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Bāysong̲h̲or

(187 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, second son of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of Samarḳand, grandson of Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd [ q.v.], born in the year 882/1477-8, killed on 10 Muḥarram 905/17 Aug. 1493. In the lifetime of his father he was prince of Buk̲h̲ārā; on the death of the latter in Rabīʿ II 900/30 Dec. 1494/27 Jan. 1495, he was summoned to Samarḳand. In 901/1495-6, he was deposed for a brief period by his brother Sulṭān ʿAlī and in 903, towards the end of Rabīʿ I November 1497, finally overthrown by his cousin Bābur. Bāysong̲h̲or then betook himself to…

Bālik

(123 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Turko-Mongol word for “town” = or “castle” (also written bāliḳ and bālig̲h̲ ); appears frequently in compound names of towns, such as Bīs̲h̲bāliḳ (“Five Towns”, at the present day in ruins at Gučen in Chinese Turkestan), Ḵh̲ānbāliḳ (the “Ḵh̲ān’s Town”), Turko-Mongol name for Pekin (also frequently used by European travellers in the middle ages in forms like (Cambalu), Ilibāliḳ (on the River Ili, the modern Iliysk) etc. As the town of Bās̲h̲bāliḳ is mentioned as early as the Ork̲h̲on i…

Tirmid̲h̲

(1,924 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town on the north bank of the Oxus river [see āmū daryā ] near the mouth of its tributary, the Surk̲h̲ān river (lat. 37° 15’ N., long. 67° 15’ E.), now the town of Termez in the southernmost part of the Uzbekistan Republic. As Samʿānī, who spent 12 days there, testifies, the name was pronounced Tarmīd̲h̲ in the town itself ( K. al-Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābad, iii, 41) which is confirmed by the Chinese Ta-mi (e.g. Hüan Tsang, tr. St. Julien, Mémoires sur les contrées occidentales, i, 25). Russian officers in 1889 also heard the pronunciation Termiz or Tarmi̊z ( Sbornik materialov po Azii

ʿAbd al-Karīm Bukhārī

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233/1818 a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲oḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī) down to his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222/1807-8 and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246/1830, and wrote his book for t…

K̲h̲ānbaliḳ̊ḳ

(514 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(usually written K̲h̲ān Bālīḳ), the “K̲h̲ān’s town”, the name of Pekin, the capital of the Mongol Emperors after 1264 in Eastern Turkī and Mongol and afterwards adopted by the rest of the Muslim world and even by Western Europe ( Cambaluc and variants in S. Hallberg, l’Extrême Orient dans la littérature et la cartographie de l’Occident, Göteborg 1906, 105 f.). According to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (ed. Berezin, Trudi̊ Vost . Otd . Ark̲h̲ . Obs̲h̲č . xv, Persian text, 34), Pekin (Chinese, then Čūngdū, i.e. “the middle capital”) was called K̲h̲ānbāli̊ḳ even…

Alti S̲h̲ahr

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, or alta s̲h̲ahr (the word "six" is always written alta in Chinese Turkistān), "six towns", a name for part of Chinese Turkistān (Sin-kiang) comprising the towns of Kuča, Aḳ Su, Uč Turfān (or Us̲h̲ Turfān), Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, Yārkand and Ḵh̲otan. It appears to have been first used in the 18th century (cf. M. Hartmann, Der Islamische Orient , i, 226, 278). Yangi Ḥiṣār, between Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar and Yārkand, is sometimes added as the seventh town (though it also frequently counted as one of the six, in which case either Kuča or Uč Turfān is…

Aḥmad b. Sahl

(221 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. hās̲h̲im , of the aristocratic dihḳān family Kāmkāriyān (who had settled near Marw), which boasted of Sāsānian descent, governor of Ḵh̲urāsān. In order to avenge the death of his brother, fallen in a fight between Persians and Arabs (in Marw), he had under ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲ stirred up a rising of the people. He was taken prisoner and brought to Sīstān, whence he escaped by means of an adventurous flight, and after a new attempt at a rising in Marw he fled for refuge to th…

Aḳ Masd̲j̲id

(178 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
“White Mosque”, name of two towns: 1. Town in the Crimea (local pronunciation: Aḳ Mečet), founded in the 16th. century by the k̲h̲āns of the Crimea in order to protect their capital, Bāg̲h̲če Sarāy, from nomad incursions. It was the residence of the crown prince ( kalg̲h̲ay sulṭān ), whose palace was outside the town, according to Ewliyā Čelebi, vii, 638-41. The town was destroyed by the Russians in 1736, and rebuilt in 1784 under the name of Simferopol (although the local population continued to use the Turkish name). 2. A fortress on the Si̊r Daryā, which belonged to the Ḵh̲ānate …

Bāysong̲h̲or

(38 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of another prince, of the Aḳ-Ḳoyunlū dynasty in Persia, son and successor of Sulṭān Yaʿḳūb; he only reigned for a short period from 896-7/1490-2 and was overthrown by his cousin Rustam. (W. Barthold)

Ḳurama

(754 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, according to Radloff ( Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte , St. Petersburg 1899, ii, 924) “a Turkish tribe in Turkistan”; the same authority gives the Kirgiz (i.e. Ḳazaḳ) word ḳurama (from ḳura , “to sew together pieces of cloth”) with the meaning “a blanket made of pieces of cloth sewn together”. In another passage ( Aus Sibirien 2, Leipzig 1893, i, 225) Radloff himself says that the Kurama are “a mixed people of Özbegs and Kirgiz” and their name comes from the fact, asserted by the Kirgiz, that “they are made up of patches from many tribes” ( kura to “patch…

Atek

(162 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, district in Soviet Türkmenistān on the northern slope of the frontier-mountains of Ḵh̲urāsān (Kopet Dag̲h̲), between the modern railway ¶ stations Gjaurs and Dus̲h̲ak. The name is really Turkish, Etek, "edge border" (of the mountain-chain), and is a translation of the Persian name given to this district, viz. Dāman-i Kūh, "foot of the mountain"; but the word is always written Ātak by the Persians. During the Middle Ages no special name for Atek appears to have been in use; being a district of the town of Abīward [ q.v.] it belonged to Ḵh̲urāsān. In the 10th/16th and 11th/17th cent…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Iskandar

(830 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a S̲h̲aybānid [ q.v.], the greatest prince of this dynasty, born in 940/1533-4 (the dragon year 1532-3 is given, probably more accurately, as the year of the cycle) at Āfarīnkent in Miyānkāl (an island between the two arms of the Zarafs̲h̲ān). The father (Iskandar Ḵh̲ān), grandfather (Ḏj̲ānī Beg) and great-grandfather (Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Muḥammad, son of Abu ‘l-Ḵh̲ayr [ q.v.]) of this ruler of genius are all described as very ordinary, almost stupid men. Ḏj̲ānī Beg (d. 935/1528-9) had at the distribution of 918/1512-3 received Karmīna and Miyānkāl; Iskandar …

Gardīzī

(328 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd , Persian historian who flourished in the middle of the 5th/11th century. Nothing is known of his life. His nisba shows that he came from Gardīz [ q.v.]; since he says that he received information about Indian festivals from al-Bīrūnī [ q.v.], he may have been his pupil. His work, entitled Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār, was written in the reign of the G̲h̲aznawid Sultan ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd (440/1049-443/1052). It contains a history of the pre-Islamic kings of Persia, of Muḥammad and the Caliphs to the year 423/1032, and a d…

Altūntās̲h̲

(422 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
al-ḥād̲j̲ib , abū saʿīd (his alleged second name Hārūn which occurs in a single passage of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 294, is probably due to an error of the author or of a copyist), Turkish slave, later general of the G̲h̲aznawid Sebuk Tegīn and his two successors and governor of Ḵh̲wārizm. Already under Sebuk Tegīn he attained the highest rank in the bodyguard, that of a "great ḥād̲j̲ib "; under Maḥmūd he commanded the right wing in the great battle against the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids (22 Rabīʿ II 398/4 Jan. 1008, and in 401/1010-1 he is mentioned as governor of Harāt. After the conquest of k̲h̲wārizm in 408/1…

ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲

(429 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Persian general, brother and successor of Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ [ q.v.[, the founder of the Ṣaffārid [ q.v.] dynasty in Sid̲j̲istān. Said to have been a mule-driver in his youth, and later on a mason, he was associated with his brother’s campaigns and in 259/873 captured for Yaʿḳūb the Ṭāhirid capital Naysābūr. After Yaʿḳūb’s defeat at Dayr al-ʿĀkūl and subsequent death (S̲h̲awwāl 265/ June 879), ʿAmr was elected by the army as his successor. He made his submission to the caliph, and was invested with the provin…

Barmakids

(2,878 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Barmecides), a Persian family, which produced the first Persian ministers of the Caliphate. “Barmak” was not a personal name but denoted the rank of hereditary chief priest in the temple of Nawbahār in Balk̲h̲. The lands belonging to the temple were also in the hands of this family. These estates comprised an area of about 740 square miles (8 farsak̲h̲s long by ¶ 4 broad), or somewhat more than the principalities of Lippe and Schaumburg-Lippe together. These estates or part of them remained the property of the Barmakids at a later period; Yāḳūt (ii. 942) …

Fārāb

(618 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Bārāb (e.g. in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, Muḳaddasī and most Persian authorities) and Pārāb (e. g. in the Ḥudūd al-Ālam, cod. Tumanskij, f. 9b; the latter seems to be the original pronunciation), a district (in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and Ibn Ḥawḳal nāḥiya, in Muḳaddasī rustāḳ, in Yāḳūt wilāya) in the valley of the Sir-Daryā, lying on both sides of the main stream, which here receives the waters of the Aris on its right bank. According to Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 391) the district measured less than a day’s journey in length and breadth; the soil was in places marshy and contained salt. According to Masʿūdī ( Tanbīh, p…

Čimkent

(578 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the capital of a district in Russian Turkestan, Lat. 42° 10′ N. and Long. 69° 30′ E. (Greenw.), 1550 feet above sea-level, on the right bank of the Badam which flows into the Aris, a tributary of the Sir-Daryā. At the time of the Russian conquest (1281 = 1864) the town had a circumference of about 4 miles and was surrounded by a low wall of clay; the citadel was on a high mound in the south east. According to the most recent census the number of houses in the old town is 1886, while there are …

Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī

(254 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a word (probably from the Sanskrit, bhiks̲h̲u) which appears in East Turkī and Persian during the Mongol period; it denotes in the first place the Buddhist priesthood and in this meaning is equated to the Chinese Hos̲h̲ang, Tibetan Lama and the Uig̲h̲ur Toin. Writers of Turkish origin also, who had to write documents destined for the Mongol and Turkish population, in Uig̲h̲ur script, were called Bak̲h̲shi; according to Bābar (ed. Beveridge, p. 108b) it was also the name of the surgeon ( d̲j̲arrāḥ) among the Mongols. In the Empire of the Indian Moghuls, the Bak̲h̲shī was an o…

Bālis̲h̲

(253 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
a unit of money among the Mongols; it is mentioned as early as the time of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān; after the break up of the Mongol Kingdom into several independent states, the word appears to have remained in use in China only, where they still reckoned by the bālis̲h̲ in the viiith (xivth) century. It is very difficult to reconcile the various passages from Oriental sources collected by Quatremère ( Histoire des Mongols de la Perse par Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn p. 320 et seq.); to what is given there one can only add Ḏj̲ūzd̲j̲ānī’s notice ( Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī, transl.by Raverty,p. 1110) according to which the bālis̲…

Azaḳ

(253 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Russian Azow, a town near the mouth of the Don; it is first mentioned in the fourteenth century (after 1316) as a Genoese, then (after 1332) as a Venetian colony under the name of Tana (from the ancient Tanaïs). The Turkish name has appeared on coins since 717 (1317). In the year 797 (1395) the town was destroyed by Tīmūr and taken possession of by the Ottomans in 880 (1475). The Russians (Cossacks) appeared before Azaḳ for the first time in 1589; in 1637 the town was captured and the whole Mu…

Ili

(849 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a large river in Central Asia. Both the rivers Tekes and the Tunges which join to form it, rise in the northern slopes of the Thian-S̲h̲an; after their junction the river is called the lli and then has a course of about 600 miles till it runs into Lake Balkas̲h̲ (q. v., i. 624). At some places it is over half a mile broad. The upper course of the Tekes and the lower course of the Ili belong to the Russian empire, the Kunges, the lower course of the Tekes, and the upper course of the Hi to the …

Ḳalg̲h̲a

(307 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the title of the heir-apparent among the Tatars of the Crimea from the time of Menglī Girāy (last rule 883—921 = 1478—1515). The origin of the title is unknown; in manuscripts the same word is also written ḳāg̲h̲ilg̲h̲āy, which has caused W. Smirnow ( Kri̊mskoje Chanstvo pod verchovenstvom Ottomanskoi Porti̊ do načala XVIII vjeka, St. Petersburg 1887, p. 350 sq.) to suggest that we have here to deal with a non-Turkish (probably a Mongol) word. We have perhaps to connect with ḳalg̲h̲a the Central Asian word ḳalk̲h̲ān, a name frequently given to the prince of Balk̲h̲ (Balk̲h̲ appe…

Awliyā-atā

(170 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(i. e. “holy father”); chief town in the Sīr Daryā district in Russian Turkestan called after the tomb of Saint Ḳara-Ḵh̲ān. The grave of the saint is mentioned as early as the seventeenth century ( Baḥr al-Asrār of Maḥmūd b. Walī, Cod. Ind. Off. 545, fol. 119a); the town itself arose only in the nineteenth century and was conquered by the Russians in 1864. The present tomb dates from quite modern times and is without inscriptions; the tomb of the so-called “little saint” ( kičik awliyā) in the same town bears an inscription of the year 660 (1262) and is the grave of the prince U…

Burṭās

(370 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or Burdās (in al-Bakrī: Furdās), a pagan people in the Volga territory; on the relations of the Burdās to their neighbours on the north and south, the Ḵh̲azar and Bulg̲h̲ār, see the article bulg̲h̲ār, p. 786 et seq. Masʿūdī also gives the name Burṭās to a tributary of the Itil (Volga; Murūd̲j̲, ii. 14 and Tanbīh, p. 62); Marquart ( Osteuropäische und ostasiatische Streifzüge, p. 336) considers this river to be the Samara. No adherents of Islām are mentioned among these people by any authority, unlike the Ḵh̲azar and Bulg̲h̲ār. Yāḳūt’s statement (i. 567) on …

Arrān

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, frequently written al-Rān, — Arabic name for ancient Albania (Armenian Alvankʿ); later Greek writers also call the country Ariania instead of Albania, and the people Arianoi instead of Albanoi; according to Marquart ( Ērānšahr, p. 117) these terms as well as the later Arabic name of the country are to be traced back to the Persian form of the name Aran. As in ancient time under the name Albania so under the name Arrān originally the whole region from Derbend in the North-East to Tiflīs in the West and the Araxes in the South a…

Takas̲h̲

(549 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish pronunciation: Tekes̲h̲) b. īl-Arslān, king of Ḵh̲warizm [q. v.] 567—596 (1172—1200), of the fourth and most glorious dynasty of Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āhs [q. v.], was, before his accession governor of Ḏj̲and on the lower course of the Si̊r-Daryā [q. v.]; he had to fight for his throne with his younger brother Sulṭān S̲h̲āh, and in the struggle at first Takas̲h̲ and then his brother received the support of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itai [q. v.]. When the fight was finally decided in favour of Takas̲h̲, Sulṭān S̲h̲āh succeeded with the help of the Ḳara Ḵh̲itai in establishing him…

Sog̲h̲d

(864 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, al-Sog̲h̲d or al-Ṣog̲h̲d, a district in Central Asia. The same name (Old. Pers. Suguda, late Avestan Sug̲h̲da, Greek Sogdioi or Sogdianoi [the people] and Sogdiane [the country]) was applied in ancient times to a people of Īrānian origin subject to the Persians (at least from the time of Darius I, 522—486 b. c.) whose lands stretched from the Oxus (cf. āmū-daryā) to the Yaxartes (cf. si̊r-daryā), according to the Greek sources. The language and especially the terms relating to the calendar and festivals of the Sog̲h̲dian Zoroastrians are very fully dealt wit…

Tibet

(1,974 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a country to the south of China. Yāḳūt gives the forms Tubbat, Tubbit, and Tabbut, ¶ preferring the first of them. The oldest Arab notices of Tibet and the Tibetan kingdom are probably of Turkish origin. The ruler of Tibet is called Ḵh̲āḳān; the names Tüpüt and Tüpüt-Ḳag̲h̲an are found as early as the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions. A fancied resemblance of Tubbat to T̲h̲ābit and Tubbaʿ has given rise to stories of the Yaman origin of the Tibetan kingdom; cf. e.g. al-Ṭabarī, i. 686 supra; Gardīzī in Barthold, Otčet o poiezdke v Srednyuyu Aziyu, p. 87 sqq. There is much more that is legendary in t…

Tuman

(812 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, original (Turkish) pronunciation türn en, usually written turn an; at first used vaguely for “very many”, later the numeral for “ten thousand”. The Turkish numeral was first explained by G Ramstedt ( J. S. F. Ou., xxiv. 22) from the Chinese, later by N. Mironov ( Zap., xix., p. xxiii) from the Tok̲h̲arian ( tmām or tmān, “ten thousand”). Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī (i. 337) still knows the Turkish word only in its indefinite meaning; according to him tümen türlük means “very varied”, tümen ming not 10,000 X 1,000 = 10 millions, but 1,000 X 1,000= 1,000,000. The word seems to be fir…

Ḳazān

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Ḳāzān, in the xvth and xvith centuries the capital of a Tatar principality, in the xixth century a Russian university town, now capital of the Tatar Soviet Republic. According to legend, the town was built by Bātū. In 1391 Ḳazān was destroyed by Russian freebooters from Novgorod, and again in 1399 by the Prince Ywriy Dmitriyewič. About 1445 a powerful kingdom was founded here by Ulu-Muḥammad and his son Maḥmūdek (in Russian works Mak̲h̲mutek) who had been banished from the Golden Horde; in the same…

Kars̲h̲ī

(94 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
an Uig̲h̲ur word for “castle, palace”, probably borrowed from a native language of Eastern Turkestān and later adopted by the Mongols. The town of Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab or Nasaf [q. v.] has taken its modern name of Kars̲h̲ī from a palace built for the Ḵh̲ān Kabak (1318—1326; see the art. čag̲h̲atāi k̲h̲ān), 2 farsak̲h̲ from the town, all trace of which has long since disappeared. Cf. S̲h̲araf ad-Dīn Yazdī, Ẓafar Nāme, ed. Muḥ. Ilāhdād, Calcutta 1887—1888, i. 111; G. Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, Cambridge 1905, p. 470 sq. (W. Barthold)

Čelebi

(1,757 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish word, of the later cultured period, the origin and original meaning of which have not yet been definitely ascertained. Čelebi is probably to be derived from čalab (also written čalāb) “God”; the latter word is at the present day pronounced čalap in Asia Minor and, according to an article by K. Foy ( Mitteil. des Or. Seminars, W estas. Stud., ii, 124), is the only word for “God” among the Yürüks of Asia Minor. In the written ¶ language čalab first appears in the viiith (xivth) century among the Turkī poets of Asia Minor; that, as is sometimes (by K. Foy also, loc. cit.) stated, it is “not…

Kur

(306 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Russian Kura, in the Arab geographers Kurr, the largest river in the Caucasus, over 600 miles in length, according to Ḥamd Allāh Ḳazwīnī ( Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, G.M.S., XXIII/i., p. 218) 200 farsak̲h̲. Iṣṭak̲h̲rī ( B.G.A., i. 189) describes the Kur as navigable and full of fish; even at the present day very little would require to be done to make the river accessible to modern steamers from Mingečaur (a little below the mouth of the Alazan) to the Caspian Sea. The Araxes, regarded as a separate river in ancient times, always appears…

Tas̲h̲kent

(1,926 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, usually written Tās̲h̲kend in Arabic and Persian manuscripts, a large town in Central Asia, in the oasis of Čirčik, watered by one of the right bank tributaries of the Si̊r-Daryā [q. v.]. Nothing is known of the origin of the settlement on the Čirčik. According to the Greek and Roman sources there were only nomads on the other side of the Yaxartes. In the earliest Chinese sources (from the second century b. c.) mention is made of a land of Yu-ni, later identified with the territory of Tas̲h̲kent; this land is later called Čö-či or Čö-s̲h̲i or simply S̲h̲i. The corr…

Būs̲h̲and̲j̲

(584 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Būs̲h̲ang or Fūs̲h̲and̲j̲ (probably pronounced Pūs̲h̲and̲j̲ in pre-Muḥammadan times), a town south of the Harī-Rūd below Herāt, a day’s journey or (according to Yāḳūt, i. 758) 10 farsak̲h̲ from this city. In the local history of Herāt composed by Muʿīn al-Dīn Isfizārī in 897 = 1491-1492 ( Rawḍāt al-Ḏj̲annāt, Cod. Univ. Petrop., 33a) Būs̲h̲and̲j̲ is described as the oldest town in Ḵh̲orāsān and as a foundation of the mythical Pas̲h̲ang b. Afrāsiyāb (in the Iranian epic, Pas̲h̲ang is the father and not the son of Afrāsiyāb); this statement is obvi…

Tād̲j̲īk

(774 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, older form tāzīk or tāžīk (in Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, i., 324: Težik), the name of a people originally used with the meaning “Arab” (later this meaning became confined to the form Tāzī), afterwards “Iranian” in contrast to “Turk”. The word is derived from the Arab tribal name of Ṭaiy. The nearest Arab tribe to the Iranians was the Ṭaiy, hence the name of this tribe came to be applied to the whole Arab people. The Ṭaiy are “mentioned as early as the beginning of the third century by an Edessene along with the Saracens as representatives of all the Beduins” (Cureton, Spicil. Syr., p. 16 ult. in Nö…

Irtis̲h̲

(527 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
a large river in Siberia, in the basin of the Ob. Its two sources, the Blue and the White Irtis̲h̲, rise in the Great Altai; after their junction the river as far as Lake Zaisan bears the name “Black Irtis̲h̲”; after leaving the lake it flows for about 180 miles through steppe country as the “White” or “Slow Irtis̲h̲”, then for 60 miles with a stronger current as the “Rapid Irtis̲h̲” through a hilly country. At the town of Ustkamenogorsk it enters the Great Siberian plain which sinks away towar…

Būḳā

(343 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(also written Būḳa), a Turkish chief of the tribe of G̲h̲uzz (Turkomans) is mentioned in Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ix. 267 et seb. and 343) and Baihaḳī (ed. Morley p. 71). Būḳā belonged to that section of this people which had separated from the rest of the tribe in Mā warāʾ al-Nahr in 420 — 1029 and crossed the border into Ḵh̲orāsān (see balk̲h̲ān above, p. 623). By command of Sulṭān Masʿūd who had taken them into his service, these G̲h̲uzz were attached to the army of Tās̲h̲-Farras̲h̲ who was sent against ʿAlā al-Dawla b. Kakuya (422 s= 1031, cf. dus̲h̲manziyār); Tās̲h̲ had more than 50 of their lea…

Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī-Girāi

(220 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the founder of an independent Tatar kingdom in the Crimea. Of his origin we only know that his grandfather Tās̲h̲-Timūr, a prince of the Golden Horde, ruled in the Crimea for a short period (his coins are dated 797 = 1394-1395) towards the end of the viiith = xivth century. According to native tradition Tāsh-Timūr had entrusted the education of his son G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn to a member of the tribe of Girāi, Dawlat-Geldī Dawlat-Geldī afterwards went on a pilgrimage to Mecca; on his return a son was born to his former pupil, and therefore receiv…

Aimāḳ

(83 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
is an East-Turkish and Mongolic word, almost synonymous with the more usual Īl of Turkish dialects. The original sense of both words is “tribe”, but they are also used to denote larger tribal unions as political unities. Northern Mongolia (Ḵh̲alk̲h̲ā) is divided into four aimāḳ on the basis of the four k̲h̲āns (Tus̲h̲etu-k̲h̲ān, Tsetzen-Ḵh̲ān, Sain-Noyon and Tzasaktu-Ḵh̲an). In Afg̲h̲ānistan four nomadic tribes (Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īdī, Hazāra, Fērōzkōhī and Taimanī) are called by the comprehensive appellation of Čār (Čahār) Aimāḳ (four aimāḳ). (W. Barthold)

K̲h̲alk̲h̲a

(406 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of a lake and of a river flowing from it into the Buyir-Nor on the frontier between Manchuria and Mongolia. The river Ḵh̲alk̲h̲a is mentioned in the xiiith century in the “Secret History of the Mongols” (Russian translation by Palladius in Trudi̊ Ross, Duk̲h̲ovnoi Missii v Pekinie, iv., St. Petersburg 1866, p. 90, 91, 102 and 118 (the edition of the text promised by Pelliot has not yet appeared); in Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Berezin, in Trudi̊ Vost. Otd. Russkago Ark̲h̲. Obs̲h̲č., xiii., St. Petersburg 1868, Pers. text, p. 216, vol. xv., ibid. 1889, Pers. text, p. 3 sq.: Ṛalā. Since the xvit…

Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān

(2,290 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, frequently written Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, in the spoken language also sometimes called Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānāt, (with Arabic plural ending) a mountainous land on the upper course of the Amū-Daryā or more correctly of the Pand̲j̲, on the left bank of this stream which is the source of the great river; from it comes the adjective Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānī or Badak̲h̲shī. J. Marquart ( Ērāns̲h̲ahr, p. 279) explains the name as “land of Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲sh or Balak̲h̲s̲h̲, a kind of ruby which is said to be found only in Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ān at Kokča”. It is very probable however tha…

Kāt̲h̲

(563 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the ancient capital of Ḵh̲wārizm, the modern Ḵh̲īva; according to Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 222, the name meant a wall ( ḥāʾiṭ) in the desert in the language of the Ḵh̲wārizmīs, even if there were no buildings within this. The fullest accounts of the old town and citadel of Fīl or Fīr, which was gradually washed away by the Āmū-Daryā (the last traces of it are said to have disappeared in 384 = 994), are given in al-Bīrūnī’s [q.v.] Kitāb al-Āt̲h̲ār al-Bāḳiya, p. 35, on which E. Sachau based his Zur Geschichte una Chronologie von Ḵh̲wārizm ( Sitzungsber. der phil. hist. Cl. d. K.K…

Tatar

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, written Tātār, Tatār and Tatar, the name of a people the significance of which varies in different periods. Two Tatar groups of tribes, the “thirty Tatars” and the “nine Tatars”, are mentioned in the Turkish Ork̲h̲on inscriptions of the eighth century a. d. As Thomsen ( Inscriptionsde l’Orkhon, Helsingfors 1896,” p. 140) supposes, even at this date the name was applied to the Mongols or a section of them but not to a Turkish people; according to Thomsen, these Tatars lived southwest of Baikal roughly as far as Kerulen. With the foundation of the empire of the Kitai [see ḳara k̲h̲itai] the Tu…

Kalmucks

(1,140 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the Turkish name for a Mongol people who call themselves Oirat. In Radloff’s Wörterbuch (ii. 272), the forms Ḳalmaḳ (Central Asian dialects), Ḳalmiḳ (Volga dialects; whence the Russian word) and Ḳalmuḳ (Ottoman; whence the Crimean Tatar expression ḳalmuḳ-i bad-mak̲h̲lūḳ) are given. In Central Asia the Turkish speaking Teleuts are called “White Kalmücks” (Aḳ Ḳalmaḳ) and the Western Mongols proper “Black Kalmücks” (Ḳara Ḳalmaḳ). The word is derived (probably only by a popular etymology) from the verb ḳalmaḳ “to remain”; it is said to denote the Oirat, who “remained” paga…

ʿAbd Allāh

(843 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Iskandar, a S̲h̲aibānide, the greatest prince of this dynasty, born in 940 (1533-1534; the dragon year 1532-1333 is probably more accurately given as the year of the cycle) at Āfarīnkent in Miyānkāl (an island between the two arms of the Zarafs̲h̲ān). The father (Iskandar Ḵh̲ān), grandfather (Ḏj̲ānī Beg) and great-grandfather (Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Muḥammed, son of Abu ’l-Ḵh̲air [s. d.]) of this ruler of genius are all described as very ordinary, almost stupid men. Ḏj̲ānī Beg (d. 935 = 1528-1529) had at the distribution of 918 (1512-1513) received Karmī…

Kučum K̲h̲ān

(539 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Tatar Ḵh̲ān of Siberia, in whose reign this country was conquered by the Russians. Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī (ed. Desmaisons, p 177). is the only authority to give information regarding his origin and his genealogical relation to the other descendants of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān. According to this source, he reigned for forty years in “Turan”, lost his eyesight towards the end of his life, was driven from his kingdom by the Russians in 1003 (1594/1595), took refuge with the Mang̲h̲i̊t (Nogai) and died among them. …

Atsiz

(478 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Muhammad b. Anūs̲h̲tegīn, prince of Ḵh̲wārizm (Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh) succeeded his father in this position in 521 or 522 (1127-1128) as vassal of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ Sultan Sand̲j̲ar. He, first of all, consolidated his power by the conquest of Ḏj̲and and Manḳas̲h̲lāg̲h̲ (more correctly the Turkish Miñ-Ḳis̲h̲laḳ, “the thousand winter dwellings” on the Caspian Sea) and by a campaign into the interior of Turkistān; soon afterwards he declared himself independent but was defeated by Sand̲j̲ar at Hazarāsp in 53…

Ismāʿīl

(108 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Nūḥ, Abū Ibrāhīm al-Muntaṣir, a Sāmānid, after the fall of his dynasty in 389 (999) was carried a prisoner to Ūzgend in Farg̲h̲āna; he succeeded in escaping from there in disguise and for several years contested the rule of Mā warāʾ al-Nahr with the Turkish conquerors. After his last defeat, he fled with only eight followers across the Oxus and was murdered in Rabīʿ I or Rabīʿ II 395 (16 Dec. 1004 — 12 Febr. 1005) by the leader of an Arab tribe at Merv. Cf. the collection of the original sources in W. Barthold, Turkestan v epok̲h̲u mongol’skago nas̲h̲estviya, ii. 282 sq. (W. Barthold)

Čag̲h̲atāi-K̲h̲ān

(3,487 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Mongol prince, second son of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān and his queen Bürta-Fūd̲j̲īn. Even in his father’s lifetime he was regarded as having the best knowledge of the Yāsā (the tribal laws of the Mongols which had ¶ been codified by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān) and being the greatest authority on all questions of law and custom. Like his brothers, he took part in his father’s campaigns against China (1211—1216) and against the kingdom of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh (1219—1224). The capital of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh, Gurgānd̲j̲ (the modern Kunya-Urgenč) was besieg…

Ḳarategin

(1,131 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district on the Wak̲h̲s̲h̲ or Surk̲h̲āb (Turk. Ḳizil Ṣū), one of the rivers which form the Āmū Daryā, called Rās̲h̲t by the Arab geographers [cf. i. 339]. The principal place (or “the fortress”, al-Ḳalʿa, al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, p. 340) of Rās̲h̲t corresponded as regards its situation perfectly with the modern Garm, the only town in Ḳarategin. Rās̲h̲t then formed one of the frontier lands of Islām and was defended on the east against the inroads of the Turks by a wall built by Faḍl b. Barmak [on him cf. i. 665, ii. 37]. In ancient tim…

Bābā Beg

(627 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, an Uzbeg chief of the family of the Keneges, was till 1870 prince of S̲h̲ahrisabz and had taken part, in the summer of 1868, in the siege of the citadel of Samarḳand then held by the Russians. In the summer of 1870 S̲h̲ahrisabz was conquered by the Russians under General Abromow. Bābā Beg had to flee with a small body of those faithful to him, first to the upper valley of the Zarafs̲h̲ān then to Farg̲h̲āna where he was seized by order of Ḵh̲ān Ḵh̲udāyār and handed over to the Russians. An annu…

Ḳaraḳum

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish “black sand”), a desert in Russian Turkestān, between the Amū Daryā, the Ust Urt and the ranges of hills on the Caspian, contrasted with Ḳi̊zi̊l-Ḳum (“red sand”), ¶ the desert between the Sir Daryā and the Amū Daryā. The Ḳarāḳum (area 148,000 sq. miles) is a still more dreary waste and possesses even fewer fertile areas than the Ḳi̊zi̊l-ḳum. The sandy stretches north of the Sir as far as Lake Čalkar are called “little Ḳarāḳum”; cf. Franz Mahatschek, Landeskunde von Russisch-Turkestān, Stuttgart 1921, p. 15 sq., 285 and Index. The Ḳarāḳum mentioned by Ḏj̲uwamī in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲…

Kirgiz

(2,262 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish people, mentioned as early as the oldest Chinese accounts of Central Asia (from the second century a. d.) under the name Kien-Kuen, which according to P. Pelliot ( J.A., Ser. 11, xv. 137) goes back to a Mongol word, singular ḳirḳun. The lands of the Kirgiz are not exactly defined in these sources; according to a not very reliable source the land of the Kien-Kuen lay north-west of the land of the K’ang-Kiu, i. e. of Sogdiana. The name Ḳi̊rg̲h̲i̊z first appears in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions of the eighth century; at that time th…

Ibn Faḍlān

(277 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Aḥmad b. Faḍlān b. al-ʿAbbās b. Rās̲h̲id b. Ḥammād, Arab author, composer of an account ( risāla) of the embassy sent by the Caliph al-Muḳtadir to the king of the Volga Bulg̲h̲ārs [cf. bulg̲h̲ār, i. 786 sqq.]. As he was a client ( mawlā) of the Caliph and of the conqueror of Egypt Muḥammad b. Sulaimān [see Cairo, i. 818a] he was certainly not of Arab origin. He seems to have taken part in the embassy as a theologian and authority on religious matters. The real ambassador appointed by the government was Sūsan al-Rassī, a client of Nud̲h̲air al-Ḥ…

Ḳas̲h̲ḳāi

(539 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish people in Persia. The name is said to be the Turkish ḳas̲h̲ḳā “horse with a white spot on its forehead” (W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörter buches der türk. Dialecte, ii. 395). The Ḳas̲h̲ḳāi are said to be descended from the Turkish Ḵh̲alad̲j̲ (cf. also B. G. A., i. 158: Ḵh̲ald̲j̲) mentioned by al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī ( B. G. A., vol. i.) and later writers in the country between India and Slstān. The Ḵh̲alad̲j̲ are said to have migrated first to the Persian ʿIrāḳ where a district near Sāwa is still called Ḵh̲alad̲j̲istān; there is still said to be a Turkish speaking people there ¶ (private informa…

K̲h̲azar

(2,581 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a people of uncertain origin; on their relation to the Bulg̲h̲ār and the rise of the Ḵh̲azar state see above, i. 786, where also the alliance between the Ḵh̲azar and the Byzantines in the war against Persia in 627 is dealt with. In spite of the successful issue of the war for the Byzantines it is not recorded that their empire was increased at the expense of Persia; but the Caucasian lands taken at this time by the Ḵh̲azars were not reconquered by the Persians and the Ḵh̲azars were only depriv…

G̲h̲ud̲j̲duwān

(196 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a large “village likea town” (according to the Ras̲h̲aḥāt ʿAin al-Ḥayāt of ʿAli b. Ḥusain al-Kās̲h̲ifī, MS. of the University of St. Petersburg, Or. 293, f. 12a) six farsak̲h̲ from Buk̲h̲ārā, the birthplace of the saint ʿAbd al-Ḵh̲āliḳ G̲h̲ud̲j̲duwānī (vith = xiith century) is mentioned at quite an early date by Nars̲h̲ak̲h̲ī (ed. Schefer, p. 66 at the foot) in his account of Muḳannaʿ (second = viiith century) and probably dates from the pre-Muslim period. In the vith = xiith century there was a much frequented weekly market there (cf. the text of Samʿānī in Barthold, Turkestan v epok̲h̲u…

Aḥmed

(233 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
b. Sahl b. Hās̲h̲im, of the aristocratic Dihḳān family Kāmkāriyān (who had settled near Merw), which boasted of Sāsānian descent, ¶ governor of Ḵh̲orāsān. In order to avenge the death of his brother, fallen in a fight between Persians and Arabs (in Merw), he had under ʿAmr b. al-Lait̲h̲) stirred up a rising of the people. He was taken prisoner and brought to Sīstān, whence he escaped by means of an adventurous flight, and after a new attempt of a rising in Merw he fled for refuge to the Sāmānide Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmed in…

S̲h̲īrwāns̲h̲āh

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a title of the rulers of S̲h̲īrwān, probably dating from the pre-Muḥammadan period (Baladitnrf, p. 196 infra). In the history of the conquest this ruler is called simply king ( malik) or lord ( ṣāḥib) of S̲h̲īrwān (ibid., 204 and 209). Yazīd b. Usaid al-Sulamī, governor of Armenia under the Caliph Manṣūr, took possession of the naphtha-wells ( naffāṭa) and saltworks of S̲h̲īrwān ( mallāḥāt); the eastern part of the land was therefore at that date of greater importance than the western (cf. what is said above on S̲h̲āberān as the capital of S̲h̲īrwān). The t…

Bātū-K̲h̲ān

(2,184 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Mongol prince, the conqueror of Russia and founder of the “Golden Horde” (1227—1255), born in the early years of the xiiith century, the second son of the chief Ḏj̲ūčī. Čingiz Ḵh̲ān had, while still alive, granted separate portions of his vast empire to his three elder sons, Ḏj̲ūčī, Čag̲h̲atai and Ügedei; the youngest son, Tului did not receive his share till the death of his father when he received the eastern part of Mongolia, the latter’s ancestral country. According to the provisions of Mongol tribal law (sti…

K̲h̲alīl Sulṭān

(596 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a ruler of the Tīmūrid dynasty, grandson of Tīmūr, son of Mīrān-s̲h̲āh and Suyūn-beg Ḵh̲ānzāda, grand-daughter of the Ḵh̲ān of the Golden Horde, Özbeg; born in 786 ¶ (1384), died Wednesday, Rad̲j̲ab 16, 814 (Nov. 4, 1411), reigned in Samarḳand 807—812 (1405—1409). His education was entrusted to Tīmūr’s eldest wife, Sarāi Mulk Ḵh̲ānum. He is said to have distinguished himself on Tīmūr’s India campaign (1399) when only 15 years of age; he also took part in the so-called “Seven Years” (actually only 802—807=1399—1404) war i…

Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar

(980 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town in Chinese Turkestān, called Su-le in the oldest Chinese sources; the same name is still used in Chinese official documents. The name Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar first appears in Chinese transcription (K’iu-cha) in the T’ang-s̲h̲u; cf. E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux,St. Petersburg 1903, p. 121 sq. On the pre-Muḥammadan Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar and the ruins of Buddhist buildings in the vicinity see A. Stein, Ancient Khotan, Oxford 1907, i. 52 sq.; do., Serindia, Oxford 1921, p. 80 sq. Arab armies did not reach Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar; the story of Ḳutaiba’s campaign in 9…

K̲h̲wārizm-s̲h̲āh

(1,217 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the title of the ruler of Ḵh̲wārizm [q. v.] found already in existence at the Arab conquest (cf. e. g. al-Ṭabarī, ii. 1237 sq.). The same title was borne in the Muslim period by the majority of the kings and governors of this country, although the founder of the last dynasty, Iltüzar Ḵh̲ān (1804—1806), was content to describe himself on his coins (which were never issued) as “heir of the Ḵh̲wārizm-s̲h̲āhs” ( wārit̲h̲-i Ḵh̲wārizm-s̲h̲āhān (ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Buk̲h̲ārī, ed. Schefer, p. 80). This is probably the only case in Central Asia of a title retaining its signific…

Tekuder

(214 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(the name is also written Tagudar and Teguder in learned works), as a Muslim called Aḥmad (e. g. on his coins with inscriptions in the Mongol alphabet and language), a Mongol ruler (Īlk̲h̲ān, q.v.) of Persia, 681—683 = 1282—1284. On his brother and predecessor see abāḳā, on his fall and successor see arg̲h̲ūn. Tekuder is said to have been baptised in his youth with the name Nicolas ( Moshemii Historia Tartarorum Ecclesiastica, Helmstedt 1741, p. 71). Immediately after his accession, his conversion to Islām was announced. According to some sources he turned churches…

Bard̲h̲aʿa

(554 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Armenian Partav, once the largest town in the Caucasus, now a village and ruined site on the Terter, about 14 miles from the confluence of this river and the Kura. A strong fortress was built there under the Sāsānian Kawād̲h̲ I (488—531 A. D.) and Partav (Bard̲h̲aʿa) gradually outstripped the ancient capital of the land of Albania (Arrān), Kawalak (Aral). Ḳabala). In 628 the inhabitants of Partav had to flee before the Ḵh̲azars but returned to their town on the withdrawal of their enemies. Captur…

Gardīzī

(474 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, a Persian historian. Nothing is known of his life. As his nisba shows he was born in Gardīz (usually written Kardīz in Arabic, e. g. Yāḳūt, iv. 258, but sometimes also Ḏj̲ardīz as throughout al-ʿUtbī’s Taʾrīk̲h̲ Yamīnī which confirms the spelling with g), a day’s journey from G̲h̲azna on the road to India (Muḳaddasī, ed. de Goeje, p. 349). His work ( Zain al-Ak̲h̲bār) was written in the reign of ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd the G̲h̲aznawid (440—444 = 1049—105 3). It contains a history of the kings of Persia, of Muḥammad and the C…

Burhān

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a family ( āl) in Buk̲h̲ārā, in which, in the vith (xiith) century the office of raʾīs (superior, at this time the word had not yet acquired its present meaning of muḥtasib) of the Ḥanafīs of that city descended from father to son; the title ṣadr d̲j̲ihān (plur. ṣudūr) is applied not only to the head of the family but to all the other members also. Some poets compare these “Imāms” with the “Emīrs” of the Sāmānid dynasty and rank the “wearers of the turban” ( ahl al-ʿamāʾim) higher than the “wearers of the crown” ( arbāb tīd̲j̲ān). The title ṣadr-d̲j̲ihān was also borne, at a later period unde…

K̲h̲oḳand

(2,307 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Arab. Ḵh̲uwāḳand, later written Ḵh̲uḳand (which is given a popular etymology, k̲h̲ūḳ + kand = town of the boar), a town in Farg̲h̲āna, cf. above, ii., p. 64, 66 where see also for the other spellings and the foundation of an independent Özbeg kingdom with Ḵh̲oḳand as capital in the twelfth (eighteenth) century. The accession of the first ruler S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ was followed by the building of a citadel; another citadel later called Eski Urda was built by his son, ʿAbd al-Karīm (d. 1746). ʿAbd al-Karīm and his nep…

Ḳarluḳ

(746 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(ḳarlug̲h̲), in early Arabic sources Ḵh̲arluk̲h̲, in Persian Ḵh̲alluk̲h̲, in Chinese Ko-lo-lu, name of a Turkish people, who are mentioned in the Turkish Ork̲h̲on inscriptions and in the Chinese T’ang S̲h̲u; cf. E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Tou-kiue ( Turcs) occidentaux, St. Petersburg 1903, Index. The Ḳarluḳ attained some political importance after 766, when, after the decline of the empire of the Western Turkish Ḵh̲āḳāns, they occupied the valley of the Ču [q.v.]. Their princes did not assume the title of Ḵh̲āḳān (Ḳag̲h̲an) but o…

Gand̲j̲a

(1,114 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Arab. Ḏj̲anza, Russian Jelisawetpol since 1804, (the old name alone is still used by the native population), a town in the Caucasus. The town was first founded under Arab rule, according to the Armenian Moses Kalankatuači (transl. by Patkanian, p. 270; cf. J. Marquart, Osteuropäische und ostasiatische Streifzüge, p. 462) about 845, according to Ḥamd Allāh Ḳazwīnī (in Schefer, Siasset Namèh, supplément, p. 227) in the year 39 (probably for 239 = 853-854). It is not mentioned by the oldest Arab geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih and Yaʿḳūbī; it seems to …

Baidar

(45 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Tatar village on the Crimean peninsula, 18 miles south east of Sebastopol (district of Taurus, province of Yalta), the chief town 01 the Baidar valley (Baidarskaya dolina), famed for its beauty and fertility and often celebrated by Russian poets. (W. Barthold)

Mazār-i S̲h̲arīf

(332 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town in Afg̲h̲ānistān, south of the Āmū-Daryā [q. v.]. In the middle ages it was the site of the village of Ḵh̲air, later called Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Ḵh̲airān, 14 miles east of Balk̲h̲. On two different occasions, in the vith (xiith) century after 530 (1135—1136) in the time of Sulṭān Sand̲j̲ar [q. v.], and in 885 (1480-1481) in the reign of the Tīmūrid Sulṭān Ḥusain, the tomb of the caliph ʿAlī was “discovered” here and its genuineness declared to have been proved. A place of pilgrimage ( mazār) at once arose around the tomb with a considerable market; the second ¶ tomb which is still standing (the …

Islām Girāy

(332 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of three Ḵh̲āns of the Crimea. 1. Islām Girāy I b. Muḥammad Girāy, brother of G̲h̲āzī Girāy I (q. v., ii. 151a). During the troubled period that followed the death of his father, he succeeded, as his brothers had done before him, in occupying the throne for a short time (a few years till 939 = 1523), but he was not recognised by the Sulṭān. After the appointment of his uncle Ṣāḥib Girāy, he rebelled against the Sulṭān and was murdered in 944 (1537). 2. Islām Girāy II b. Dewlet Girāy, brother and predecessor of G̲h̲āzī Girāy II (q. v., ii. 151a), 992—996 = 1584—1588. In contrast to his s…

Aḳ Kermān

(97 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(usually written Akkerman, Akjerman) is the capital of a district in the Government of Bessarabia. The name signifies “white castle”. In the Middle Ages the place was called Mon Castro, in Polish and Russian authorities Byelgorod (“white city”). It was first in the possession of the Venetians, afterwards of the Genoese. In 1484 it was captured by the Turks. The cossacks took it several times after that, and in 1595 it was destroyed by German troops. By the peace of Bucarest Akkerman along with the rest of Bessarabia was yielded to Russia. (W. Barthold).

Ḳubilai

(345 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(usually written Ḳūbīlāi but also “Ḳublāi”), Mongol emperor (1260—1294), brother and successor of Ḵh̲ān Möngke. He was probably born in 1214; when Čingiz Ḵh̲ān returned in 1225 to Mongolia from his campaign in Western Asia, Ḳubilai, who was then eleven years old, had just gained his first trophy of the chase; after the Mongol fashion, Čingiz Ḵh̲ān himself smeared his thumb wilh flesh and fat (Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Berezin, Trudi̊ Vost. Otd. Ark̲h̲. Obs̲h̲č., xv. 141, text). In the reign of his brother he was governor of China from 1251 and devoted himself to the conqu…

Ḏj̲uwainī

(2,497 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, ʿAlā al-Dīn ʿAṭā Malik b. Muḥammed, a Persian governor and historian, author of the Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ihān-Kus̲h̲āi; it is from this work that almost all our knowledge of the author (to 654 = 1256) and his ancestors is derived. The family belonged to the village of Āzādwār in the district of Ḏj̲uwain [q. v., N°. 2], ¶ in the western part of Ḵh̲orāsān (it is mentioned as early as the ivth (xth) century and was a day’s journey north of the town of Bahmanabād which still exists under this name, cf. Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, ed. de Goeje, p. 284); according to Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā ( at-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Ahlwardt, p. 209) ʿA…

Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusain

(468 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, founder of the Ṭāhirid dynasty [q. v.] in Ḵh̲orāsān [q. v.], born in 159 (775—776), died in Ḏj̲umādā I (Ṭabarī, iii. 1065, 13) or Ḏj̲umādā II (Ibn Ḵh̲allikān) 207 (822). Ṭāhir belonged to a family of Persian descent and also to the Arab tribe of Ḵh̲uzāʿa [q. v.]. His ancestor Razīḳ was a client of the governor of Sīstān, Abū Muḥammad Ṭalḥa b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī; Razīḳ’s son Muṣʿab took part in the fighting against the Umaiyads under Abū Muslim as secretary ( kātib) to the general Sulaimān b. Kat̲h̲īr al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī. The town of Būshand̲j̲ [q.v.] in the district of Herāt [q. …

Tali̊s̲h̲

(432 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a district and people in the north of the Persian province of Gīlān [q. v.], which since the peace of Gulistān (12/24th Oct. 1813) has belonged to Russia. The name according to Marquart, Osteuropäische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge, Leipzig 1903, p. 278 sq., is first found in the form T’alis̲h̲ in the Armenian translation of the romance of Alexander, Ch. 194 = ii. 19, p. 76 (ed. C. Müller). In the history of the Arab conquest (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 327; al-Ṭabarī, i. 2805) the country is called al-Ṭailasān; according to al-Aṣma…

Turfan

(1,233 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, usually written Ṭurfān, locally pronounced Turfan, a town in Chinese Turkistān. The oasis, fertile although suffering from a scarcity of water, between the depression of Lukčun, which lies below the sea-level, and the ranges of the Thian-s̲h̲an, has been of importance from ancient times not only for trade between China and the west but also politically; the settlements mentioned in ancient times and the early middle ages were however not on the site of the modern Turfan but west and east of it. In the second century b. c. the principality of Kü-s̲h̲i was here; in the year 60 b. c. it was dest…

Buk̲h̲ārā

(7,919 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a city in Turkestān, on the lower course of the Zarafs̲h̲ān. We have only the scantiest notices of the history of the city in pre-Muḥammadan times. There can be little doubt, however, that the Iranians had settlements and even towns on the Zarafs̲h̲ān at a very early period; even in the time of Alexander the Great of Macedon there was another town in Sogdiana besides Matakanda (Samarḳand) on the lower course of the river; but whether this town corresponded to the modern Buk̲h̲ārā may be questi…

Farg̲h̲āna

(5,569 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Russ. Ferganskaya oblast, a territory in Russian Turkestan, in the valley of the Sir-Daryā. The name strictly is only applicable to the valley itself, bounded in the north by the Čotkal range, in the east by the mountains of Farg̲h̲āna, in the south by the Alai range; in the west the boundary is less sharply defined by the approach of the mountain chains to the river bank, which causes the river to alter its course, which in Farg̲h̲āna is predominantly southwesterly, first to a western then to a northwestern ¶ direction. Between the mountains and the stream there is here, particular…

Ḳaraḳorum

(535 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town in Mongolia on the Ork̲h̲on, in the thirteenth century for a short time (about 1230—1260) the capital of the Mongol Emperors, now in ruins. The fullest accounts of the town are given among European travellers by Rubruk (Latin edition in Recueil de Voyages et de Mémoires, 1839, iv. 345 sq.; transl. by W. W. Rockhill, Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, especially p. 220 with the translator’s notes) and among Muslim historians by Ḏj̲uwainī [q. v.], Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ihān Gus̲h̲āi, ed. Mīrzā Muḥammad Ḳazwīnī, especially i. 169 sq. and 192. The fullest account of the ruins (by the memb…

Baranta

(330 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
A Central Asian Turkī word of uncertain etymology (it does not seem to appear in other dialects), which is applied to the predatory raids of Turkish nomads. The importance of this peculiar feature of nomad life as well as the conditions of warfare ( Ḏj̲au) necessitated thereby has been most fully described by W. Radloff ( Aus Sibirien, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1893, i. 509 et seq. and Kudatku Bilik, Part i., St. Petersburg, 1891, p. LII et seq.). As long as there was no strong governing authority in the steppes, as long as the force of legal decisions depended only on the perso…

Bai

(127 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish word, properly an ad̲j̲ective meaning “rich” (in this sense it appears in the earliest monuments of the Turkish language, the inscriptions of Orchon); as a substantive it means also “landlord, householder”. In Central Asia the word “Bai” is frequently appended to proper names, whereby the bearers of these names are shown to be prosperous, independent people in contrast to the masses. The oldest text, in which the word “Bai” appears with this meaning is the story of Mahmud Bai, Vizier of the prince (Gūṛk̲h̲ān) of the Ḳara Ḵh̲iṭāi in the Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ihān Kus̲h̲āi of Ḏj̲uwainī…

Abū Muslim

(808 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muslim (so also on his coins, but according to other statements he assumed this name much later), general, and powerful chief, leader of the religious and political mouvement in Ḵh̲orāsān, through which the Umaiyads were over-thrown and the ʿAbbāsides attained the throne. Abū Muslim was of Persian origin, probably a native of Iṣpahān (his native place is variously given in different sources), and in Kūfa he had attached himself to the ʿAbbāside Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammed. ¶ In the year 128 (745-746), being then according to Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornb., …

Ṭok̲h̲āristān

(785 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Tok̲h̲āristān and Ṭok̲h̲airistān, a district on the upper course of the Āmū-Daryā [q.v.]. It is the name of a district formed from that of its inhabitants (like Afg̲h̲ānistān, Balōčistān etc.), but the question of the nationality and language of the Tok̲h̲ārians was of no significance in the Muslim period. With the exception perhaps of the mention of Balk̲h̲ as Madīnat Ṭok̲h̲ārā in Balād̲h̲urī, p. 408 there is nothing to show that anything was known in the Muslim period of the Tok̲h̲ārians as a people, although as late as 630 a. d. the Chinese pilgrim Hüan-Čuang (or Yüan-…

Basd̲j̲irt

(894 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, also written Bas̲h̲d̲j̲ird, Bas̲h̲g̲h̲irt, Bās̲h̲g̲h̲ird and Bas̲h̲ḳird (or Bās̲h̲ḳurd), the Arabic name for the Bās̲h̲ḳirs and Magyars. The Bās̲h̲ḳirs whose territory corresponds roughly to the modern districts of Ufa and Orenburg are first briefly mentioned by Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (ed. de Goeje, p. 225 and 227) and a more detailed account of ¶ them is given by Ibn Faḍlān (Yāḳūt, i. 468 et seq.). The land of the Bās̲h̲ḳirs was then, as it still is in part, covered with forest and their numbers very small (according to Iṣṭak̲h̲rī only 2000 men). They were subject …

Issik-Kul

(1,485 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Turkish “warm lake”), the most important mountain lake in Turkistan and one of the largest in the world, situated in 42° 30′ N. Lat. and between 76° 15′ and 78° 30′ E. Long., 5116 feet above sea level; the length of the lake is about 115 miles, the breadth up to 37 miles, the depth up to 1381 feet, and the area 2400 square miles. From the two chains of the Thian-S̲h̲an, the Kungei-Alatau (in the north) and the Terskei-Alatau (in the south) about 80 large and small mountain streams pour into th…

Ānī

(2,288 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, an Armenian town, the ruins of which are found on the right bank of the Arpa-Cai (called by the Armenians Ak̲h̲uryan) at a distance of about 20 miles from the point where that river flows into the Araxes. The origin of the name is unknown, though the suggestion has been made that the town may owe its name to a temple of the Irānian goddess Anāhita (the Greek Anaϊtis). It is certain at any rate that the district was inhabited in the pre-christian period, pagan tombs having been found in the imm…

K̲h̲ansa

(221 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or k̲h̲insa — in Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Blochet, p. 489: Ḵh̲īnksāi; in Waṣṣāf: Ḵh̲inzāi; in the lithogr. edition (Bombay 1869), p. 21 sq.: Ḵh̲itrāi; in the Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb of Ḥamd Allāh al-Ḳazwīnī (ed. Le Strange, p. 10, 7, and 261, 10): Ḵh̲insāi; vocalised Ḵh̲ansā by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (ed. Defrémery and Sanguinetti, iv. 284 sqq.) and connected with the name of the celebrated poetess [see the art. al-k̲h̲ansāʾ] — a town in China, capital of the kingdom of the Sung dynasty overthrown by the Mongols, Chinese formerly King Sheu, now Hang-čóu-fu (cf. above, i. 845a). The town is frequently mentione…

Īs̲h̲ān

(233 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Persian pronoun 3rd pers. plur. The word is used in Turkestan in the meaning of s̲h̲aik̲h̲, murs̲h̲id, ustād̲h̲, pīr, teacher, guide [see derwīsh i. 950a], in contrast to murīd, adherent, pupil. When the term first appears has still to be investigated; it certainly existed in the middle ages; the celebrated Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Aḥrār (died 895 = 1490 in Samarḳand) is always called īs̲h̲ān in his biography. The rank of īs̲h̲ān is frequently transmitted from father to son. The īs̲h̲ān lives with his followers in a dervish monastery ( k̲h̲ānḳāh, in Central Asia pronounced k̲h̲ānaka), sometimes also…

As̲h̲ḳabad

(124 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly ʿIs̲h̲ḳâbād ( ʿAs̲h̲ḳ,Turk. form of the Arab.-Pers. ʿIs̲h̲ḳ, “love”), Russ. Ask̲h̲abad, capital of the Trans-Caspian region; 19, 428 inhabitants (1897); first became a township under the Russian regime; previous to 1881 was the most important Turkoman-Aul (500 tents) in the district of Ak̲h̲al-Tekke [q. v.]. The town possesses a museum (contains also ethnological exhibits of the Turkomans) and a public library (possesses also some Persian Mss.). Some 4-5 mls. to the West are the ruins of the t…

Bādg̲h̲īs

(302 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
or Bād̲h̲g̲h̲īs, a district in the north-western part of the modern Afg̲h̲ānistān; the name is explained as being derived from the Persian bādk̲h̲īz (“a place where wind rises”) on account of the strong winds prevailing there. By the geographers of the iv. (x.) century only the district in the north-west of Herat between this town and Sarak̲h̲s is called Bādg̲h̲īs. Later the name was extended to the whole country between the Herīrūd and the Murg̲h̲āb; at any rate it is used in this sense as early as the vii. (xiii.) …

Ḳuṭb al-Dīn

(284 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh, founder of a dynasty in Ḵh̲wārizm [q. v.]. His father Anūs̲h̲tagīn (or Nūs̲h̲tagīn) G̲h̲arča was in charge of the silver and crockery ( ṭas̲h̲t-k̲h̲āna) at the court of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs; the expenses of this branch of the court household were defrayed out of the tribute from Ḵh̲wārizm just as the expenses of administration of the clothing-depot ( d̲j̲āma-k̲h̲āna) were defrayed by the tribute from Ḵh̲ūzistān; Anūs̲h̲tagīn therefore, without actually governing Ḵh̲wārizm. held the title of a military governor ( s̲h̲ak̲h̲ne) of this country. He had his so…

Ti̇rmid̲h̲

(1,960 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town on the north bank of the Āmū Daryā [q. v.] near the mouth of the Surk̲h̲ān. As Samʿānī, who spent 12 days there, testifies, the name was pronounced Tarmīd̲h̲ in the town itself ( G. M. S., xx., fol. 105b) which is confirmed by the Chinese Ta-mi (e. g. Hiouen Thsang, Mémoires sur Its contrées occidentales, I, 25). Russian officers in 1889 also heard the pronunciation Termiz or Tarmi̊z ( Sbornik materialov po Azii, lvii. 393 and 399). The town is now officially known as Termez. Tirmid̲h̲ does not seem to have been touched by Alexander the Great and is not mentioned in antiqui…

Iskandar K̲h̲ān

(149 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
a S̲h̲aibānid, ruler of Mā-warāʾal-Nahr, 968—993(1561—1583). During his reign the authority was really exercised by his son ʿAbd Allāh [q. v. i. 25], who in S̲h̲aʿbān 968 (Apr. 17—May 15, 1561) had declared his uncle Pīr Muḥammad, prince of Balk̲h̲, deposed and had his father Iskandar proclaimed Ḵh̲ān of all the Uzbegs. Iskandar himself like his father and grandfather was a weak-minded man; according to Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī (ed. Desmaisons, p. 183), the Ḵh̲ān had only two good qualities: he observed with painful exactitude all prescribed ( farīḍa) and recommended ( nāfila) prayers and was …

Kumi̊s

(257 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Turkish word meaning “a drink of soured mare’s milk”, which has passed in this form into Russian and western European languages; it is explained in Radloff’s Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte, vol. ii., St. Petersburg 1899, p. 853 under ki̊mi̊s. The word is found as early as the Kudatku-bilik where it is mentioned in the first place among the products of cattle-breeding (kumi̊s, milk, hair, fat, curds and cheese [W. Radloff, Das Kudatku-Bilik, Pl,. ii, St. Petersburg 1910, p. 379]). Wherever’the Turkish horsemen went they carried kumi̊s with them. According to Kutubī, ʿUyū…

Kerč

(640 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(Kertch), a town and fortress on the Crimean peninsula; according to the census of 1897, it had 28,982 inhabitants. In ancient times it was the site of the Greek colony of Pantikapaion, later called Bosporus as the capital of the Bosporan kingdom, from the end of the seventh century the residence of the Ḵh̲azar governor (with the title Tudun) of the eastern part of the Crimea (the western with the capital Ḵh̲ersonesos still belonged to the Byzantine empire). The name Kerč first appears in Muslim…
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