as it still is in part, covered with forest and their numbers very small (according to Iṣṭak̲h̲rī only 2000 men). They were subject …

ʿAlī-tegīn

(517 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a prince of Transoxiana (Mā warāʾ al-Nahr) of the house of the Ilek-Ḵh̲āns. Nothing is known of the details of his genealogical relationships with the other princes of this house; according to Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornb. ix. 323), he was a brother of the conqueror of Mā warāʾ al-Nahr (Naṣr b. ʿAlī), yet this statement (which seems to have originated as a mere interpolation) must probably be rejected. The name ʿAlī b. ʿAlī is not mentioned on any coins of this period, on the other hand we find t…

Ṭok̲h̲āristān

(785 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Tok̲h̲āristān and Ṭok̲h̲airistān, a district on the upper course of the Āmū-Daryā [q.v.]. It is the name of a district formed from that of its inhabitants (like Afg̲h̲ānistān, Balōčistān etc.), but the question of the nationality and language of the Tok̲h̲ārians was of no significance in the Muslim period. With the exception perhaps of the mention of Balk̲h̲ as Madīnat Ṭok̲h̲ārā in Balād̲h̲urī, p. 408 there is nothing to show that anything was known in the Muslim period of the Tok̲h̲ārians as a people, although as late as 630 a. d. the Chinese pilgrim Hüan-Čuang (or Yüan-…

Dag̲h̲estan

(5,318 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Dāg̲h̲istān (Mountain land; Snouck Hurgronje, Mekka, ii. 245 noted in ¶ Mecca that the name was pronounced Dag̲h̲ustan even by people who belonged to it), a Russian territory ( oblast’) on the west shore of the Caspian Sea between 43° 30’ and 41° N. Lat., has an area of 13 228 square miles and a population of about 700,000. Its boundaries are, in the north the Sulaḳ, in the south the Samur, in the west the watershed between these rivers and the Alazan, a tributary of the Kura; the territory is divided into nine districts ( okrug). Its present boundaries and its constitution as a R…

Tatar

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, written Tātār, Tatār and Tatar, the name of a people the significance of which varies in different periods. Two Tatar groups of tribes, the “thirty Tatars” and the “nine Tatars”, are mentioned in the Turkish Ork̲h̲on inscriptions of the eighth century a. d. As Thomsen ( Inscriptionsde l’Orkhon, Helsingfors 1896,” p. 140) supposes, even at this date the name was applied to the Mongols or a section of them but not to a Turkish people; according to Thomsen, these Tatars lived southwest of Baikal roughly as far as Kerulen. With the foundation of the empire of the Kitai [see ḳara k̲h̲itai] the Tu…

Aimāḳ

(83 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
is an East-Turkish and Mongolic word, almost synonymous with the more usual Īl of Turkish dialects. The original sense of both words is “tribe”, but they are also used to denote larger tribal unions as political unities. Northern Mongolia (Ḵh̲alk̲h̲ā) is divided into four aimāḳ on the basis of the four k̲h̲āns (Tus̲h̲etu-k̲h̲ān, Tsetzen-Ḵh̲ān, Sain-Noyon and Tzasaktu-Ḵh̲an). In Afg̲h̲ānistan four nomadic tribes (Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īdī, Hazāra, Fērōzkōhī and Taimanī) are called by the comprehensive appellation of Čār (Čahār) Aimāḳ (four aimāḳ). (W. Barthold)

Kurama

(792 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, according to Radloff ( Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte, St. Petersburg 1899, vol. ii., p. 924) “a Turkish tribe in Turkistan”; the same authority gives the Kirgiz (i. e. Kazak) word ḳurama (from ḳura, “to sew together pieces of cloth”) with the meaning “a blanket made of pieces of cloth sewn together”. In another passage ( Aus Sibirien 2, Leipzig 1893, i. 225) Radloff himself says that the Kurama are “a mixed people of Özbegs and Kirgiz” and their name comes from the fact, asserted by the Kirgiz, that “they are made up of patches from many tribes” ( kura to “patch together”). Ac…

Manṣūr b. Nūḥ

(475 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of two Sāmānid rulers: 1. Manṣūr b. Nūḥ I (Abu Ṣāliḥ), ruler of Ḵh̲orāsān and Transoxania (350—365 = 961—976), succeeded his brother ʿAbd al-Malik b. Nūḥ I [q.v.]. Ibn Ḥawḳal is able to describe the internal conditions of the Sāmānid kingdom under Manṣūr as an eye-witness; cf. especially B. G. A., ii. 341: fī waḳtinā hād̲h̲ā; p. 344 sq.: on the character of Manṣūr “the justest king among our contemporaries, in spite of his physical weakness and the slightness of his frame”. On the vizier Balʿamī, see balʿamī where also information is given about the Persian version of Ṭaba…

Taranči

(637 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Eastern Turkī word for agriculturists; as the name of a people, applied to the colonists transported by the Chinese government in the middle of the xviiith century from Kās̲h̲g̲h̲aria to the Ili valley; cf. Radloff, Wörterbuch, iv. 841. The Taranči are said however, even in the Ili valley, to have described themselves as the native population ( Yärlik, cf. Radloff, it. 343). They numbered 6,000 families of whom 4,100 were settled on the right and 1,900 on the left bank of the Ili; for further particulars see Radloff, Aus Sibirien, ii. 331 sq. According to a census of the year 1834 the…

Gurgānd̲j̲

(619 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W
, Arabic Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānīya, a town in the northern part of Ḵh̲wārizm; on the situation of the town and the arm of the Oxus which flows past it, cf. the article āmū-daryā, i. 341a. Although the town is first mentioned by the Arabs, it was undoubtedly founded in the pre-Muhammadan period; the oldest Chinese name for Ḵh̲wārizm (Yüekien) is apparently to be traced to the name Gurgānd̲j̲. In what condition the Arabs found the northern part of the country is not narrated in the sources dealing with the Arab conquest (93 = 712). In the ivth = xth century Ḵh̲wārizm broke up into two independent kingdom…

Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī

(254 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a word (probably from the Sanskrit, bhiks̲h̲u) which appears in East Turkī and Persian during the Mongol period; it denotes in the first place the Buddhist priesthood and in this meaning is equated to the Chinese Hos̲h̲ang, Tibetan Lama and the Uig̲h̲ur Toin. Writers of Turkish origin also, who had to write documents destined for the Mongol and Turkish population, in Uig̲h̲ur script, were called Bak̲h̲shi; according to Bābar (ed. Beveridge, p. 108b) it was also the name of the surgeon ( d̲j̲arrāḥ) among the Mongols. In the Empire of the Indian Moghuls, the Bak̲h̲shī was an o…

K̲h̲wārizm-s̲h̲āh

(1,217 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the title of the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm [q. v.] found already in existence at the Arab conquest (cf. e. g. al-Ṭabarī, ii. 1237 sq.). The same title was borne in the Muslim period by the majority of the kings and governors of this country, although the founder of the last dynasty, Iltüzar Ḵh̲ān (1804—1806), was content to describe himself on his coins (which were never issued) as “heir of the Ḵh̲wārizm-s̲h̲āhs” ( wārit̲h̲-i Ḵh̲wārizm-s̲h̲āhān (ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Buk̲h̲ārī, ed. Schefer, p. 80). This is probably the only case in Central Asia of a title retaining its signific…

Faizabad

(164 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Faiḍābād, the name of two modern towns in Central Asia; on Faizabad in Buk̲h̲ārā cf. the article āmū-daryā, i. 340a and on Faizabad in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān see this article i. 552b et seq. (where it is erroneously called Faid̲h̲ābād). Faizabad in Buk̲h̲ārā, lying in a fertile valley with green pastures throughout the year, is now a town with about 3000 inhabitants, the residence of the tax-collector ( amlākdār) of the Beg of Ḥiṣār; the citadel is in ruins. Faizabad in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān lies on the right bank of the Kokča, which is here crossed by a wooden brid…

Balk̲h̲ān

(681 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a mountain range on the Caspian Sea, where the dry riverbed of the Uzboi (supposed to be the ancient bed of the Oxus) flows into the Sea. The mountains to the north of the riverbed, rising to a height of 5500 feet, are at the present day called “the Great Balk̲h̲ān” range; quite separate from them are the “Little Balk̲h̲ans” (to the south of the Uzboi) which are quite close to the Küren-Dag̲h̲. The Balk̲h̲ān Bay on the Caspian Sea has taken its name from the “Great Balk̲h̲āns”; in it is the best harbour on the eastern shores of the Sea north of the Russo-Persian frontier. On the story of an “ancient Ḵh̲w…

G̲h̲āzān

(674 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Maḥmūd, a Mongol ruler ( Ilk̲h̲ān) of Persia (694—703 = 1295—1304) born in the year 670 = 1271. On the accession of his father Arg̲h̲ūn (q. v., i. 430) he was appointed governor of Ḵh̲orāsān, Māzandarān arid Ray; he administered these provinces in the reign of Gaik̲h̲ātū also (cf. above p. 128). G̲h̲āzān had been brought up as a Buddhist and, while governor, ordered a Buddhist temple to be built in the town of Ḳūčān; shortly before his accession, during the war with Bāidū (q. v., i. 591), his general…

Sarāi

(815 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, capital of the Golden Horde; cf. the articles Ḳipčāḳ and mongols. The name is in Persian sarāi = palace; nevertheless it is frequently written ṣarāi in Arabic works. On its foundation by Bātū and the name Sarāi Berke see above, i. 683a and 709a. The geographers and historians speak only of o n e town of this name but on the coins we find a New-Sarāi ( Sarāi al-Ḏj̲adīd) mentioned: the earliest coin struck in New-Sarāi is dated 710 a. h. The only historical reference to New-Sarāi so far known is the mention of the death of the Ḵh̲ān Özbeg (the date given is 742 a. h.) in New-Sarāi in S̲h̲ams al-Dīn a…

Ḥakīm Atā

(237 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkī saint of Ḵh̲warizm, a pupil of Aḥmad Yasawī (cf. i. 204b et seq.) who died in 562 = 1166-1167. His proper name was Sulaimān Bāḳirg̲h̲ānī and he is also called Sulaimān Atā or Ḥākim Ḵh̲od̲j̲a; this Bāḳirg̲h̲ān is not identical with the Bag̲h̲irḳān mentioned by Muḳaddasī (ed. de Goeje, p. 343, 10) but lay considerably farther north, a little below the modern town of Kungrad; the tomb of Ḥakīm Atā there is still visited by pilgrims; according to’ a biography of the saint, the name is said to be a corrup…

Ḳazaḳ

(328 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(t.), robber, disturber of the peace, adventurer; on these and other meanings see W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der türk. Dialecte, ii. 364. The existence of the word in Turkish can be first shown in the ninth (xvth) century. During the civil turmoils under the Tīmūrids the pretenders, in contrast to the actual rulers, were called ḳazaḳ: those who would not accept the verdict of fortune but led the life of an adventurer at the head of their men; cf., for example, the mention of the ḳazaḳ years ( ḳazaḳli̊ḳ) of Sulṭān Ḥusain, afterwards ruler of Ḵh̲urāsān, in the Bābar-Nāma, ed. Beveri…

Teptyar

(280 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish people who call themselves Tipter or Bas̲h̲ḳurt. According to Vambéry, the name is derived from a verb tepte “to roam” and means “rovers”; in Radloff’s Wörterbuch (iii. 1114) no such verb is mentioned and the word tepter only quoted as the “name of a tribe in the gouvernement of Orenburg”. In Russian documents of the xviiith century the word tepter is frequently associated with the word babi̊l’ which is of course not a tribal name but means “peasant without land and family” According to Karamzin (vol. i., note 73), the Tepter were a mixed people compo…

Kasimov

(814 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, in Russian originally gorodez or gorodok mes̲h̲čerskiy, in Tatar k̲h̲ān karmān, formerly the capital of the Tatar princes subordinate to the Czar of Moscow and now a district capital in the gouvernement of Ryazan. It took its name from Ḳāsim, son of the founder of the kingdom of Ḳazān, Ūlū Muḥammad. In the war between the brothers that followed the assassination of Ūlū Muḥammad (1446), Ḳāsim was induced to enter the service of the Russian Grand Duke. The town, which bears his name, was granted him about …

Mangi̊s̲h̲lak

(871 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a mountainous peninsula on the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, first mentioned under the Persian name Siyāh-Kōh (“Black Mountain”; cf. B. G.A., i. 218); the same name was given to the hills west of the Sea of Aral ( op. cit., vii. 92; see āmū-daryā). According to Iṣṭak̲h̲rī ( op. cit., i. 219), the peninsula used to be uninhabited; it was only shortly before his time (or that of his predecessor al-Balk̲h̲ī) that Turks, who had quarrelled with the G̲h̲uzz [q. v.], i. e. with their own kin, had come there and found springs and pastures for the…

Ḳarluḳ

(746 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(ḳarlug̲h̲), in early Arabic sources Ḵh̲arluk̲h̲, in Persian Ḵh̲alluk̲h̲, in Chinese Ko-lo-lu, name of a Turkish people, who are mentioned in the Turkish Ork̲h̲on inscriptions and in the Chinese T’ang S̲h̲u; cf. E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Tou-kiue ( Turcs) occidentaux, St. Petersburg 1903, Index. The Ḳarluḳ attained some political importance after 766, when, after the decline of the empire of the Western Turkish Ḵh̲āḳāns, they occupied the valley of the Ču [q.v.]. Their princes did not assume the title of Ḵh̲āḳān (Ḳag̲h̲an) but o…

Bāisong̲h̲or

(41 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, was also the name of a prince of the Aḳ-Ḳuyūnlī in Persia, son and successor of Sulṭān Yaʿḳūb; he only reigned for a short period from 896-897 (= 1490—1492) and was overthrown by his cousin Rustam. (W. Barthold)

Gökčai

(130 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Turkish Gökče-tengiz (“blue sea”), Armenian Sewanga (Sew-Wank = : “Black cloister”), a freshwater lake in Russian Armenia (gouvernement of Eriwan), 7000 feet above sealevel, covering an area of 62 square miles and drained by one stream, the Zanga, which flows into the Araxes. As Le Strange ( The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 183) points out, the name first appears in Ḥamd Allāh Ḳazwīnī; in the Muhammadan sources of the pre-Mongol period the lake is not mentioned at all. The monastery from which the lake has received its Armenian name lies o…

Kimäk

(207 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(usually written: Kīmāk and wrongly vocalised: Kaimāk), name of a Turkish people on the lower course of the Irtis̲h̲. Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih (text in B.G.A., vi. 28 and 31) mentions a road thither (80 or 81 days) from Ṭarāz (now Awliyā Atā) or Kuwīkat, seven farsak̲h̲ distant, and Gardīzī (in Barthold, Otčet o poiezdkie v Srednjuju Aziju, p. 82 sq.) fully describes another route from Fārāb (Otrār) (via Jenikend, the modern ruins called Ḏj̲ānkent south of the mouth of the Si̊r-Daryā). According to Muḳaddasī or Maḳdisī ( B. G. A., iii. 274) a portion of the Kimäk at the end of ¶ the ivth (xth) century …

Kansu

(1,478 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a frontier province in the northwest of China proper; it is bounded on the south and east by the provinces of Sze-čuan, S̲h̲ensi and S̲h̲ansi, in the west and north by the territory of Kukunor, Chinese Turkestan (formerly included in Kansu, but since 1884 the separate province of Sin-Kiang) and Mongolia. With its present area of 5910 geogr. sq. m.= 125,483 sq. miles, Kansu is the third largest province of China but as regards density of population it is lower than all the other provinces of China with the exception of Kuangsi. The province first formed under the Emperor Kūbīlāi in 1282 a. d. is …

K̲h̲ānbali̊ḳ

(495 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(usually written Ḵh̲ān Bālīḳ), the “Ḵh̲ān’s town”, the name of Pekin as capital of the Mongol Emperors after 1264 in Eastern Turkī and Mongol and afterwards adopted by the rest of the Muslim world and even by Western Europe ( Cambaluc, variants in S. Hallberg, l’Extrême Orient dans la littérature et la cartographie de l’Occident, Göteborg 1906, p. 105 sq.). According to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (ed. Berezin, Trudi̊ Vost. Otd. Ark̲h̲. Obs̲h̲č. xv., Persian text, p. 34), Pekin (Chinese then Čūngdū, i. e. the middle capital) was called Ḵh̲ānbāli̊ḳ even earlier by the Mongols,…

Tali̊s̲h̲

(432 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district and people in the north of the Persian province of Gīlān [q. v.], which since the peace of Gulistān (12/24th Oct. 1813) has belonged to Russia. The name according to Marquart, Osteuropäische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge, Leipzig 1903, p. 278 sq., is first found in the form T’alis̲h̲ in the Armenian translation of the romance of Alexander, Ch. 194 = ii. 19, p. 76 (ed. C. Müller). In the history of the Arab conquest (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 327; al-Ṭabarī, i. 2805) the country is called al-Ṭailasān; according to al-Aṣma…

Derbend

(5,811 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, usually written Derbent by the Russians, called al-Bāb (che “gate”) Bāb al-Abwāb (gate of gates) or al-Bāb wa ’l-Abwāb (the gate and the gates) by the Arabs, a town in the Russian territory of Dag̲h̲estan [q. v., p. 887] on the western shore of the Caspian Sea (42° 4’ N. Lat.), with about 20,000 inhabitants; it is particularly noted for the long walls, unique in their kind, which used to bar the passage between the mountains and the sea, here only 1½ miles wide, in the Sāsānian and afterwards in the Muḥammadan p…
▲   Back to top   ▲