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Sufetula

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Africa City in Africa Byzacena, modern Sbeitla in Tunisia (cf. It. Ant. 46,6), founded in the second half of the 1st cent. AD, soon afterwards a municipium and a colonia (CIL VIII suppl. 1, 11340), significant road junction; in 256 a bishop's see (Cypr. Sententiae episcopales 19). Remains survive of two honorary arches, a forum (temple), baths, a theatre, churches. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1,228-252a; 2567; 2586; suppl. 1,11221(?); 11318-11415 and 11417; 4, …

Ruspina

(135 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Name of foothills on the southern shores of the bay of Hammamet (in eastern Tunisia) and of a Phoenician or Punic settlement founded near these, modern Monastir (Bell. Afr. passim: R.; Str. 17,3,12: Ῥουσπῖνον/ Rhouspînon; Plin. HN 5,25: R.; Sil. Pun. 3,260: R.; Ptol. 4,3,9: Ῥουσπίνα/ Rhouspína; Cass. Dio 42,58,4: Ῥούσπινα/ Rhoúspina; Tab. Peut. 6,2: R.); explanation in [1. 380] of the name as Rš-pn(t) = 'Cap d'Angle'. In 46 BC, R. was the first city in Africa to ally itself with Caesar (Bell. Afr. 6,7; 9,1). From the time of Diocletianus on,…

Mileu(m)

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement, 50 km northwest of Cirta, today's Mila. M. came under strong Punic influence, was given to the mercenary leader P. Sittius by Caesar and as colonia Sarnia Milevitana it was one of the four coloniae of the res publica Cirtensium. Sources: App. B Civ. 4,54; Ptol. 4,3,28; It. Ant. 28,3; Tab. Peut. 3,3; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44; Anon. Cosmographia 1,44; Geogr. Rav 39,26. In the Roman period the village-like settlement attained metropolitan character. In the Byzantine period it was expanded into…

Tauchira

(158 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete | Limes (Ταύχειρα; Taúcheira). City in Cyrenaea, modern Tokra in Libya (Hdt. 4,171); founded by Cyrene (schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,26). T. was conquered in 322 BC by Ptolemaeus [1] and renamed by Ptolemaeus [3] to Arsinoe after his step-mother, by M. Antonius [I 9] to Cleopatris. Towards the end of the 4th cent. AD, T. was under pressure from Berber tribes; later it was again fortified under Iustinianus [1] I (Procop. Aed.…

Sigus

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Numidia, 35 km to the southeast of Cirta (It. Ant. 28,1; 34,8; 42,2), modern Sigus in Algeria. S. was under Punic influence in the 3rd and 2nd cents. BC. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19121 ( castellum); CIL VIII 1, 5693 et passim ( respublica Siguitanorum); Suppl. 2, 19135 ( magistri pagi and decuriones). In AD 411 S. was a see (Acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,197; 209). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 5683; 5693-5879; 2, 10148-51; 10856-10861; Suppl. 2, 19112-19196 and 19197; RIL 813. Boundary stones: Rev. Africaine 83, 1939, 161-181. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliogr…

Thabraca

(127 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Θάβρακα; Thábraka). City probably of Punic origin (cf. CIL VIII 1, 5206: Imilcho Mytthum[balis]) on the northern coast of Tunisia, 10 km from the modern Algerian border (Ptol. 4,3,5; Pol. 12,1,4: Τάβρακα; Plin.  HN 5,22;  Juv. 10,194: Tabraca); of significance as a place of transshipment for marble from Simitthus; modern Tabarka. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1,5198-5208; 2,10837; Suppl. 1, 17329-17391. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, Bl. Tabarca; Bl. 7, Nr. 10  C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique…

Zattara

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis between Calama and Thubursicum [2] Numidarum, modern Kef Bezioun. Neo-Punic inscriptions provide evidence of the city's pre-Roman past [1]. In the time of Hadrian Z. had an ordo decurionum (ILAlg I 533). In a 4th cent. inscription Z. is described as a municipium (ILAlg I 534; cf. also CIL VIII 1, 5177-5193; 2, 10833-10836; Suppl. 1, 17266-17276; ILAlg I 533-559. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Journ. Asiatique, Ser. 11, 7, 1916, 443-445 (444 = KAI 171). AAAlg, sheet 18, Nr. 233 M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2331 C.…

Thapsus

(352 words)

Author(s): Falco | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Θάψος/ Thápsos). [German version] [1] Tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily Flat, sandy (Serv. Aen. 3,688) tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily, northwest of Syracusae, connected with the mainland via an isthmus of c. 100 m (Thuc. 6,97,1), modern Penisola di Magnisi. Around 730 BC Lamis from Megara [2] settled on T. after he had abandoned Trotilum and been driven out of Leontini; after his death, his companions left T. in order to make a new home in Megara [3] Hyblaia 7 km to the north (Thuc. 6,4,1). There was an empórion ('trade port') on T. from the 15t…

Caldis

(35 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Auxiliary fort, north-west of  Cirta, west of the modern Mechta Nahar. Many steles, dedicated to Saturnus. Inscriptions: Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 3442-3569. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 8, no. 173.

Mazyes

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μάζυες/ Mázyes, Μάξυες/ Máxyes). The M. are first mentioned in Hecataeus [3] of Miletus (FGrH 1 F 334) as ‘those roaming about Libya’ (Λιβύης νομάδες). Stephanus s.v. M., who records this comment, continues: εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἕτεροι Μάξυες καὶ ἕτεροι Μάχλυες (‘the M. and the Machlyes are different tribes’). According to Hdt. 4,191,1, the Máxyes (Μάξυες, sic!), who are described as ‘the Lybians ... who plough’ (ἀροτῆρες ... Λίβυες), lived to the west of the Triton river. The root maz or max is of Libyan origin (‘noble’). Cf. the word amazigh (Tuareg), which is still in use. …

Apisa Minus

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, the modern Bou Arada. In the time of  Antoninus [1] Pius A. was still administered by two   sufetes (Macer -- Libyan personal name, Baliato[n] -- Punic personal name). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Beschaouch, Une cité de constitution punique, in: Africa 7/8, 1982, 169-177.

Zangenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Tropical eastern Africa to the south of Cape Guardafui (Plin. HN 6,176), also Ἀζανία/ Azanía (Peripl. m.r. 15f.; 18; 31; 61; Ptol. 1,7,6; 1,17,6; 4,7,28; 4,7,35) and Ζίγγιον/ Zíngion (Cosmas [2] Indicopleustes 2,29; 2,30; 2,50); the Arabs formed their word zanǧ ('black man') on the basis of this name (cf. 'Zanzibar' and 'Tanzania'). Z. extended from the trade town of Opone (modern Ras Hafun) to Rhapton (probably modern Dar-es-Salaam) and from the time of Trajan as far as Cape Prason (probably the modern Cape…

Nepheris

(112 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νέφερις/ Népheris). City in Africa Proconsularis, c. 30 km southeast of Tynes on the steep plateau of Henchir Bou Baker (Str. 17,3,16; Liv. Per. 51). N. played an important role during the third Punic war ([1. 444-447, 451-454]; App. Lib. 102,479; 108,507; 111,523; 126,596f.; 126,602; Liv. Per. 51). In the Roman period, a temple of Saturnus Sobare(n)sis, perhaps of Bl ṣbr (‘[grain] hoarding Saturn’), of Frugifer [2. 313], was located outside the city. Epigraphy: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12388-12411; 4, 24031-24041. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß 2 E. Lipiń…

Casae Calbenti

(31 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Statio in Mauretania Caesariensis, 15 miles from Tipasa, 32 miles from Icosium (It. Ant. 15,3-5), probably modern Castiglione. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 4, no. 50.

Thabena

(73 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]; Bell. Afr. 77,1 f.) on or near the coast on the border with the kingdom of Juba [1], probably not identifiable with Thenae. In the Roman Civil War in 47/46 BC the Thabenenses were on the side of Caesar; in 46 they strangled the soldiers that Juba had established in the city (Bell. Afr. loc.cit.). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 1178.

Emporia

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] As Emporia in a strict sense are to be understood all the cities of the Syrtis Minor but in a broader sense the cities of the Syrtis Minor and the Byssatis or the Syrtis Minor and the Tripolitania or the Syrtis Minor, the Byssatis and the Tripolitania. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Bresson, P. Rouillard (ed.), L'emporion, 1993 R. Rebuffat, Où étaient les emporia?, in: Semitica 39, 1990, 111-126.

Cephalae

(46 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κεφαλαί; Kephalaí). Foothills (literally ‘heads’), marking the western entrance to the Great Syrte, modern Cape Mesrâta or Râs Bou-Chaifa. Str. 17,3,19; Plut. Dion 25,8; Ptol. 4,3,13; Stadiasmus maris magni 92 (GGM I 460). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. K., RE 11, 190.

Zygritai

(48 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζυγρῖται; Zygrîtai). Libyan people to the west of Catabathmus and to the east of the Chattani (Ptol. 4,5,22), approximately in the area of Sidi Barrani (in modern Libya). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 174  M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 857.

Oea

(319 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Wjt). City on the coast of Africa Tripolitania between Sabratha and Leptis Magna, modern Tripoli. Evidence: Mela 1,37; Plin. HN 5,27; 38; Sil. Pun. 3,257; Ptol. Geog. 4,3,12 (Ἐῶα; Eôa); It. Ant. 62,2 ( Ocea colonia); Tab. Peut. 7,3 ( Osa colonia); Stadiasmus maris magni 98f. (GGM 1,463f.). Probably a Phoenician foundation [1. 36, 74]. Colonists from Africa and Sicily participated in the later expansion of the city (Sil. Pun.…

Nigritae

(142 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νιγρῖται; Nigrîtai). Following the Periplus of Ophelas (?), Str. 17,3,3 maintains that, together with the Pharusii, the N. lived a 30 days' journey from Lynx (Lix [1], present-day Larache). Str. 2,5,33 places them - like the Pharusii and Garamantes - in the regions which lie between the Gaetuli and the Aethiopes. In warfare the N., the Pharusii and the Aethiopes made use of bows as well as chariots with sickle-shaped blades attached to the axles. References: Str. 17,3,7 (Νίγρητες)…
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