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Democrates

(130 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δημοκράτης; Dēmokrátēs). [German version] [1] Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna, probably an older contemporary of Demosthenes [2] (about 338 BC he is called γέρων ( gérōn; old man), cf. Stob. Floril. 3,22,43). As the descendant of  Harmodius or  Aristogeiton, he had a claim to free provisions in the Prytaneion (Hyp. 4,3). He belonged to the Pro-Macedonian party (Hyp. 4,2). He is also mentioned in Aeschin. Leg. 2,17 and Isaeus 6,22. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2. [German version] [2] Tragedian of Sic…

Naucrates

(247 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Ναυκράτης; Naukrát ēs). [German version] [1] Of Erythrae, rhetor, 4th cent. BC Rhetor of the 4th cent. BC, of Erythrae [2] in Ionia, known almost solely by virtue of the fact that he was a student of Isocrates. He seems not only to have relied closely on his teacher linguistically and stylistically (Cic. De orat. 2,94), but also, like him, to have confined his activities particularly to the area of political journalism (an epitáphios [2] is mentioned - probably a model funeral oration without a concrete occasion: Dion. Hal. Rhet. 6,1 - and a funeral oration presente…

Anaximenes

(648 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἀναχιμένης; Anaximénēs). [German version] [1] Nature philosopher, 6th cent. BC Nature philosopher of 6th cent. BC, last representative of the  Milesian School. Although the arche (ἀρχή; archḗ) is unlimited with A. as with  Anaximander, it is specified as air. Air envelops the world, and a part of this is a component of the world. A. developed the first, still rudimentary theory of metamorphosis: in densifying (πύκνωσις; pýknōsis) and ephemeralizing processes (μάνωσις [ mánōsis] or ἀραίωσις [ araíōsis]) air and the various substances change into each other, in this sequ…

Damas

(245 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δάμας; Dámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Aulis Hero from Aulis who travelled to Troy with Arcesilaus and was killed there by Aeneas (Q. Smyrn. 8,303-305: Dymas? [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 P. Vian, Q. Smyrn., 1966. [German version] [2] Eponymous founder of Damascus in Syria (Δαμᾶς; Damâs). Eponymous founder of  Damascus in Syria. He accompanied Dionysus to Asia where he established a shrine to him in Syria in the form of a hut (σκηνή), called Δαμᾶ σκηνή ( Damâ skēnḗ, ‘hut of Damas’), hence Damascus (Etym. m. s.v. Δαμσκός 247 Gaisford). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Menecles

(381 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μενεκλῆς/ Meneklês). [German version] [1] Athenian lawyer, 350 and 347 BC Athenian. In 350 and 347 BC he was synegoros for Boeotus ( Mantitheus [3]) and his mother Plangon in two lawsuits (Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,9f.; 32). Allegedly a sycophant, Menecles was himself accused by Ninus's son. The prosecution speech (Din. fr. 33 Conomis) was attributed to Dinarchus. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Beilagen 1885, 211-226 PA 9908 Traill, PAA 643135. [German version] [2] Greek historian and antiquarian, 2nd cent. BC Menecles from Barca in northern Africa, a Greek histo…

Diophanes

(155 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Διοφάνης; Diophánēs). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-218 BC Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-18 BC; most of the P. Enteuxeis texts date to his time in office. PP 1,247. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 56ff. [German version] [2] Greek rhetor from Mytilene, 2nd cent. BC 2nd-cent. BC Greek rhetor from Mytilene; exiled from his homeland for political reasons, he went to Rome and became the teacher and friend of Tib.  Gracchus. Together with C.  Blossius [2] from Cumae, he is suppose…

Stratocles

(397 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Στρατοκλῆς/ Stratoklês). [German version] [1] Of Athens, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Charidemus of the Oion deme, relative and part heir of the wealthy Hagnias. After S.' death ( c. 360 BC), there was a legal dispute between his brother Theopompus and the guardian of his son for half of the Hagnias legacy (Isaeus 11). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass 2, 565-570  A. Schäfer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit (Beilagen), 1858, 229-236  PA 12942  W. E. Thompson, De Hagniae Hereditate, 1976. [German version] [2] Of Athens, c. 300 BC Athenian, son of Euthydemus of the Diomea deme, c. 360/…

Neocles

(460 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νεοκλῆς; Neoklȇs). [German version] [1] Father of the Athenian politician Themistocles The politically inactive father of the Athenian politician and commander Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 1; [1. 60-66; 69f.]; therefore Themistocles is called a ‘newcomer ’in Hdt. 7,143) ; aristocrat (Nep. Themistocles 1), a member of the Lycomidae family. N.'s wife was possibly non-Athenian. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography 1 F.J. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles, 1980. Davies, 212ff.  Traill, PAA 706445. [German version] [2] Probable son of Themistocles Probably eldest s…

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD 100), he had become a symbol of the philosophical life. He wrote nothing, but accounts of his lectures were published after his death, probably by Lucius [2]; Twenty-one extracts of these are preserved by Stobaeus and one on papyrus. His works focuses on…

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…

Cydias

(426 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κυδίας; Kydías). [German version] [1] Erotic poet Erotic poet, quotes from Pl. Chrm. 155d, mentioned by Plut. Mor. 931e. He was obviously popular in Athens as he is depicted as a komast on a red-figured dish (Munich 2614) and on a psykter (London, BM E767) from c. 500 BC [1. 12-13]. He may perhaps be identical with Cydidas of Hermione referred to by Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 967 [2. 215]. Possibly (rather improbable) he is the dithyramb poet Cedeides/Ceceides mentioned by Aristoph. Nub. 985 (with schol.) [3]. Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) Bibliography 1 K. Friis Johansen, Eine Dithyrambos-A…

Artemon

(593 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀρτέμων; Artémōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian From Cassandreia. Greek  grammarian. As he makes mention of  Dionysius Scytobrachion, he is dated to the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. Of his works Athenaeus cites: Περὶ βιβλίων συναγωγῆς, Περὶ βιβλίων χρήσεως, Περὶ τοῦ Διονυσιακοῦ συστήματος as being his. An almost contemporary namesake from Pergamum, the commentator on Pindar (FGrH 569), possibly is the same person; A. from Clazomenae (FGrH 443), on the other hand, is older. A., the editor of the Aristotelian letters (Demetrius, elocutiones 223), is difficult to identify. …

Rufus

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
Common Roman cognomen ('red-haired', 'redhead', Quint. Inst. 1,4,25). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] [- - -]us R. Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia with an impressive monument in Rome Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia, probably in the final period of the Republic or the first years of Augustus. An impressive monument was erected for him in Rome by more than six cities of the province (CIL VI 1508 = 41054; cf. IGUR 71). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, CIL VI 1508 (Moretti IGUR 71) und die Gestaltung senatorischer Ehrenmonumente, in: Chiron 14, 1984, 201-217  PIR2 R …

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, for whom Lysias records a not further specified victory in 402 BC (Lys. or. 21,4) and whose name also appears on the list of winners at the Dionysia (after Nicophon and Theopompus) [1. test. 2; 3]. The titles of four pieces are transmitted (Ἀμαζόνες/‘The Amazons, Ἀντιλαΐς/‘Antilaïs, Τροφώνιος/‘Trophonius, Ὕς/‘Hys) as well as a total of 13 verses; the longest fragment of these contains five verses of a dia…

Gorgias

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Γοργίας; Gorgías). [German version] [1] Sculptor, late 6th cent. BC Sculptor who created bronze and marble votive offerings on the Athenian acropolis in the late 6th cent. BC. The bases are the only extant parts and suggest mostly statues of horses or riders. Pliny (HN 34,49) refers to G. with wrong biographical dates, or perhaps refers to a homonymous sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 356a (sources) Loewy, no. 36 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 5, 65, 77, 147 B. S. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Nicagoras

(381 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lasserre, F. (Lausanne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νικαγόρας/ Nikagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Zelia, c. 330 BC According to the Greek historian Bato of Sinope (Athenaeus 7,289b-c = FHG 4, 348 fragment 1), N. was tyrant of Zelia. He is identical with the N. mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus 4,48), a contemporary of Alexander [4] the Great's and possibly tyrant by the grace of Darius [3] III [1. 229]. N. fell from power after the battle on the Granicus (in this context possibly Syll.3 279,7) and the town of Zelia apologized to Alexander (Arr. Anab. 1,17,2). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 H.G. Lolling, Mi…

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Eustathius

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Εὐστάθιος; Eustáthios). [German version] [1] from Caria Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD, imperial administrator, consularis Syriae Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD; studied in Athens and later settled in Tyre. He held many offices in the imperial administration, and used them to enrich himself (i.a.: rationalis summarum per orientem), in 388 he was consularis Syriae. He was at first a friend of  Libanius (panegyric: Lib. Or. 44), later his enemy (diatribe: Or. 54, cf. also Or. 1,271-275). There is no other witness apart from Libanius. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [2] Neop…
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