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Lipit-Eshtar (2.95)

(189 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Numerous clay cones found or excavated at Isin record the construction by Lipit-Eshtar (the fourth king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned ca. 1934–1924 bce) of a storehouse (ganīnum) for the gods Enlil and Ninlil. This text provides us with the earliest Akkadian translation of the Sumerian royal title lugal ki-en-gi ki-uri, Akkadian šar māt šumerim u akkadim, “king of the land of Sumer and Akkad.” Lipit-Es…

A Neo-Babylonian Lament for Tammuz (1.118)

(761 words)

Author(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Canonical Compositions; Divine Focus; Lamentations and Elegies Commentary This text, of Seleucid date, laments the destruction of the cities of Sumer and Akkad at the hand of the Gutians, a theme strangely out of place two millennia after their historic incursions. So it either represents a late version of a much earlier original or, more likely, a case of deliberate archaizing. A Neo-Babylonian Lament for Tammuz (1.118) Subject: Gen 10:10; Mic 5:4; Eccl 11:2 “Oh grieving women of Uruk, (a) oh grieving women of Akkad, a …

The Memphis and Karnak Stelae of Amenhotep II (2.3)

(3,336 words)

Author(s): Hoffmeier, James K.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Eighteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary Amenhotep II (1427–1400 bce) succeeded his father, Thutmose III, and continued his father’s military policy in Syria-Palestine. In so doing, Amenhotep assured that the empire he received would be successfully maintained by his successors. He conducted at least two military campaigns into the Levant which are reported on two nearly identical stelae, the one disco…

Slave Sale (3.133A)

(239 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Sale Transactions Commentary This text comes from Lagaš and dates to the Sargonic period (ca. 2250 BCE). Slave Sale (3.133A) Subject: Gen 10:10 (lines 1–6) Gala, Geme-LIŠ (and) her two daughters — they are his wife and children (i.e., of Gala); Lu-TAR (and) Šadu — they are his brothers. (lines 7–10) Lugal-ušumgal, the governor of Lagaš, bought them from Šu-ilišu, the judge. (lines 11–16) Puzur-Adad, son of Dudu, brother of Šu-ilišu, brought them from Akkade a (and) made them “cr…

The Birth Legend of Sargon of Akkad (1.133)

(597 words)

Author(s): Foster, Benjamin R.
Subject: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Canonical Compositions; Royal Focus; Epic Commentary Sargon of Akkad erected the first world empire on Asiatic soil around 2300 bce, and his exploits almost immediately became the stuff of legend. His (throne) name, in Akkadian šarru-kēn(u), means “the king is legitimate,” “the legitimate king,” and served to make up for his usurpation of the claims of the ancient dynasty of Kish. The name was assumed again by an early king of Assyria (Sargon I, 20th century bce) and by the more famous Sargon II (8th century bce). “Sargo…