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The Purchase of Beer (AT 33) (3.99A)

(445 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Alalakh Commentary Found in 18th century bce…

A Debt Note (3.116)

(675 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Neo-assyrian Contracts Commentary This second tablet from Tel Hadid is dated by eponym to 664 bce. It was discovered in situ in rescue excavations in 1997 on a plaster floor of the central unit of a three-room late Iron II building (Brand 1998). The tablet …

Land Donation by the King (3.108)

(176 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Land Donation by the King (3.108) From the present day on, Niqmaddu,1 son of Ammistamru, king of Ugarit2 has taken the house of Yatarmu, son of Sharupshu, and the fields of Ṣariru with all that they have, and has given them to Bin-ilu, Yaṣiru, and Abi-irshi,3 and their sons forever. In future n…

A Loan of Silver to Ur-ga (3.136B)

(191 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Loan Transactions Commentary This tablet and its envelope originate from Nippur and da…

Land Sale (3.106)

(260 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Land Sale (3.106) Subject: Gen 41:43 From the present day on, before witnesses, Iliya, son of Siniya, and Padiya, his brother, and his sons sold 4 ( ikû)1 which are among the fields of Ṣaʾu2 for 180 (shekels) of silver3 to Sharelli,4 the queen. (These) 4 ( ikû) fields are bound like the sunny day5 to Sharelli, the queen,6 forever. Witness: Shipiṭ-Baʾal.7 Witness: Shubammu. Witness: Abdi-Milki,8 son of Yakunu. Witness: Anantenu, son of Bin…

A Lease of Land (3.137A)

(189 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Rental and Hire Transactions Commentary The text originates from Nippur and dates to the Ur III period (7th year of Šu-Sin, 3rd month, ca. 2031 BCE). A Lease of Land (3.137A) (lines 1–10) Madake, Ur-gagi’a, Katar, (and) Lu-melam leased out1 6 iku of land, (located in) the field Dalbana,2 to Ur-Sin, son of A-kala, for 3 years, (in exchange) for 1/3 (of its produce). (line 11) They (i.e., the lessors) swore by the name of the king (not to contest the agreement). (lines 12–15) Lu-Inanna, Šeš-kal…

A Loan of Silver to Girini (3.136G)

(354 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Loan Transactions Commentary This tablet and its envelope originate from Nippur and date to the Ur III period (6th year of Šu-Sin, 5th month, ca. 2032 BCE…

A Barley Loan from Guzāna (3.58)

(572 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Contracts; Assyrian Aramaic Commentary This triangular barley loan docket was discovered in excavations at Guzāna (Tell Halaf) (biblical Gozan). It dates to the period after the reign of Assurbanipal. The tablet contains a stamp seal impression which possibly features an incense stand. A Barley Loan fro…

Land Donation for Service Rendered (3.107)

(214 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Land Donation for Service Rendered (3.107) From the present day on, Ammistamru, son of Niqmepa, king of Ugarit,1 has taken the houses and fields of Abutenu and given them to Abdi-Ḫagab,2 son of Shapidanu, and his sons forever. And the pilku3-service of tradership4 he has to perform.5 Next: while Abdi-Ḫagab performs this pilku-service of tradership, nobody shall take from the hands of Abdi-Ḫagab and from the hands of his sons (and…

Foreclosure and Redistribution of Land (3.105)

(409 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property C…

Land Sale (3.118)

(341 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Neo-assyrian Contracts Commentary Dating to 649 bce (reign of Assurbanipal), this tablet was discovered by Macalister d…

Palace Receipt for the Return of a Marriage Gift (AT 17) (3.101A)

(429 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Alalakh Commentary This text comes from the Middle Babylonian level (Level IV). Although Finkelstein (1969:546) describes the document as the “Abrogation of a Marriage Agreement,” that is not its focus nor even is it clear that a marriage agreement is ended. Instead, a traitor is executed and the property is confiscated by the king who must return a marriage gift to the traitor’s son-in-law. Although the marriage law…

Sale of a Slave (3.114)

(590 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Neo-assyrian Contracts Commentary Recently a number of inscriptions from T ī l Barsip (Tel Aḫmar) have been published.1 Most of the Neo-Assyrian cuneiform documents from the site seem to come from a single archive, that of a man named Hanni. Interestingly, three of the tablets (13, 18 and 20) mention a man named Issār-dūri who is further identified as “the son of Samiraya” (“the Samarian”).2 Two of the other personal names in this tablet are gentilics like Samiraya: Hama…

A Loan of Sheep Fat (3.136C)

(205 words)

Author(s): Steinkeller, Piotr
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Sumerian Archival Documents; Contracts; Loan Transactions Commentary This text comes from Nippur. It dates to the Ur III period (9th year of Šu-Sin, 10th month, 23rd day, ca. 2029 BCE). A Loan of Sheep Fat (3.136C) (lines 1–5) Adda-kala and Pussa, his wife, received 20 qû (liters) of sheep fat from Adda-kala (as an interest-free loan). (lines 6–7) They are to return it till the 30th day of the month ZÍZ.DURU5 (= 11th month). (lines 8–13) They swore by the name of the king that, if they do not return it (as specified), the…

Cebel Ires Daği (3.55)

(2,712 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Contracts; Phoenician Commentary This inscription, written in good standard (Tyro-Sidonian) Phoenician and dating approximately to 625–600 bce, was incised on a coarse, dark limestone in the rough shape of a prism with three sides (measuring.545 m maximum in length along its base,.175 m in height and.315 m maximum in depth). The three sides (designated A, B, and C) follow an interlocking order with a colophon in C3. The inscription was f…

Sale of an Estate (3.117)

(607 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Neo-assyrian Contracts Commentary Dating to 652 bce, the tablet was discovered in 1904 by R. A. S. Macalister during excavations at Gezer. The text is a sale contract for an entire estate: land, house, servants, etc. Unfortunately, because of the fragmentary nature of lines 6–9, the particulars (including the sale price) are missing. The personal names mentioned in the text give an important insight into the mixed population of the city of Gezer during the period of…

Land Purchase Text (3.103)

(366 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Land Purchase Text (3.103) Munaḫimu1 — the scribe. From the present day on, before witnesses, Rashap-abu and Pidda, his wife, have purchased 4 ikû fields, with olive grove with its slaves, with its (fruit) trees, among the fields of Ṣaʾu2 from Yarimanu, son of Ḫuzamu, for 400 (shekels) of silver.3 The fields (and) olive-grove are bound like the sunny day4 to Rashap-abu and Pidda, his wife, and to their sons forever. If in future Yariman…

A Slave Redemption (3.113)

(705 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Neo-assyrian Contracts Commentary This tablet dates to the reign of Sennacherib, specifically to the year 700 bce (eponymy [limmu] of Metûnu). While there are only a few conveyances that describe the release of an object from pledge, it is clear that these are phrased in most respects like an ordinary sale text. Thus a pledge redemption text bears the seal impression of the creditor so that it is clear that the object had alread…
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