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Hadrumetum

(320 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Rome (Ἀδρύμης; Hadrýmēs). Phoenician trading centre on the east coast of Tunisia, modern Sousse. Evidence: Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM I 88); Sall. Iug. 19,1; Solin. 27,9. From the Punic or Neo-Punic period come the Tofet (with prominent steles), a necropolis (with various tomb offerings) and over 60 inscriptions. In 310 BC H. went over to the side of  Agathocles [2] (Diod. Sic. 20,17,3-5)…

Xylicces

(45 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξυλικκεῖς; Xylikkeîs). A - possibly negroid - people which probably lived to the north of the Ahaggar Massif (in the Sahara)  (Ptol. 4,6,23: Ξ. Αἰθίοπες). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241  H. Treidler, s. v. Ξ., RE 9 A, 2161-2163.

Igilgili

(112 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Punic ʾj glgl[ t]?, ‘Skull Island’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation located in the later  Mauretania Sitifensis - west of the mouth of the Ampsaga - modern Djidjelli. Attested to Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,11; It. Ant. 39,7; 40,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Amm. Marc. 29,5,5; Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 4a; Anon. Geographia 40 (GGM II 505); Geogr. Rav. 40,22; 88,20; Guido p. 132,29. Augustus (?) elevated I. to a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8367-8373, 10330-10333; Suppl. 3, 20211-20213. Huß, W…

Fussala

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Fort on the border of the region of Hippo Regius. The precise location is unknown. Augustine appointed a bishop in F. who had mastered the Punic language (Aug. Epist. 209,2). F. remained a bishop's see (Not. Episc. Num. 21a). Inscription: AE 1983, 283 no. 980. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 9, no. 59 J. Desanges, S. Lancel, L'apport des nouvelles lettres à la géographie historique de l'Afrique antique et de l'Église d'Afrique, in: C. Lepelley (ed.), Les lettres de saint Augustin découvertes par Johannes Divjak, 1983, 87-98 and 99, here 92-98.

Mactaris

(339 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Neo-Punic Mktrm). City in the Roman province of Africa Byzacena ( Africa [3]), about 150 km south-west of Carthage, modern Maktar. M. was the centre of the Carthaginian district ( rṣt Tškt (‘territories of Tuschkat’)) seized by Massinissa at the end of the 50s of the 2nd cent. BC [1. 432]. Testimonials to Punic culture - for example over 200 neo-Punic inscriptions - are numerous [2. 273-292]. An important sanctuary of the city was dedicated to Ḥṭr-Mskr ( Hoter Miskar). The Roman names Saturnus, Apollo deus pat…

Musti

(210 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis to the southwest of Thugga on the great road connecting Carthage with Sicca Veneria, modern Le Krib. Native city, which came under Punic rule and then fell to Massinissa. From the 1st century BC (?) [1. 366] until the late Roman period M. was a municipium (CIL VIII suppl. 1, 15582). Ptol. 4,3,42 (Μούστη κώμη/ Moústē kṓmē); Itin. Anton. 26,2; 41,3; 45,2; 49,3; 51,3 ( M.); Tab. Peut. 5,2 ( Mubsi); e.g. CIL VIII 1, 1577 ( Mustitani). In inscriptions several temples are mentioned: Juno (CIL VIII suppl. 4, 27438); Liber Pater and Venu…

Musulamii

(226 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Distinguished union of Berber tribes, which is widely attested in literature and inscriptions. The M. lived - partly transmigrating? - in the south of  Numidia and in parts of Africa Proconsularis. Evidence: Plin. HN 5,30 ( Musulami or Misulani); Flor. Epit. 4,12,40 ( Musulami); Tac. Ann. 2,52,1; 4,24,2 ( Musulamii); Ptol. Geog. 4,3,24 (Μισουλάμοι/ Misoulámoi or Μισουλάνοι/ Misoulánoi); Tab. Peut. 2,5; 3,1 ( Musulamii); Liber generationis (Chron. min. 1) p. 109 §213 ( Musulani); Oros. 6,21,18 ( Musolani); Chronicum Alexandrinum (Chron. min. 1) p. 109 §184 ( Mosulami…

Catabathmus

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Καταβαθμός; Katabathmós). In the Ptolemaic period, the fort of C. with its harbour -- modern Sollum -- was the border town from Egypt to the  Cyrenaea. C. retained is border town character throughout subsequent cents. Its strategic location was important. Source references: Sall. Iug. 19,3; Str. 17,1,5; 13; 3,1; 22; Mela 1,40; Plin. HN 5,38f.; It. Ant. 71,7; Stadiasmus maris magni 29f. (GGM I 437f.). The surroundings of the settlement are also occasionally referred to as Katabathmós -- C. (‘descent’) mégas; cf. Pol. 31,18,9; Ptol. 4,5,4; Sol. 27,3; Oros. 1,2,88. Huß, …

Byzacium

(185 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βυζάκις or Βυσσᾶτις; Byzákis, Byssâtis). Originally probably the region between Neapolis (Zeugitana) and Thapsus, including the hinterland, and the Sahel of Sousse with the plains of Kairouan. B. is probably derived from the Βύζαντες ( Býzantes) (Steph. Byz. s.v.). From Punic times onwards, B. was renowned for its rich yields of wheat and olives (Ps.-Scyl. 110 [GGM 1, 88f.]; Pol. 3,23,2; Varro, Rust. 1,44,2; Bell. Afr. 97,3; Plin. HN 5,24; 17,41; 18,94; Sil. Pun. 9,204f.; Plut. Caesar 55,1; App. Lib. 33,139). The …

Gaetuli

(324 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe, whose numerous clans lived in the area between the Syrtis Minor and the Atlantic Ocean. Source references: Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,2; 9; 19; Mela 1,23; 3,104; Plin. HN 5,9f.; 17; 30; 43; Apul. Apol. 24,1; 41,4; Dimensuratio provinciarum 25; Aug. De ordine 2,5,15; Aug. In psalmos 148,10; Divisio orbis terrarum 26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γαιτοῦλοι; Anon. Geographia compendiaria 15 (GGM II 497); Eust. epit. de commentariis in Dionysium Periegeten 215 (GGM II 254). A branch of the G., who had intermarried with black Africans, was called the Melanogaitoûloi (Μελανογαιτο…

Cyrenaica

(630 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κυρηναία; Kyrēnaía, Lat. Cyrenae). North-east African coastal region of the Cyrenaea (mod. Cyrenaica) with western border at  Arae [2] Philaenorum/Φιλαίνων Βωμοί (mod. Ras el-Aáli) [1. 73f., 469] and its eastern one near  Catabathmus megas (mod. Solum); cf. Str. 17,3,22 [2. 509f.]. The region took its name from the Theraean   apoikía Cyrene.  Cyrene was part of the Libyan  pentapolis, together with Barca (mod. Barka), later outstripped by Ptolemaïs (mod. Tolemaide), also Euhesperides, later Berenice (mod. Be…

Lambdia

(66 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Caesariensis, c. 100 km south-south-west of Icosium, modern Médéa. Literary evidence: Ptol. 4,2,27 (Λαβδία; Labdía); CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22567 ( Lambdienses); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,201,8 ( Lambiensis); Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Caesariensis 46a ( Ambiensis). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 2, 9239-9246; 10443. Sparse ruins are preserved. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 14, no. 48 H. Dessau, s.v. L., RE 12, 542.

Banasa

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Probably indigenous name of a city of Mauritania Tingitana on the left bank of the Oued Sebou on the fertile Ġharb plain, today Sidi Ali bou Djenoun. The oldest archaeological signs lead to the 6th/5th cents. BC; ceramics found show Phoenician and Iberian influences. After the death of  Bocchus [2] II, the young Caesar raised B. to the status of a colonia (33-27 BC); Marcus Aurelius granted it the honorary name colonia Aurelia Banasa. Inscriptions: Inscr. antiques du Maroc 2, 84-246 (i.a. the Tabula Banasitana and an e…

Tisiduo

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Τισιδουω: in inscriptions). City to the southeast of Carthage, destroyed by Caesar in 46 BC in the Roman civil war (Str. 17,3,12), not locatable; identification with Tisidium is unlikely [1. 1436]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 I. Schmidt, Komm. zu CIL VIII Suppl. 1. F. Windberg, s. v. Tisidium (2), RE 6 A, 1479 f.

Mosyli

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μόσυλοι; Mόsyloi). People on the south coast of the Gulf of Aden who have given their name to a port and a headland. References: Plin.HN. 6,174, promunturium et portus Mossylites; Ptol. 4,7,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μόσυλον. The port was situated two to three days' journey to the east of the ancient island of Mundu, Peripl. m. r. 10 (GGM I 265; τὸ Μόσυλλον). Export items were cinnamon and incense. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s.v. M., RE 16, 380f.

Thala

(139 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in the interior of Tunisia, 53 km to the south of Sicca Veneria, 20 km to the east of Ammaedara (also modern T.). The Numidian town was considerably Punicised; the original Punic cults of Caelestis, Pluto and Saturn continued until late Antiquity. In AD 20 followers of Tacfarinas unsuccessfully attacked a Roman unit in T. (Tac. Ann. 3,21,2). In the 3rd cent. T. presumably acquired the status of municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 501-576; 2, 10519 f.; Suppl. 1, 11668-11730; Suppl. 4, 23280-23352; AE 1905, 35. Another town called T. was 20 km to the ea…

Icosium

(141 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce (Ἰκόσιον; Ikósion, Punic ʾj ksm, ‘island of the owls’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Algiers. References: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,6; It. Ant. 15,5; Sol. 25,17 (with incorrect etymology); Amm. Marc. 29,5,16 (with allusion to this etymology); Geogr. Rav. 40,44; 88,12. A roman veterans' colony was founded at I. during the reign of  Juba II (Plin. HN 3,19; 5,20). Under Vespasian, the city became a colonia Latina (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20853). A h…

Celtianis

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The castellum to the north of Cirta belonged to the region of Cirta, the modern El Meraba or Beni Ouelbane. Under Marcus Aurelius (AD 161-180) the res publica of C. had a consilium decurionum. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19689f. Numerous inscriptions inform us about everyday life in C.: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19688-19847; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 2084-3398. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, folio 8, no. 91 H.-G. Pflaum, Remarques sur l'onomastique de Castellum Celtianum, in: E. Swoboda (ed.), Carnuntina, 1956, 126-151.

Aulodes

(40 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, modern Sidi Reiss. A. became a municipium under Septimius Severus. CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 14355. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 19, no. 9 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 75f.

Capsa

(168 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Africa | Limes Oasis town in southern Tunisia, modern Gafsa. C. was probably never Phoenician (despite Oros. 5,15,8; cf. Sall. Iug. 89,4). It is questionable whether it was ever Carthaginian. It was an important road junction from at the latest the Numidian period -- i. a. it lay on the road from Theveste to Takape (Sall. Iug. 89,4f.). In the course of the Jugurthine War, Marius conquered and destroyed C. in 106 BC (Sall. Iug. 91,3; Str. 17,3,12). In the Imperial Age, C. was rebuilt and given a constitution with sufetes: C…
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