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Damas

(245 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δάμας; Dámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Aulis Hero from Aulis who travelled to Troy with Arcesilaus and was killed there by Aeneas (Q. Smyrn. 8,303-305: Dymas? [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 P. Vian, Q. Smyrn., 1966. [German version] [2] Eponymous founder of Damascus in Syria (Δαμᾶς; Damâs). Eponymous founder of  Damascus in Syria. He accompanied Dionysus to Asia where he established a shrine to him in Syria in the form of a hut (σκηνή), called Δαμᾶ σκηνή ( Damâ skēnḗ, ‘hut of Damas’), hence Damascus (Etym. m. s.v. Δαμσκός 247 Gaisford). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Demades

(344 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Δημάδης; Dēmádēs). Orator from Athens, * around 380 BC, son of Demeas (deme of Paeania), † 319. Along with references by contemporary orators and epigraphical evidence (collected in [6]), we have information about him from an article in the Suda. Like his father, D. was initially a sailor and then, at a point in time that has not been authoritatively established, he turned to politics, initially and even later (cf. [4]) often in concert with Demosthenes. After 338 D. became one of…

Hypereides

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ὑπερείδης; Hypereídēs). Attic orator, son of Glaucippus, from the deme Collytus, born 390/89 BC (since he was diaitetes in 330/29 and thus 60 years old, IG II 941), died in 322 BC. [German version] A. Life Of the rich biographical tradition of antiquity (Hermippus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Caicilius) all that has been preserved are the Vita in Ps.-Plutarch (Mor. 848d-850b) and short notes in Athenaeus, Photius (495b-496a) and in the Suda; in addition there is usable biographical information in H.' extant speeches and epigraphical testimonies. H. came from a wealthy family (h…

Cleochares

(130 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Κλεοχάρης; Kleochárēs). Greek rhetor from Myrlea/Bithynia (Str. 12,4,9 = 566). According to Diog. Laert. 4,41 a lover of Arcesilaus, Demochares and Pythocles living therefore in the 3rd cent. BC, probably mostly in Athens. Apart from speeches, he wrote treatises in literary criticism; three works have been transmitted: in a comparison of Isocrates and Demosthenes he used the famous image of an athlete's body for the style of the former and of a soldier's for that of the latter (Ph…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes

Amphicrates

(107 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Rhetorician from Athens; when the Romans conquered Athens in 86 BC, A. fled to Seleuceia first and later stayed at Tigranes' court with Tigranes' wife Cleopatra, daughter of Mithridates. He soon fell from favour there and voluntarily chose death by starvation, but still received an honourable funeral (Plut. Luc. 22). A. was an Asianist; Ps.-Longinus (De subl. 3,2) places him on a par with  Hegesias and Matris, regarding him as representative of the movement that runs counter to th…

Basilicus

(169 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βασιλικός; Basilikós). [German version] [1] Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD who lived past the year 200. He taught in Nicomedia in Bithynia (Suda s.v. Apsines). His student  Apsines refers to him and Aristides as the only sources for his study of rhetoric. In addition to a commentary on Demosthenes, B. is attributed with the authorship of several rhetorical works (περὶ τῶν διὰ λέξεως σχημάτων, περὶ ῥητορικῆς παρασκευῆς ἤτοι περὶ ἀσκήσεως, περὶ μεταποιήσεως). Only few remnants of these works are preserved in the Hermogenes scholia. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswa…

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD 100), he had become a symbol of the philosophical life. He wrote nothing, but accounts of his lectures were published after his death, probably by Lucius [2]; Twenty-one extracts of these are preserved by Stobaeus and one on papyrus. His works focuses on…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Theon

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Θέων; Théōn). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Samos, 300 BC and after T. of Samos was a Greek painter of the Hellenistic Period, who was active around and after 300 BC. His skill as a creator of images and the successful way in which his paintings were composed were praised in handbooks of rhetoric (e.g. Quint. Inst. 12,10,6) as examples to be followed. The viewer's creative imagination and intuitive understanding were meant to be stimulated at the same time by means of the artistic phantasía (Lat. ingenium, 'image creation'; Phantasia), so that the viewer might imagine e…

Nicagoras

(381 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lasserre, F. (Lausanne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νικαγόρας/ Nikagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Zelia, c. 330 BC According to the Greek historian Bato of Sinope (Athenaeus 7,289b-c = FHG 4, 348 fragment 1), N. was tyrant of Zelia. He is identical with the N. mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus 4,48), a contemporary of Alexander [4] the Great's and possibly tyrant by the grace of Darius [3] III [1. 229]. N. fell from power after the battle on the Granicus (in this context possibly Syll.3 279,7) and the town of Zelia apologized to Alexander (Arr. Anab. 1,17,2). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 H.G. Lolling, Mi…

Antyllus

(426 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄντυλλος; Ántyllos). [German version] [1] Grammarian and rhetor of unknown time Grammarian and rhetorician of unknown time (Suda). He authored a biography of Thucydides, which was used by Marcellinus in his Thucydides-Vita (22, 36, 55), and a commentary to Thucydides, which was used and quoted in a number of scholia (to 1,2,3; 3,95,1; 4,19,1 and 28,2). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography F. Goslings, Observationes ad Sch. in Thuc., 1874, 54 ff. R. Tosi, Scolifantasma tucididei, 1983. [German version] [2] Greek physician and surgeon of the imperial period Greek p…

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Hermagoras

(760 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἑρμαγόρας; Hermagóras). [German version] [1] From Temnos, Greek orator, 2nd cent. BC Greek orator from Temnus (Str. 13,3,5 = 621; Suda, s.v. H.), probably active in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC (earlier than Molon, cf. Quint. Inst. 3,1,16). Except for his main work, texts written by him were already lost in antiquity (ibid. 3,5,14). His main work was probably titled Téchnai rhētorikaí, comprising 6 bks. (according to the Suda). Its content can be partially reconstructed from Cic. Inv., Quint. Inst. (esp. bk. 5) and Aug. De rhetorica. H. exerted an autho…

Nicetes

(317 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Νικέτης; Nikét ēs). [German version] [1] Greek rhetor at Rome, Augustan period Greek rhetor active at Rome in the Augustan period, known solely through several references by Seneca the Elder. Most of these report brief judgements and pithy remarks on fictional disputes (Sen. Controv 1,4,12; 1,5,9; 1,7,18; 1,8,13; 9,2,29; 9,6,18; 10,5,23); others exemplify the peculiarity of his teaching method (ibid. 9,2,23: N. only declaimed himself, and did not listen to students' practice speeches) and indicate his evid…

Molon

(443 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μόλων; Mólōn). [German version] [1] Satrap of Media and governor-general of the Upper Satrapies in 222 BC In 222 BC, together with his brothers Alexander and Neolaus, M., as satrap of Media and governor-general of the Upper Satrapies, rebelled against the young Antiochus [5] III and assumed the title of king (on coins: βασιλέως Μόλωνος). M. repelled Antiochus' military commanders, occupied the Apolloniatis (left bank of the Tigris, to the north of Babylon), crushed an army led by Xenoitas in 221 and conquered t…
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