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Sokrates- und Sokratikerbriefe

(476 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus
[English version] In neun Hss. aus der Zeit von 1269/70 bis zum Anf. des 17. Jh. sind in unterschiedlicher Anordnung, teils vollzählig, teils in Auswahl, sieben Briefe des Sokrates [2] und 20 der Sokratiker überliefert (epist. 1-27, Zählung nach Köhler [5]), dazu sechs Briefe (= Br.) von und an Speusippos (epist. 28; 30-34), ein Br. Platons an den Makedonenkönig Philippos [4] II. (epist. 29) und ein in dor. Dial. verfaßter, mit zahlreichen Korruptelen durchsetzter letzter Br. mit unbekanntem Absen…

Simmias

(158 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus
(Σιμμίας). [English version] [1] S. aus Theben Freund des Sokrates, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Freund des Sokrates [2] (Plat. Krit. 45b; Plat. Phaidr. 242b; Xen. mem. 1,2,48; 3,11,17), zusammen mit seinem Gefährten Kebes Hauptgesprächspartner des Sokrates in Platons Phaídōn. Nach Plat. Phaid. 61de traf S. vor seinem Aufenthalt in Athen in Theben mit dem Pythagoreer Philolaos [2] zusammen, doch war er selbst kein Pythagoreer [1]. Im Haus des an einer Verletzung leidenden S. in Theben läßt Plutarchos [2] das Gespräch stattfinden, das im Zentrum s…

Sophroniskos

(58 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus
[English version] (Σωφρονίσκος). Ehemann der Phainarete, mit der er den Philosophen Sokrates [2] zeugte, von Beruf Steinmetz. In Platons ‘Laches (180e) rühmt Lysimachos [1] S. als inzwischen verstorbenen treuen Freund, mit dem er sich nie gestritten habe. Mehr ist über S. nicht bekannt. Wie üblich, benannte Sokrates einen seiner drei Söhne nach seinem Vater. Döring, Klaus

Sokratiker

(988 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus
[English version] Als S. werden in einem weiten Sinn alle jene bezeichnet, die den erh. Zeugnissen zufolge in näherer Beziehung zu Sokrates [2] (469-399 v. Chr.) standen, im engeren Sinn diejenigen von ihnen, die nachweislich philos. Schriften verfaßten, also Aischines [1], Antisthenes [1], Aristippos [3], Eukleides [2], Phaidon, Platon [1] und Xenophon. Über die persönlichen Beziehungen dieser S. einerseits zu Sokrates und andererseits untereinander wird in den erh. ant. Quellen mancherlei berich…

Stilpon

(413 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus
[English version] (Στίλπων) aus Megara (Megariker); 2. H. des 4. und 1. Drittel des 3. Jh. v. Chr. Da die Angaben über seine Lehrer verworren sind, bleibt unklar, in welcher Weise S. in die Abfolge der Megariker einzuordnen ist. Sein Charakter wird in den erh. Zeugnissen mehrfach gerühmt. Hervorgehoben werden sein schlichtes und ungekünsteltes Wesen und seine offene und souveräne Art im Umgang mit anderen; zahlreiche Anekdoten dokumentieren seine Schlagfertigkeit und seinen überlegenen Witz. Seine…

Ichthyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἰχθύας; Ichthýas). Pupil of Euclides [2] of Megara, 4th cent. BC, member of the  Megarian School; eponymous character in a dialogue of  Diogenes [14] of Sinope. I. is usually identified with the man called in the MSS Icthydias or Ychtyas, who lost his life in an uprising against his home town (Megara?) (Tert. Apol. 46,16). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 K. Döring, Die Megariker, 1972, 15, 91-94, 100-101 2 SSR II H.

Elis and Eretria, School of

(173 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] A construct of both ancient and modern historians of philosophy, based on the following facts: Hellenistic historians of philosophy grouped together  Phaedon of Elis and his disciples and their disciples as the School of Elis (Ἠλιακὴ αἵρεσις), and Phaedon's second or third generation disciple  Menedemus of Eretria and his followers as the School of Eretria (Ἐρετρική or Ἐρετριακὴ αἵρεσις) (Diog. Laert. 1,18-19 and passim). Modern historians of philosophy combined both traditions in…

Simmias

(168 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
(Σιμμίας). [German version] [1] S. from Thebes Friend of Socrates, 5th cent. BC Friend of Socrates [2] (Plat. Crit. 45b; Plat. Phdr. 242b; Xen. Mem. 1,2,48; 3,11,17); he and his companion Cebes were Socrates' main interlocutors in Plato's Phaídōn. According to Plat. Phd. 61de, before his stay in Athens S. met the Pythagorean Philolaus [2] in Thebes, but he himself was not a Pythagorean [1]. Plutarchus [2] has the conversation which is central to his work The Daimonion of Socrates (Περὶ τοῦ Σωκράτους δαιμονίου/Perì toû Sōkrátous daimoníou) take place in Thebes at the house of S., …

Megarian School

(346 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μεγαρικοί; Megarikoí). This word designates those philosophers belonging to the tradition of Socrates' pupil Euclides [2], whose home town was Megara. How much they had in common, beyond being pupils of Euclides, is hard to say. It seems there was neither an institutional organisation connecting them, nor a fixed place of teaching. Only Euclides and Stilpo are known to have lived in Megara. Other members of the School lived and worked in other places, at least temporarily ( Eubuli…

Stilpo

(448 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Στίλπων/ Stílpōn) from Megara (Megarian School); second half of the 4th and first third of the 3rd cent. BC. Since the information about his teachers is confusing, it remains unclear how S. fits into the sequence of Megarians. His character is repeatedly praised in the surviving sources. Emphasis is placed on his simple unaffected nature and his open confident manner in dealings with others; numerous anecdotes document his ready wit and his superior sense of humour. His skill at d…

Paraebates

(41 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Παραιβάτης/ Paraibátēs). Cyrenaic who lived towards the end of the 4th cent. BC. Teacher of Anniceris, Hegesias [1] and Menedemus [5] of Eretria who is said to later have despised him (Diog. Laert. 2,86; 2,134). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)

Bryson

(208 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βρύσων; Brýsōn). Son of the mythographer  Herodorus from Heraclea Pontica, of the  Megarian school (his connection with  Euclides unclear), teacher of  Pyrrhon; born  c. 400 BC, died after 340 BC. B. advocated the thesis that nobody uses distasteful -- i.e. vulgar or indecent -- expressions; if one and the same thing could be described by a variety of expressions, then all of these should carry the same meaning; therefore one term could not be more vulgar or indecent than any other. Aristotle rejected …

Sophroniscus

(62 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Σωφρονίσκος; Sōphronískos). Husband of Phaenarete with whom he fathered Socrates [2] the philosopher, stone cutter by trade. In Plato's Laches (180e), Lysimachus [1] praises S. as his true late friend with whom he had never quarreled. Nothing more is known about S. Socrates named one of his three sons after his father, as was customary. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)

Cyrenaics

(1,267 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
(Κυρηναϊκοί; Kyrēnaïkoí). [German version] A. History The term Cyrenaics ─ derived from the home town Cyrene of Socrates' pupil  Aristippus [3] ─ is used to describe those philosophers who subscribed to the tradition founded by the latter. A list of C. can be found in Diog. Laert. 2,86. Whenever ancient texts refer globally to Aristippus and the C., the topic is almost invariably that they considered  pleasure ( hēdonḗ) the supreme good ( summum bonum) and highest aim ( télos). In the development of this view (and of the philosophy of the C. in general), two phases can be …

Anniceris

(235 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀννίκερις; Anníkeris) of Cyrene, one of the  Cyrenaics, whose life spanned the decades before and after 300 BC. A. introduced modifications to the original Cyrenaic theory of pleasure (presumably following his analysis of Epicurus). Because of these modifications, many ancient philosophers regard his theory as the beginning of a new phase in the history of the Cyrenaics (Str. 17,3,22; Diog. Laert. 2,85). A.'s innovation consists mainly in acknowledging not only sensual pleasure, b…

Anchipylus

(61 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀνχίπυλος; Anchípylos) of Elis. He was a student of  Phaedo of Elis, together with  Moschus. A. himself was the teacher of  Asclepiades of Phleious and of  Menedemus of Eretria. According to ancient hearsay, A. and Moschus subsisted on figs and water alone for their entire lives (Diog. Laert. 2,126; Ath. 2,44c). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography SSR III D.

Cynicism

(1,753 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] A. The Middle Ages (CT) The reception of Cynicism in the Middle Ages and in modern times is, with few exceptions, simply the reception of Diogenes. The most important source for the knowledge of Diogenes in the Middle Ages was the brief description given of Diogenes' lifestyle by the Church Father Jerome in his work Adversus Jovinianum (2, 14). Jerome summarizes what makes Diogenes into a model for him in the statement that Diogenes was ‘more powerful than King Alexander and a victor over human nature’ ( potentior rege Alexandro et naturae victo…

Socratics

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] The term 'Socratics' refers in a broad sense to all of those who, according to surviving evidence, had a close relationship to Socrates [2] (469-399 BC). In a narrower sense, it is limited to those known to have written philosophical works: Aeschines [1], Antisthenes [1], Aristippus [3], Euclides [2], Phaedo, Plato [1] and Xenophon. Ancient sources tell us a great deal about the personal relationships of these Socratics, both with Socrates and among themselves. Some is evidently b…

Panthoedes

(39 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πανθοίδης/ Panthoídēs). Dialectician, c. 280 BC, teacher of the Peripatetic Lycon [4], author of a piece On Amphibologies (Diog. Laert. 5,68; 7,193). P. contested the conclusiveness of Diodorus's [4] "Master Argument" (Epict. Dissertationes 2,19,5). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)

Cebes

(238 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κέβης; Kébēs) from Thebes. Friend of Socrates (Pl. Crit. 45b; Xen. Mem. 1,2,48; 3,11,17); together with his companion Simmias  Socrates' main interlocutor in Plato's ‘Phaedon’. According to Pl. Phd. 61d-e, before coming to Athens C. met the Pythagorean  Philolaus in Thebes, but was himself not a Pythagorean [1]. In Diog. Laert. 2,125 three dialogues (not extant), with the titles Pínax (‘Painting), Hebdómē (‘The Seventh Day) and Phrýnichos, are attributed to C. The dialogue entitled Pínax and falsely attributed to C. was probably written during the 1st …
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