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Provisions Are Running Out (RS 94.2383 + Rs 94.2619) (3.45MM)

(274 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between Non-Royal Correspondents (39) Provisions Are Running Out (RS 94.2383 + Rs 94.2619) (3.45MM) 1 Address and Greeting (lines 1–5) To ʾUrtēnu, my brother, say: Message of ʿUṯtaya, your sister. May the gods keep you well, may they guard you. The Problem ( lines 6–13) (It has been) three days now that there is no food in your house and for [… someone] struck and provisions CARRY (to) the house of the king. Twice now (someone) has taken …

Letter of Rib-Haddi of Byblos (Gubla) (EA 362) (3.92E)

(736 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary The most diligent — and most wearisome — of the Pharaoh’s vassal correspondents, Rib-Hadda (here Rib-Haddi) continues his litany of requests for action against the rising state of Amurru to the north, earlier under Abdi-Aširta, now under his sons, especially Aziru. The Pharaoh is Amenophis IV (Akhenaten). Letter of Rib-Haddi of Byblos (Gubla) ( EA 362) (3.92E) Subject: Gen 43:28; 1 Sam 24:9; Isa 60:14; Ezek 27:9; Exod 5:3; 9:15; Lev 26:25; Num 14:12; Deut 28:21; 2 Sam…

Two Servants to their Master (RS 29.093) (3.45HH)

(1,007 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between Non-Royal Correspondents (34) Two Servants to their Master (RS 29.093) (3.45HH) 1 Subject: 1 Sam 20:6; Neh 13:6; Neh 3:34; 1 Chr 11:8 Address (lines 1–5) To Yadurma, our master, say: Message of Pinḥaṯu and Yarmîhaddu, your servants.2 Greetings and Prostration Formula ( lines 5–10) May it be well with our master. May the gods guard you, may they keep you well. At the feet of our master twice seven times (from) afar we fall.3 The Problem with Binu-ʿAyāna ( lines…

The King of Tyre to the King of Ugarit in the Matter of Storm-Damaged Ships (RS 18.031) (3.45H)

(1,378 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Incoming Correspondence From Other Courts (8) The King of Tyre to the King of Ugarit in the Matter of Storm-Damaged Ships (RS 18.031) (3.45H) 1 Subject: 2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:15–25; 9:10–14, 26–27; 10:11, 22; 1 Kgs 18:45; Ezek 13:11, 13; Jon 1:4; Deut 22:9; Gen 12:5; Judg 1:31; 2 Sam 13:33; 19:20; 42:25 Address (lines 1–3) To the king of Ugarit, my brother, say: Message of the king of Tyre, your brother.2  r  Greetings ( lines 4–5) May it be well with you. May the gods guard…

Bequest of Apartment to Wife (3.73)

(2,058 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary Anani refurbished the house of ʾpwly which he had bought from the Caspians Bagazushta and Wbyl. Three years after purchase date, the requisite period according to Egyptian law for establishing right to abandoned property, he bestowed a room therein (measuring ×1/3 cubits = 81 square cubits, see note 1 below) upon his wife Tamet, perhaps on the occasion of the birth of their daughter Jehoishma (lines 2–12). The Investiture clause did no…

The King to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D)

(1,486 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Correspondence Between Members of the Royal Family (4) The King to the Queen-Mother1 In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124) (3.45D) 2 Subject: 1 Kgs 2:19; Ps 51:19; 147:3; 19:12; 1 Kgs 11:1–3; 1 Kgs 10:2, 10; 1 Sam 10:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kgs 1:39; 2 Kgs 9:1–3, 6; Pss 23:5; 133:2; Exod 20:5–6 Address (lines 1–3) [To the queen, my mother, say: Message of the] k[ing, your son.] Prostration and Greeting Formulae ( line 4–6) At my mother’s feet [I fall]. j With my mother 〈ma…

The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 12 (HKM 13) (3.24)

(201 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 12 ( HKM 13) (3.24) Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Kaššū: ( 3) Concerning the capitulation (?) of Maruwa, the ruler of the city of Ḫimmuwa, about which you wrote me: “I have dispatched him (to you).” On a tablet you wrote to me: “I have dispatched him (to you),” but as of now he has not come. Now put him in the charge of an officer, and have him conduct him quickly before My Majesty. ( 13) Otherwise, you will become responsible …

The King to Kaššū, Ḫulla and Zulapi In Tapikka (HKM 17) (3.28)

(530 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū, Ḫulla and Zulapi In Tapikka ( HKM 17) (3.28) 1 Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Ḫulla, Kaššū and Zilapi: ( 4) Concerning what you wrote me: “While we were in Ḫattuša, the Kaškaean men heard, and they drove away cattle, and kept the roads under their control.” ( 9) When I sent you and Ḫulla out (last) winter, (the enemies) didn’t hear you. But now, of all things, they did hear you? ( 13) Concerning what you yourselves have now w…

The Mibtahiah Archive (471–410 bce) (3.P141)

(513 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary In 1904, eleven Aramaic papyri were acquired from a dealer in Aswan by the British benefactors Lady William Cecil ( COS COSB.3.60, COSB.3.64, COSB.3.68, and half of COSB.3.63) and Mr. (later Sir) Robert Mond (COSB.3.61–62, COSB.3.65–67, and half of COSB.3.63) and by the Bodleian Library in Oxford (COSB.3.59). The Cecil-Mond papyri are housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and all were publis…

Loan of Grain (3.81)

(1,367 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary This is the only loan document for grain and we cannot tell for certain whether it was drawn up after Anani son of Haggai bought his in-laws’ apartment or before (COSB.3.80), since it lacked day date. In the middle of December, in the first month of the Egyptian year, Anani went to Syene to borrow from the Egyptian-named Aramean, Pakhnum son of Besa, 2 peras 3 seah of emmer (approximately …

Petition for Reconstruction of Temple (?) (draft) (3.50)

(2,320 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Aramaic Letters; The Jedaniah Archive From Elephantine Commentary This letter (Strasbourg Aram. 2 [ TAD A4.5]) was written not in a single vertical column, like the other letters, but in two parallel horizontal columns on the recto and a single vertical column on the verso. An estimated three lines are missing at the top and bottom of each column. Writing to an unknown official, the Jews protested their loyalty at the time of…

A Letter-order (3.132)

(373 words)

Author(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Letters Commentary Functional letters were chiefly of a simpler cast. Most often they were simply orders to furnish the bearer with specified materials out of the state stores on the authority of the letter-writer. Except for the fact that the payment was in kind rather than in cash (silver), they thus served much the same purpose as modern checks or bank-drafts. In the following unique case, the envelope enclosing the letter-…

Withdrawal from Goods (3.65)

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Egyptian Aramaic Commentary Mibtahiah (here called Miptahiah) and the Egyptian builder Peu engaged in litigation in Syene regarding silver, grain, clothing, vessels, and a document of wifehood. Mibtahiah won her claim through an oath by the Egyptian goddess Sati and Peu drew up this document of withdrawal, supporting his waiver of all future suit by a standard five karsh penalty. We may conjecture that the dispute in…

The King to Ḥayyaʾil Regarding an Allotment of Logs (RS 16.264) (3.45Q)

(1,601 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (17) The King to Ḥayyaʾil Regarding an Allotment of Logs (RS 16.264) (3.45Q) 1 Subject: Gen 6:14; Exod 25:5; 1 Kgs 5:20, 22, 24; 9:11; Ps 22:18 Address (lines 1–3) Message (that) the king spoke: To Ḥayyaʾil:2 Reference to a Previous Letter from Ḥayyaʾil ( lines 4–6) Why do you keep sending me (the following message): “How am I to furnish3 the timbers4  jj for the temple of Damal?”?5 The King’s Decision ( lines 7–21)6 I …

Letter From Ḫattušili III of Ḫatti to Kadašman-Enlil II of Babylon (3.31)

(999 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Later New Kingdom (Ḫattušili III TO Suppiluliuma II) (ca. 1250–1180 BCE) Letter From Ḫattušili III of Ḫatti to Kadašman-Enlil II of Babylon (3.31) Subject: 1 Kgs 9:13–14; 20:32; 2 Sam 10:1–2; 2 Sam 16:9–10; 21:8–14; Eccl 10:20; 1 Kgs 14:1–3 §1 Thus says Ḫattušili, Great King, King of Hatti: Say to Kadašman-Enlil, Great King, King of Babylonia, my brother: §2 It is well with me. It is also well with my household, my wife, my sons, my infantry, my horses, […], and with all that is in my land. §3 May i…

Puduḫepa, Queen of Hatti, to the King of Ugarit (RS 17.434+) (3.45J)

(1,511 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Incoming Correspondence From Other Courts (10) Puduḫepa, Queen of Hatti, to the King of Ugarit (RS 17.434+) (3.45J) 1 Subject: 2 Sam 8:6; 1 Kgs 5:1; Exod 25:4 Address (lines 1–2) [Messa]ge of Puduḫepa, [great] quee[n, que]en [of Hatti:] [To] Niqmaddu say: Report of Well-being ( lines 2–4) He[re with] the Su[n and] with the queen, everything [is well]; now the well-being of your land and [of] the house of the king […].2 First Matter: Tribute ( lines 5–13) Concerning the …

A Letter to Zalaia (3.93)

(381 words)

Author(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Kumidi Commentary While most of the diplomatic correspondence of the Amarna period was found at Amarna itself (see above COSB.3.92A-G), some of it has turned up in excavations in the Levant. The following letter is known in two versions found in Lebanon at Kamid-el-Loz, the ancient Kumidi. (For other texts from the same site, see Huehnergard 1996:98). Judging by its conclusion, its royal author was presumably the pharaoh. A Letter to Zalaia (3.93) Subject: Gen 15:2; Gen 14:13; Gen 10:6; Mal 1:11;…

A Report on Work on Dūr-Šarrukin (3.98)

(368 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Assyria A Report on Work on Dūr-Šarrukin (3.98) Subject: 2 Kgs 17:6 (beginning 3–4 lines lost) ( lines 1´ -10´) [Concerning what the king], my lo[rd] wrote to me: “provide the [Sam]arians,1  a [as many as] are [in] your [ha]nds (with work) in Dūr-Šarrukin,”2 I thereafter [sent (word) to] the sheikhs [say]ing: “gather [all] the carpenters and potters; let them come (and) [direc]t the deportees [who are in D]ūr-Šarrukin.” (But) they did not consent to send (them) to me. ( lines 11´ - r. 4a) […

Talmiyānu and ʾAḫātumilki Keep in Touch with an Unnamed Lady (RS 8.315) (3.45C)

(419 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Correspondence Between Members of the Royal Family (3) Talmiyānu and ʾAḫātumilki Keep in Touch with an Unnamed Lady (RS 8.315) (3.45C) 1 Address (lines 1–4) To my mother, our lady, say: Message of Talmiyānu and ʾAḫātumilki, your servants:2 Prostration and Greeting Formulae ( lines 5–9) At the feet of our lady (from) afar we fall. May the gods guard you, may they keep you well. Situation Report ( lines 10–14)3 Here with the two of us everything is very fin…

Letter of Tušratta, King of Mitanni (EA 17) (3.92D)

(762 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary In one of the earliest letters of the Amarna archive, the king of Mitanni tries to patch up relations with Egypt and renew an earlier alliance. Letter of Tušratta, King of Mitanni ( EA 17) (3.92D) Subject: Deut 6:5; Judg 5:31; 1 Sam 18:1, 3; 20:17; 2 Sam 19:7; 1 Kgs 5:15; Deut 1:27; Josh 6:2; 7:7, 24; 1 Kgs 22:6; 2 Kgs 18:30; 19:10; Exod 14:28; Deut 2:15; Josh 7:24 ( lines 1–10) Say to Nibmuareya,1 the king of Egypt, my brother: Thus Tušeratta,2 the king of Mitanni,3 your bro…
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