Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)" )' returned 121 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Luguvallium

(293 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman military facilities and the city of L., modern Carlisle, form one of the most important complexes on the northern border of Britannia. Most phases in the history of L. are poorly documented, and the findings of many of the most recent excavations have not yet been published. The earliest Roman site is a fort at the crossing of the river Eden (probably AD 78/9) [1; 5]. This was demolished shortly after AD 100 and rebuilt at another location (until AD 160). A series of sto…

Venta Silurum

(156 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Town in South Wales, modern Caerwent. After the defeat of the Silures by the Roman governor Frontinus c. AD 74-76 (Tac. Agr. 17,3) VS developed into a centre of civilian settlement in the Vale of Glamorgan. VS became the capital, probably under Hadrian, of the civitas of the Silures (cf. [1]). The construction of public buildings (forum, basilica, temple) began after 125. In the late 2nd cent. AD VS was fortified with earthworks. In late Antiquity VS flourished economically (construction of numerous private houses in stone)…

Magi

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Fort in north-western Britannia (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,14; 40,49) with a numerus Pacensium as a garrison (4th cent. AD). Site contentious but an altar (CIL VII 1291) built by vik(ani) Mag... in Old Carlisle refers to it. It is, however, conceivable that M. was the fort in Burrow Walls and Maglona was the one in Old Carlisle (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,13; 40,29). Both forts were held right through to the 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort and Settlement at Old Carlisle, in: Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeolog…

Brigantes

(120 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The B. settled in northern England, from the Tyne-Solway isthmus to Derbyshire. In the Iron Age the B. lived in scattered communities; there were few hill-forts or large settlements. Their queen Cartimandua entered into a treaty relationship with Rome before AD 50 but lost the support of her nobles and had to appeal for Roman assistance, before the leadership was stripped from her in c. AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 3,45). The B. were defeated by Q. Petilius Cerealis (AD 71-74) and Cn. Julius Agricola (AD 77-78) and organized as a civitas with Isurium Brigantum (now Aldborough) as…

Segontium

(140 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of the main forts of the Roman occupation of North Wales [1], modern Caernarfon at the southwestern end of the Menai Strait. The first building phase dates from the governorship of Iulius [II 3] Agricola ( c. 77/8 AD). The living quarters exhibit at least three building phases from the early 2nd century AD onwards. Rebuilding in stone took place under Hadrianus (117-138). The 2nd cent. garrison was evidently small. One of the main buildings from the Antonine period was probably the officium of a procurator [2]. After being destroyed and rebuilt the fort was he…

Eboracum

(290 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Britannia (Today York). With its strategically favourable location in the heart of the Vale of York, E. presented itself to the Romans as a base for their military control of northern Britannia. The earliest garrison was stationed in E. under Q. Petilius Cerealis in AD 71/74 [1]. The legionary camp ( legio IX Hispana) was a wood-earth fort of the 70s; the reconstruction in stone took place in the early 2nd cent. The legio VI Victrix replaced the legio I…

Viroconium

(158 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιροκόνιον/ Ouirokónion). Roman legionary camp, in c. AD 55 laid out in connection with military operations in the valley of the upper Sabrina (modern Severn) [1. 292 f.]; modern Wroxeter in Shropshire, England. Abandoned in c. AD 74, as late as the end of the 1st cent., V. developed into the capital of the civitas Cornoviorum [2]. In AD 128/9, The city acquired a forum [1. 288] and, no later than the middle of the 2nd cent., thermal baths [3]. Numerous private houses were built from the 2nd cent. onwards. In the 4th cent., the …

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979.

Ratae

(177 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort in Britannia, built before AD 50 at the site of an Iron-Age settlement on the present-day Soar River and held for c. 20 years. The fort and its vicus grew into the core of a prosperous town (It. Ant. 477,4; Ptol. 2,3,20: Ῥάγε/Rháge; CIL VII 1169; cf. CIL XVI 160), present-day Leicester [1. 52 f.]. Already before AD 100, R. was the main city of the Coritani or Corieltauvi [2]. The forum and the basilica were built under Hadrian (AD 117-138), the baths in c. AD 150. Parts of the baths have survived as the Jewry Wall, as…

Cassi

(50 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of five tribes in Britannia, who surrendered to Caesar in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,21). Their settlement area, which cannot be localized exactly, was in the south-east of the island. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979, 302.

Glannaventa

(74 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (probably modern Ravenglass/Cumbria). The camp was laid out at the beginning of Hadrian's rule at an anchorage at the river (not excavated); especially striking is a bathhouse outside the walls; the building's walls with windows 3.5 metres high are still extant. G. was likely abandoned in the late 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort at Ravenglass (Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society 58), 1958, 14-30.

Picti

(162 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Tribe beyond the northern frontier of the Roman province of Britannia, first mentioned in connection with the events of AD 297 (Laterculus Veronensis 13; Pan. Lat. 8,11,4). Constantius [1] I campaigned against them in AD 306, but from the mid-4th cent. they subjected the province to repeated attack (Amm. Marc. 20,1; 26,4,5; 27,8,20). Their territory lay in eastern Scotland, north of the Firth of Forth (cf. the etymology of various place names). Little is known of their settlements…

Rutupiae

(242 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Harbour town in far southeastern Britannia, modern Richborough (Kent), on the now silted-up channel between the island of Tonatis (modern Isle of Thanet) and the mainland of Kent [1]. The settlement, captured by the invading army of the emperor Claudius [III 1] in AD 43, was used as a central military supply base until the late 1st cent. AD. Between AD 80 and 90, a triumphal arch was erected here, probably to celebrate the northern conquests of the Flavian governors [1. 40-73]. Th…

Ordovices

(114 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] British tribe who inhabited the region between Snowdonia and the Severn valley (Ptol. 2,3,18); a site of principal settlement is unknown. They opposed the Roman invasion under Nero (AD 50), but were defeated by Julius Frontinus and Julius [II 3] Agricola between AD 74 and AD 79 (Tac. Ann. 12,33). According to Tac. Agr. 18,2, they were annihilated by Agricola. Nevertheless their name survives: e.g. in Dinorwig and Rhyd Orddwy (Wales). Britannia (with map: the indigenous tribes) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M.G. Jarrett, J.C. Mann, The Tribes of Wales, in: W…

Calleva Atrebatum

(135 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Britannia | Britannia (modern Silchester). An Iron Age oppidum, main centre of the Atrebates [2], it developed from 100 BC into a significant political centre. Through its links with  Commius, the settlement boomed in the mid 1st cent. BC. It is likely that, after AD 43, Calleva Atrebatum (CA) was incorporated into Cogidubnus' empire. The early Roman town was established within the Iron Age fortifications [1]. From its very beginnings, CA's developmen…

Mamucium

(101 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort near Manchester, on the road from Deva to Eboracum, first occupied in the Flavian period (AD 69-96), probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola. Renovated in the early 2nd cent. [1]. An inscription on a Severan building suggests a further extension in the 3rd cent. [2. 581]. In the 4th cent., M. gained considerable strategic importance, before being abandoned after AD 370. A large vicus surrounded the fort. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 G. D. B. Jones, S. Grealey, Roman Manchester, 1974 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wight, The Roman Inscriptions of Brita…

Vindolanda

(108 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort about 40 km to the west of Newcastle upon Tyne, modern Chesterholm, founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) [1]. The fort was renovated under Hadrian; Hadrian's Wall runs 3 km to the north of it (Limes II, with map). The fort was also renovated a century later. A large vicus developed to the west of it in the 2nd and 3rd cents. [2. 1700; 3]. The most significant find from V. is the Vindolanda Writing Tablets. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 P. Bidwell, The Roman Fort of V. at Chesterholm, 1985 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions …

Cattiterides

(271 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Καττιτερίδες; Kattiterídes, ‘tin islands’). The C. were probably the regions and islands of the Atlantic coast of both Gaul and Britain; C. also generally referred to the south-west of Britain and the offshore islands. Most ancient authors had but little specific knowledge of this region. Thus Pliny reports that the Greek Midacritus was the first to import tin from the island of Cassiteris ( Midacritus, Plin. HN 7,197), without providing exact topographical details. Hdt. 3,115 doubted the very existence of these tin islands, probably because …

Corstopitum

(109 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Settlement in the valley of the North Tyne, modern Corbridge. During the conquest by Agricola (AD 77-84) a large base was erected here, subsequently replaced by a camp further to the east (destroyed by fire c. 125). After Hadrian's Wall was erected 7 km to the north, C. was extended to become a supply base. In the early 3rd cent. C. played a decisive role in connection with the campaigns of Septimius Severus. An important city adjoining the base arose here in the 3rd and 4th cents. [1].  Limes;  Britannia Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 M. Bishop, J. N. Dore, Corbridg…

Sutton Hoo

(77 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] In one of the burial mounds at SH near Woodbridge in Suffolk a wooden ship was found with a rich treasure (Gaulish, Scandinavian and Eastern English goods, Byzantine silver bowls, including one with the stamp of Anastasius [1] I, also Frankish coins of the period around AD 625). It is presumably the tomb of Rædwald (6th/7th cent. AD), a king of East Anglia. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Bruce-Mitford, The S. H. Ship-Burial, 3 vols., 1975-1983.
▲   Back to top   ▲