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Garama

(95 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Afrika | Afrika | Limes | Straßen Hauptort der Garamantes, nordöstl. von Mursuk (Fessan) gelegen, h. Djerma. Belegstellen: Plin. nat. 5,36; Ptol. 1,8,5; 10,2; 4,6,30; 8,16,7; Solin. 29,5. L. Cornelius Balbus, procos. Africae, führte 20 v.Chr. eine Expedition durch, während der er mindestens bis nach G. kam. In der Folgezeit herrschten zw. G. und Rom enge, manchmal allerdings auch stürmische Beziehungen. Von diesen engen Beziehungen zeugen zahlreiche arch. Funde. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Ch.M. Daniels,…

Celtianis

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Das castellum im Norden von Cirta gehörte zum Gebiet von Cirta, h. El Meraba des Beni Ouelbane. Unter Marcus Aurelius (161-180 n.Chr.) hatte die res publica C. ein consilium decurionum. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19689f. Zahlreiche Inschr. informieren über das Leben von C.: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19688-19847; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 2084-3398. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 8, Nr. 91  H.-G. Pflaum, Remarques sur l'onomastique de Castellum Celtianum, in: E. Swoboda (Hrsg.), Carnuntina, 1956, 126-151.

Lamiggiga

(99 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Stadt in Numidia zw. Lambaesis und Diana Veteranorum, h. Sériana. L. lag wahrscheinlich im Territorium von Diana Veteranorum, hatte aber um 200 n.Chr. eigene magistri und erhielt einen ordo decurionum. In der Stadt wohnten Legionäre und Veteranen der legio III Augusta. 411 war L. überwiegend donatistisch (Donatus [1]; Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,133,1-13; 187,98-100; 198,55f.). Einige Ruinen - Kirchen, Thermen und Keltern - sind erh. In byz. Zeit wurde L. zur Festung ausgebaut. Inschr.: CIL VIII 1,4372-4412; Suppl. 2, 18553-18563. Huß, Werner (Bambe…

Gemellae

(96 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Afrika | Limes Lager und Stadt in der Numidia, 25 km südwestl. von Biskra gelegen, h. El-Kasbat. G. gehörte zum Befestigungssystem des Fossatum. Hier lagen zeitweise ein Detachement der legio III Augusta und die ala I Pannoniorum. Im 4. Jh. hatte der praepositus limitis Gemellensis in G. sein Quartier. Belege: Tab. Peut. 5,1; Not. dign. occ. 25,24. Inschr.: CIL VIII 1, 2482; Suppl. 2, 17976-17985; AE 1969-1970, 222 Nr. 741(?); 1989, 287 Nr. 883. Limes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Baradez, G., in: Revue Afr…

Lambafundi

(121 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Ortschaft in Numidia zw. Lambaesis und Thamugadi, h. Henchir Touchine (CIL VIII 1, 2438 = Suppl. 2, 17941 [ saltus? La] m[ b] afundensium; Tab. Peut. 3,3: Lambafudi; Geogr. Rav. 39,40: Lambafudin). Folgende Herkunftsbezeichnungen mögen auf den Bischofssitz L. zurückzuführen sein: Lampuensis ( plebs) (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 411, 1,133,292), Iamfuensis (Not. episcoporum Numidiae 87a), Lamfuensis (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 525; [2. 647]). Eine von Iustinianus neu befestigte Stadt in Numidia trägt in Prok. aed. 6,7,10 den Nam…

Furnus

(102 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] [1] Maius Stadt in der Africa proconsularis, südwestl. von Thuburbo Maius, h. Aïn Fourna. Seit unbestimmter Zeit municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12039). Inschr. Belege: CIL VIII 1, 752f.; Suppl. 1, 12030; 12039; Suppl. 4, 23798-23811; ILTun 617-620. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 100, Bl. 25, Nr. 187. [English version] [2] Minus Stadt in der Africa proconsularis, südwestl. von Karthago, h. Henchir Msaadine. Seit Caracalla (211-217 n.Chr.) municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25808b). Inschr. Belege: CIL VIII 2, 10609f.; Suppl. 1, 14751-14753;…

Nicives

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Νίσιβες). Nach Plin. nat. 5,29f. sind die N. ein Volk der Africa Proconsularis. Ein Grenzstein vespasianischer Zeit [1. 289f.] lokalisiert sie im ager publicus von Cirta. Nach Ptol. 4,3,24 wohnten die N. im Süden von Numidia (Numidae) nahe der Nattabutai und Miaidioi. Später sind sie in der Gegend des 80 km südl. von Sétif liegenden N'Gaous (Nicivibus) anzutreffen. Für das Jahr 411 n.Chr. ist ein episcopus Niciuensis bezeugt (acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,201). Inschr.: AE 1969-1970, 696. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Lancel, Subur…

Gunugu

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Phönizier, Punier (neupun. Gngn). Pun. oder pun. beeinflußter Handelsplatz westl. von Caesarea, h. Sidi Brahim bei Gouraya. Unter Augustus stieg G. zur colonia auf, deren Bürger der tribus Quirina zugeteilt wurden. Belegstellen: Plin. nat. 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5 (Κανουκκίς); Itin. Anton. 15,1 ( Gunugus); Geogr. Rav. p. 40,45 ( Gunubus); 88,10 ( Gunagus); 132,19 ( Cunagus). In der Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Caesariensis (111a) ist für das J. 484 ein episcopus Gunugitanus erwähnt. Inschr.: Répertoi…

Macae

(297 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μάκαι; Mákai). [German version] [1] People in eastern Arabia According to Ptol. 6,7,14, a people in eastern Arabia in the hinterland of the bays around modern Rāʾs Musandam on the road from Hormuz. Also mentioned in Str. 13,765f., Plin. HN 6,98.152 and Mela 3,79; according to them, the M. settled opposite the Carmanian foothills. According to Arr. Ind., Μακέτα/ Makéta (Rāʾs Musandam) was an important trading centre for the spice trade ( Spices) on the Persian Gulf. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Nomadic tribe or tribal league ( Macae). A large nomadic tribe o…

Sabratha

(497 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Neo-Punic Ṣbrt[]n). [German version] I. History One of the three Phoenician cities of African Tripolis, 65 km west of Tripoli, Libya (Ps.-Scyl. 110 and Str. 17,3,18: Ἀβρότονον/ Abrótonon (?); Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἀβρότονον (?); Plin. HN 5,25; 35: Sabrata; 27: Habrotonum; Sil. Pun. 3,256: S.; Ptol. 4,3,12: Σάβραθα/ Sábratha; Stadiasmus maris magni 99 f.: Σαράθρα/ Saráthra or Ἀλάθρα/ Aláthra; It. Ant. 61,3: Sabrata colonia; Solin. 27,8 and Tab. Peut. 7,2: Sabrat…

Leptis Magna

(813 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Λέπτις μεγάλη, Léptis megálē, Punic Lpqj) ([1. 39-48]). [German version] A. History Originally settled by Phoenicians, the modern Lebda in Libya ([2. 36f., 74]; Sall. Iug. 78,1; 4; Sil. Pun. 3,256; Plin. HN 5,76?). Frequently given the epithet Megálē/ Magna (‘great’), to differentiate it from Leptis Minor (Plin. HN 5,27; Ptol. 4,3,13; Stadiasmus maris magni 93; Sol. 27,8; Tab. Pe…

Atlas

(511 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Ἄτλας; Átlas). [German version] [1] Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range. From the two Mediterranean coastal mountain ranges of the Rif A. and the Tell A. the Middle A. branches off in Morocco; the High A. rises in the south, which on the east borders the Sahara A. The Anti A., which extends south of the High A., do not belong to the Tertiary mountain range of the A.; Rif A., Middle A. and High A. enclose the Moroccan mese…

Triton

(545 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τρίτων/ Trítōn, Latin Triton). [German version] [1] Sea deity Sea deity with the upper body of a human and the tail of a fish, sometimes also as an ichthyocentaur with the forelegs of a horse (Tzetz. Lycophr. 34; 886), son of Poseidon and Amphitrite (Hes. Theog. 930-933), who stirs up the waters with his conch shell and calms them again (Verg. Aen. 10,209-212; Ov. Met. 1,330-342). Like the related sea gods  Glaucus [1], Halios geron, Nereus, Phorcys [1] and Proteus, T. in particular is a figure of liter…

Macrobii

(277 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Μακρόβιοι; Makróbioi, Lat. Macrobii). [German version] [1] According to Herodotus 'the long-lived Ethiopians' According to Herodotus, Cambyses had also the intention of campaigning against the ‘long-living Ethiopians’ (μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, Hdt. 3,17,1), who lived on the ‘southern sea’ (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ, Hdt. l.c.; cf. also Hdt. 3,21-23). Since this notíēi thalássēi (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ) of Herodotus' is lost in mythical darkness, it is useless to speculate on the locales of the ‘long-living Ethiopians’, who are occasionally incorrectly separated from…

Mina

(393 words)

Author(s): Hitzl, Konrad (Tübingen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Unit of weight and coinage The mina (μνᾶ/ mná), with its multiples and divisions, was the most common Greek unit of weight alongside the stater. It was set on the one hand by the theoretical weight of the drachma coin minted in the city concerned, and on the other hand by the number of Drachmai which equated to a mina. The view long current in research that every mina weighed 100 drachmai, has been refuted. On Aegina, the mina (coin and weight) amounted to 70 drachmai (70×6.237 g = 436.6 g); the Corinthian mina was probably commensurate to it, equating to 150 drachmai (150×2.91…

Arae

(260 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Flaviae This item can be found on the following maps: Limes Today Rottweil on the Neckar. Central locality founded by Cn. Pinarius Clemens AD 73/74 (CIL XVII 2,654; [2]) on a road junction (it also became a location for the  ruler cult) to open up the so-called   decumates agri . In addition to troops (five known forts), in AD 186 it is attested that a flourishing   municipium developed there [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Ruesch, Das röm. Rottweil, 1981 2 B. Zimmermann, Zur Authentizität des ‘Clemensfeldzuges’, in: Jahresber. aus Augst …

Sila

(231 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Mountains in Bruttium Heavily forested mountains in Bruttium (Str. 6,1,9; Plin. HN 3,74; Alfius in Fest. 150 L.; Verg. G. 219-223; Aen. 12,715-717), presumably corresponding to Aspromonte (Montalto, 1,956 m) and Serre in the south of Bruttium, but not to the modern S. [1; 3]. Abundant stock of timber, extraction of the prized Bruttian pitch ([1; 2]; Cic. Brut. 85; amphora stamp: Bruttia pix [2]). According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 20,15, at the end of the war with Pyrrhus [3] the Bruttii (cf. Vibius Sequester, flumina 205: Sila Bruttiorum) ceded half of the S. to t…

Fossa

(651 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] F. Augusta Navigable  canal between the Padus and the harbour of Ravenna (Plin. HN 3,119); under Augustus diverted via the Padusa, a marshy branch of the Po. Statio on the via Popilia, later Augusta; traces in the Valle Mezzano in the drained Laguna di Comacchio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, Un insediamento a carratere industriale. Relazione preliminare degli scavi sull'argine d'Agosta 1971-1973, in: Boll. annuale. Centro di ... Musei Ferraresi 3, 1973, 174-179. [German version] [2] F. Claudia Navigable  canal, built by Claudius be…

Tegea

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Τεγέα/ Tegéa). [1] Town in the eastern Arcadian plateau [German version] I. Location Important town in the south of the eastern Arcadian plateau (Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; Str. 8,8,2; Paus. 8,44,1-53,11; Ptol. 3,16,19; Plin. HN. 4,20.; [1]), whose vast area lay between the present-day villages of Hagios Sostis, Episkopi and Alea. The rich, fertile, loamy …

Mauretania

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μαυρουσία/ Maurousía). [German version] I. Name In the second century BC, M. comprised approximately the area of Morocco and western Algeria and was probably called by its Greek name of Maurusia (cf. Coelius Antipater, HRR 1,175 fr. 55). The formation of names in M. (Ἑρπεδιτανοί/ Herpeditanoí), which follows the same pattern as those found in Iberia (e.g. Turdetani, Cassetani), and the existence of the Nektíbēres (Νεκτίβηρες) in M. speak for the fact that Libyans and Iberians are related. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] II. Geography In geological terms, M. is characteri…
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