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Fazāra

(556 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a tribe in North Arabia. Their genealogy is: Fazāra b. Ḏh̲ubyān b. Bag̲h̲iẓ b. G̲h̲ait̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aṭafān. They dwelled on the Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Ḥalāl. Among places which belonged to the Fazāra, there are mentioned: ʿAdama, al-Akādir, Aẓfār, Baldaḥ, Barḳ, Ḏj̲us̲h̲s̲h̲ Aʿyār, al-Dīl, Ḏj̲anafā, al-Ḏj̲ināb (between Medīna and Faid), Dāra Dāt̲h̲ir, Yaraʿa, Kunaib, al-Luḳāṭa, Ḳinn, Ṣubḥ (on Mount ʿUrfa, a place of some size), S̲h̲uʿabā, Urul and ʿUraina. Among mountains: Abā…

Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb

(519 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia to the north of the country of the Raṣṣāṣ and Upper ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.], the most important of the lands lying between Yaman and Ḥaḍramawt. It was a centre of early Arab culture and has many ruins and numerous inscriptions. The population, the most prominent in all South Arabia, is capable and enterprising, and the ground very fertile because of the numerous springs. Baiḥān al-Ḳaṣāb is inhabited by a tribe, the Muṣʿabain i. e. the two (sons of) Muṣʿab, Aḥmad and ʿArīf fr…

Iyād

(1,148 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a great Arab tribe belonging to the ¶ Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is Iyād b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān. The Rabīʿa, Anmār and Muḍar were consanguineous tribes of the Iyād. A section of the Iyād professed Christianity. The poet Abū Dūʾād, famous for his descriptions of the horse, and the celebrated Ḳuss b. Sāʿida were members of the Iyād. At first they dwelt in Tihāmn up to the borders of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.]. In the first half of the iiird century they emigrated in large bodies to Eastern ʿIrāḳ and thence to Mesopotamia. Among their settlements were: Anbār (they …

Ḥaḍramawt

(3,096 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(the of the South Arabian inscriptions), now pronounced Ḥaḍramūt, a land in Arabia in the east of Yemen between 47° and 53° East. Long, and 15° and 19° North. Lat. It is bounded in the south by the sea, in the southeast by the land of Mahra, in the N. E., N. and N.W. by the great Central Arabian desert, in the S. W. by the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥaḍramawt is according to Arab tradition derived from Ḥaḍramawt b. Ḥimyar .…b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān (Ḥaṣarmāweth, the son of Yoḳtan in Genesis x. 26). In ancient times Ḥaḍramawt was celebrated as a land of frankincense …

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(638 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(‘Raven Castle’), a hill with a fortress upon it in South Arabia, near the harbour of Bir ʿAlī Mad̲j̲daḥa in 30° 59’ 20” North. Lat. and 45° 24’ 30” East. Long, in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The harbour of Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb in ancient times was the well-known Cane Emporium (Κανὴ ἐμπόριον) of the Periplus Maris Erythraei and of Ptolemy, the of the South Arabian inscriptions), a very important centre for the frankincense trade of the neighbourhood and an intermediate station for the trade between Egypt and India. The name Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb is derived from…

Hutaim

(490 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Heteim, Hatēmi, Tehmī, Ḥitēm, plūr. Hutaimān, Hetaimān), alarge tribe ofnomads which is scattered throughout the Ḥid̲j̲āz, Nad̲j̲d and Egypt. Their chief settlements are at Ḏj̲idda, Līt̲h̲, and al-Wad̲j̲h; smaller bodies of the Hutaim live near al-Ḥid̲j̲r, al-ʿUlā (ʿAlly), Ḵh̲aibar (here they are makers of cheese), in the Ḥarrat al-Et̲h̲nān (near Ḵh̲aibar), on the Wādi ’l-Rumma above Medīna, where they are neighbours of the Ḥarb, and in the vicinity of Mecca. In Egypt they are found south of Ḥelwā…

Ḥuraimila

(143 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥoreymela), a town in Arabia in the north of Riyāḍ [q. v.], the capital of Ned̲j̲d, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) on the borders between the latter and the province of ʿĀriḍ, the birthplace of the founder of the Wahhābī sect, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. It is surrounded by strong fortifications and in 1861 had, according to Palgrave, 10,000 inhabitants. Inside the town on an elevation is a large fortified citadel of architectural importance, which was erected along with the other citadels in Ned̲j̲d after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] by the Egyptians under ¶ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Durin…

Ḥaws̲h̲abī

(244 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(plural Ḥawas̲h̲ib), a tribe in South Arabia, of pure Ḥimyarite descent. Their land lies roughly between 44° 45′ and 45° 5′ East Long. (Greenw.) and between 13° 11′and 13° 30′ North Lat. and is bounded in the south by Laḥd̲j̲ (Laḥed̲j̲) [q. v.], in the west by the land of the Ṣubaiḥī (Šobēḥī) [q. v.] and of the Ḥud̲j̲rīyā [q. v.], in the north by the land of the Ḏj̲aʿda [q. v.] and in the east by the lower Yāfiʿ. The climate is tropical, the land fertile, producing wheat, coffee and cotton. Among…

Had̲j̲arēn

(312 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲arīn), a town in Ḥaḍramūt on the d̲j̲ebel of the same name, S.W. of Mes̲h̲hed ʿAlī [q. v.] on the Wādī Dawʿān (Dōʿan) situated in extremely picturesque country. It is surrounded by extensive palmgroves and reminds one of many mediaeval castles on the Rhine. As a centre of traffic between the coast and the interior of Ḥaḍramūt it is of importance. The houses of the town are built of bricks and are large but the streets are narrow and dirty. It belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], who are represented in it by a member of their family, who bears the title naḳīb and lives in a splendid p…

Ḥās̲h̲id and Bakīl

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large confederation of tribes in South Arabia. The genealogy of the Ḥās̲h̲id is given by the Arabs of South Arabia at the present day as Ḥās̲h̲id al-Aṣg̲h̲ar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Nawf b. Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar b. Ḏj̲us̲h̲am b. Hamdān. Bakīl is held by them to be the son of Ḥās̲h̲id al-Akbar. Their land, called by Niebuhr Balad al-Ḳabāʾil “land of the tribes”, lies near Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] and stretches eastwards to Maʾrib [q. v.].and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and northwards right up to the desert as far as eastwards of Ṣaʿda [q. v.]. The Ḥās̲h̲id, who number 22,000 warriors, are divided into three main g…

ʿId̲j̲l

(610 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a North Arabian tribe, an inportant branch of the Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.]. Their ancestor ʿId̲j̲l b. Lud̲j̲aim was notorious for his stupidity and the expression “more stupid than ʿId̲j̲l” was proverbial (cf. Goldziher, Muh. Stud., i. 48, n. 3). During the heathen period they formed a portion of the so-called Lahāzimgroup, which included the Ḏh̲uhl and Yas̲h̲kur. Some of them professed Christianity. Abū Nad̲j̲m, the rad̲j̲az poet, belonged to the ʿId̲j̲l. They lived in al-Yamāma (al-Ḵh̲iḍrima, al-Ḵh̲aḍārim, also called Ḏj̲aww al-Ḵh̲iḍrima) and in the country between K…

Ḥarāz

(697 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haras, Harras, Harrāz), a high mountain range in South Arabia, lying to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is composed of basalt and is over 8500 feet high. The following mountains belong to the Ḥarāz: ¶ Lahāb (with Ḏj̲ebel Mebʾar, Ḏj̲ebel Med̲h̲erre, Ḏj̲ebel S̲h̲ukruf, Ḏj̲ebel Lakama), Hawzan of the South Arabian inscriptions, with the Ḏj̲ebel Ḳārad and Kāhil) and S̲h̲ibām, Masār and joined to the latter, Ṣaʿfān. Of places in Ḥarāz we may mention the large town of Manāk̲h̲a (southeast o…

Ḏj̲aʿda

(470 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(ʿĀmir), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, now ʿĀmir land, also called S̲h̲afel, lies to the west of the land of the Yāfiʿa [q. v.] and is for the most part mountainous. The soil is fertile in the north and produces dates with a little coffee and tobacco. The largest Wādī is the W. Nūra, into which flows the W. Dabāb. Near the latter lies the Ḏj̲ebel Arḍ T̲h̲awba, on which stand three ancient Himyarite castles. The chief town is Ḏh̲alaʿ (also called Blad S̲h̲afel) with about iooo inhabitan…

Fadak

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Demin. Fudaik), a town in Arabia not far from Ḵh̲aibar [q. v.] and like the latter inhabited by Jews. In the year 6 = 627 Muḥammed sent ʿAlī, afterwards Caliph, against Fadak as he had learned that the people of the latter town were going to support the Jews in Ḵh̲aibar. When Ḵh̲aibar was taken in the following year, the Jews of Fadak also submitted and agreed to give up half of their possessions. Muḥaiyiṣa b. Masʿūd conducted the negotiations between the Prophet and the people of Fadak and was …

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḏh̲iēb, “wolf”) a South Arabian tribe. Their land lies between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [q. v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [q. v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the Ḏh̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are mostly occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairielike pasture land. In the east of the district is a mountain of some size, the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥamrā (over 4000 feet high). The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The Ḏh̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of robbers and are th…

al-Hofhūf

(903 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hofuf, Foof), a town in Arabia, capital of the province of Ḥasā (Ḥaṣā [see al-aḥsā. The town, which is surrounded by extensive gardens and datepalm groves, is divided into three parts; 1. the Kōt (fortress) in the northeast); 2. the Rafʿīya (Refeyʾīya, “eminence” so called on account of its rising ground, in the northwest and west); 3. the Naʿāthar (in the south and west). The Kōt, a large fortress with very high, thick walls and towers (about 16 on each side with winding stairways) is about 500 yards long a…

al-Ḥuwaiṭāt

(809 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hwēṭāt, Haweiṭāt, Ḥowētat, Howeytat, Howadat, Howahtat; sing. Ḥuwaiṭī), an Arab tribe in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz and on the Sinai peninsula; their settlements in the Ḥid̲j̲āz reach southwards from al-ʿAḳaba to beyond al-Wad̲j̲h; they are neighbours of the Balī. [q. v.] and Ḏj̲uhaina [q. v.] with the latter of whom they are on bad terms. Formerly the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām [q. v.] occupied their settlements. There is a large settlement of the Ḥuwaiṭāt on the Wādī Maḳnā, where they have many huts and thick palmgroves; they only stay here during the date-harvest. Between …

Ḥud̲j̲rīya

(448 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, (Hogriyia, Hödsyerīe), the name of a tribe in South Arabia. Their land lies to the north of the land of the Sobēḥī (Subaiḥī, [q. v.]) between 43° 40′ and 44° 42′ East Long. Greenw. and 13° 5′ and 13° 15’ North. Lat. and is entirely mountainous. The climate is tropical; the principal product is coffee. Among the mountains we may mention Ḏj̲ebel Ṣabr (Ṣabir [q. v.]) which is described by Hamdāni in his Ḏj̲azīra as a very high mountain, among wādīs, the Wādī Warazān which joins the Wādī Tubban, the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], and belonged in Hamdānī’s time to the Sakāsi…

al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(136 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in Arabia near Bīs̲h̲a [q. v.] and the land of the Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. It is called after Ḥid̲j̲r b. al-Azd. The land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r was very fertile and rich in fields of wheat and barley and had many fruit-trees (apples, peaches, figs, plums and almonds). Among the clans of Ḥid̲j̲r Hamdānī mentions the ʿĀmir (with the subdivision ʿAbd), Aṣābig̲h̲a, Rabīʿa, S̲h̲āhr (with the divisions al-Asmar, Bal-Ḥārit̲h̲, Malik, Naṣr and Nāzila). Among places in the land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r he mentions As̲h̲d…

al-Ḏj̲awf

(239 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Ḏj̲ōf), a district in South Arabia between Nad̲j̲rān and Ḥaḍramawt. According to the information obtained by Niebuhr during his stay in Vaman, it is for the most part ¶ flat and desert; many camels and horses are reared in it and are also exported. The soil is in many places also suitable for agriculture. The inhabitants are warlike Bedouins, who wear iron helmets and cuirasses. The chief place in Ḏj̲awf is Maʾrib, which is governed by its own S̲h̲arīf, while the villages and the desert are governed by an independent S̲h̲aik̲h̲. Al-Ḏj̲awf is first mentioned by Hamdānī in his Ḏj̲azīra. He …
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