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Cingulum

(137 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Town in the Picenum on the river Fiumicello Town in the  Picenum on the river Fiumicello (Musone). Municipium of the tribus Velina (Plin. HN 3,111); T. Labienus, who was from C., richly endowed the city with buildings at his own expense (Caes. B Civ. 1,15,2). Monuments: remains on the terrace of Borgo San Lorenzo under the modern Cingoli (Macerata); opus reticulatum walls, remains of a temple in the church; aqueduct (restored by Hadrian). The territory of C. extended to the mountain of the same name (Str. 5,2,10; possibly the modern Monte Cingulo). Uggeri, Giovanni (F…

Hellana

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Staging-post in Etruria on the via Cassia between Florentia ( c. 27 km away) and Pistoriae ( c. 9 km away; Tab. Peut. 4,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,36); in AD 848 attested as Alina (MGH, Diplomata Karolina 3,242, no. 102) and therefore to be identified with Agliana (Pistoia). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Pieri, Toponomastica della Valle dell'Arno, 1919, 114 M. Lopes Pegna, Itineraria Etruriae, in: SE 21, 1950/1, 407-443, esp. 426.

Fidenae

(163 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Latin town on a hill left of the Tiber along the via Salaria (Tab. Peut. 5,5), five (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,53) or six (Eutr. 1,4,19) miles from Rome. It was settled from the Iron Age onwards [1], and took part in the feriae Latinae on mons Albanus (Plin. HN 3,69). During the 5th cent., it was allied with Veii (Liv. 4,17ff.). At the time of Horace (Epist. 1,11,8), it was almost completely abandoned. The collapse of the wooden amphitheatre in AD 27 claimed many victims, the majority of…

Neminia

(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Fons Neminiae, spring in the region of Reate in the territory of the Sabines, regio IV (Plin. HN. 2,230; 31,12?), which surfaced at various places; cannot be identified. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 474.

Mevania

(86 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Umbrian city above the Plain of Foligno (modern Bevagna), municipium of the tribus Aemilia traversed by the Via Flaminia. Ancient remains: city walls, forum with a pseudoperipteros temple, theatre (1st cent. AD), amphitheatre, thermae (mosaics, 2nd cent. AD) and aqueduct. In the territory of M. there was viticulture and cattle breeding. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C. Pietrangeli, Mevania (Bevagna), 1953 P. Fontaine, Cités et enceintes, 1990, 223-244 A. E. Feruglio, Mevania, 1991.

Aesernia

(185 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae Main town of the Pentri in  Samnium, on a mountain ridge between the rivers Sordo and Carpino at the source of the  Volturnus, modern Isernia. Important road junction ( via Aesernia, CIL IX 2655). In 295 BC captured by the Romans, in 264 BC extended by a Latin colony (minting). Following the Social War (80 BC)   municipium of the tribus Tromentina. Remains of polygonal walls, enclosing an area of 12 hectares, were part of the Latin colony. The   cardo maximus equat…

Falacrinae, Falacrinum

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement of the Sabini ( regio IV) at the sources of the Avens in the area of Reate on the border with Picenum. Station of the via Salaria (It. Ant. 307; Tab. Peut. 5,4), near the church of S. Silvestro in Falacrino in Collicelle (Cittareale, Rieti). Birth place of Vespasianus (Suet. Vesp. 2,1). Inscriptions.: CIL IX, p. 434. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 468 N. Persichetti, Viaggio archeologico della via Salaria, 1893, 79f.

Suessa Aurunca

(199 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae Capital of the Aurunci (Vell. Pat. 1,14,4) between Minturnae and Teanum Sidicinum, modern Sessa, settled since the 8th cent. BC. After it was destroyed by the Sidicini and resettled, the Romans established a colony there in 313 BC (with ius Latii: Liv. 9,28,7; Vell. Pat. 1,14,4). Minting (280-268 BC; HN 42). In 90/89 BC municipium, tribus Aemilia (CIL X 4776; Cic. Phil. 13,18). In 30/28 BC the establishment of the colony colonia Iulia Felix Classica S. followed (CIL X 4832; Plin. HN …

Aurunci

(21 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Latin tribal name, derived by rhotacism from the more usual ethnic  Ausones.  Suessa Aurunca Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Sena Gallica, Senagallia

(174 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones City in Umbria to the south of the mouth of the Sena on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic) coast (Lucan. 2,407; Sil. Pun. 8,453; in its lower reaches the Sena is the modern Misa) in the  Ager Gallicus region, modern Senigallia. The Romans founded a colonia maritima there, probably in 289 BC (Pol. 2,19,12; Liv. Per. 11; Str. 5,2,10). In 207 SG was used by the Romans as fixed quarters (Liv. 27,46,4; Punic Wars), before the battle of the Metaurus [2] ( proelium…

Sagis

(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River branch in the delta of the Padus (Po), splitting from the main stream west of Spina, where the Tab. Peut. 5,1 places the statio of Sacis ad Padum. In the Etruscan period, the city of Atria diverted the S. to fill the Venetian swamps (Septem Maria), thereby obtaining a navigable channel, which the Romans under Vespasian (AD 69-79) remodelled into the fossa [3] Flavia (Plin. HN 3,120). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Venetulani

(49 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Latin people, counted among the 30 Alban communities that carried out sacrificial activities on Mons Albanus (probably Varro in Plin. HN 3,69). The name may derive from a Veneti [1] settlement which may have been called Venetulum. Location unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 556.

Firmum Picenum

(232 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Coloniae | Coloniae Settlement from the early Iron Age; town in the Picenum, regio V, on a rise (319 m) on the right bank of the Tinna, modern Fermo (Ascoli P.), 8 km from the Adriatic coast where the harbour was situated (Φίρμον Πικηνόν· ἐπίνειον ... Κάστελλον, Str. 5,4,2 or castellum Firmanorum, Plin. HN 3,111). In 264 BC it was a colony with ius Latii (Vell. Pat. 1,14,7), five quaestores. In the war with Hannibal it sided with Rome, in the Social War it was a Rom…

Trebiae

(51 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Umbrian settlement (412 m high) on the upper reaches of the Clitumnus, later a municipium above the Via Flaminia , Regio VI, ethnic Trebiates (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Trevi with remains of the city wall. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Sensi, T., in: Quaderni Istituto Topografia Antica 6, 1974, 183-190.

Venaria

(32 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum between Corsica and the Etruscan coast (Plin. HN. 3,81), not precisely located. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography W. V. Harris, Rome in Etruria and Umbria, 1971, 118.

Casinum

(154 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Oscan, later Volscian and Samnite town in the Liris valley. Because of its location on the via Latina, C. played a strategically important role during the Samnite wars; it probably became a colonia Romana in 312 BC. The acropolis was located in Montecassino, a walled circle ( opus polygonale) enclosed C. on the slope south of the modern Cassino (province of Frosinone). Archaeological monuments: amphitheatre, forum (on a terrace with a temple), theatre; villa with thermae on the Rapido, attributed to Varro; a…

Telesia

(179 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City of the Samnites in Campania in the valley on the right side of the river Calor (modern Calore) at its confluence with the Volturnus (modern Volturno) at the branching of the roads from Alifae to Beneventum and Capua. In 217 BC T. was conquered by Hannibal [4], in 214 by Fabius [I 30] (Pol. 3,90,8; Liv. 22,13). T. was a colonia Herculea (ILS 5987) probably from the time of Sulla with new buildings, then a municipium of Regio IV, tribus Falerna. Copper coins: TELIS. There is evidence of centuriation (Surveyors)…

Digentia

(43 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Stream in the ager Sabinus, received the fons Bandusia, passed by the villa of Horatius Flaccus (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104) and entered the Anio on the right side between Mandela and Varia; modern Licenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 616.

Argoos Limen

(30 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ἀργῷος λιμήν; Argôios limḗn). Port on  Ilva, named after the resting place of the  Argonauts (Str. 5,2,6; Apoll. Rhod. 4,658), modern Portoferraio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Ficulea

(94 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town in Latium, north-east of Rome on the via Ficulensis (Liv. 3,52,3), subsequently the via Nomentana [1. 43], localized near Casale di Marco Simone Vecchio. It was originally founded by Aborigines (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,16), then by the Prisci Latini; captured by Tarquinius Priscus (Liv. 1,38,4); municipium (Plin. HN 3,64). Atticus (Cic. Att. 12,34) and Martial (6,27,2) owned estates near F. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topografico-antiquaria della carta dei d…

Vettona

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City in Umbria on a hill on the left side of the Tiberis between Tuder and Perusia, modern Bettona. Municipium of the tribus Clustumina [1. 271]. Walls in opus quadratum (Masonry); necropoleis from the 4th cent. BC until the 2nd cent. AD. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 L. R. Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, 1960. G. Becatti , Nota topografica sulle mura di Bettona, in: SE 8, 1934, 397-400  C. Pietrangeli, s. v. Bettona, EAA 2, 76.

Verrugo

(116 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volsci border city in Latium, which changed owners several times - occupied and fortified by the Romans in 445 BC (Liv. 4,1,4), reconquered by the Volsci in 422, conquered again by the Romans in 409 (Liv. 4,55,8), reconquered by the Volsci in 407 (Liv. 4,58,3). In 394 V. found itself in Roman hands again (Liv. 5,28,6). The place name can be derived from Latin verruca = locus editus asperque = 'high-lying rough place' (Cato in Gell. NA 3,7,6; cf. Diod. Sic. 14,11; a place name occurring from Tridentum to Eryx [1] in Sicily). Location uncertain, po…

Fidentia

(127 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Augural name of a town in the western Aemilia ( regio VIII) on the via Aemilia (It. Ant. 288; It. Burd. 616; Tab. Peut. 4,3) on the crossing of the river Stirone, in the Middle Ages Borgo San Donnino, from 1927 Fidenza (Parma). It was founded as a municipium in the 2nd cent. BC; during the Civil War, it was besieged by Lucullus in 82 BC (Plut. Sulla 17; Vell. Pat. 2,28; Liv. Epit. 88). It later declined to become vicus Fidentiola (It. Ant. 99; 127). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Aimi, Storia di F., 1982 M. Calvani Marini, F., 1977 M. Catarsi, Il territorio fidenti…

Togisonus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia (Plin. HN 3,121), probably arising from the confluence of the Retron (modern Retrone) and the Astagus (modern Astico) in the area of Vicetia (modern Vicenza) with other rivers to the north of thr Atesis; modern Bacchiglione. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. B. Castiglioni, Abbozzo di una carta dell'antica idrografia nella pianura tra Vicenza e Padova, in: P. Innocenti (ed.), Scritti geografici. FS A. Sestini, vol. 1, 1982, 183-197.

Numicus

(144 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (also Numicius). Minor river in Latium Vetus, where Aeneas [1] was said to have landed; the place was named Troy and consecrated to Sol Indiges. According to CIL XIV 2065, the N. was in territorio Lavinas (‘in the territory of Lavinium’). There was a heroon of Aeneas there (Serv. Aen. 7,150). The Iuturna, whose waters were taken to Rome and used in sacrifices to Vesta (Serv. Aen. 12,139), rose nearby. Anna Perenna was described as nympha Numici (Ov. Fast. 3,653). Identification of the N. is not certain: it may be the Fosso di Pratica di Mare (Pomezia, pro…

Nepete

(126 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae (Νέπητα; Népēta). Etruscan town east of Sutrium on the via Amerina (Tab. Peut. 5,3), modern Nepi (Province Viterbo). In 383 (Liv. 6,21,4) or 373 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,14,2), it became a colonia Latina, later municipium, possibly tribus Stellatina; ethnikon Nepesinus. Cults: Diana, Ceres, Augustales. N. was located on a wedge-shaped terrace between two gorges. Settlement and necropolis date to the 8th cent. BC. Chamber tombs with dromos, tuff walls from the beg…

Hispellum

(128 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae Town in Umbria on a rise of Monte Subasio, modern Spello. Settled since the 7th cent. BC, connected to the via Flaminia, municipium, Tribus Lemonia, Colonia Iulia (possibly since the Second Triumvirate).The source of the  Clitumnus lay in the territory of H. (Plin. Ep. 8,8,6). Under Constantinus the town was Colonia Flavia Constans with a temple of the Gens Flavia and had the privilege of celebrating annually an Umbrian festival (ILS 705 of 333/337). Archaeology: remains o…

Abellinum

(169 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town of the  Hirpini in  Campania, on the border of southern Samnium ( Samnites), close to the modern Cività. A colonia under Sulla, Augustus, and Severus Alexander, it rose to   civitas , tribus Galeria. A. is situated on a terrace on the left bank of the Sabato river, west of Atripalda. Two wall circuits are preserved ( opus quadratum, 3rd cent. BC, opus reticulatum with towers and moats of the Augustan colony), also baths, houses, an amphitheatre south of the town outside the walls; aqueduct to …

Treba

(69 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Aequi in the Colles Simbruini (modern Simbruini Mountains) in the valley of the upper Anio; modern Trevini nel Lazio, 821 m elevation; municipium of Regio I (Plin. HN 3,64), tribus Aniensis; ethnicon Trebani (ILS 6264;  cf.  Ptol. 3,1,62; Frontin.  Aq. 93,3: T. Augusta). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Quilici Gigli, Appunti di topografia per la storia di Trevi nel Lazio, in: MEFRA 99, 1987, 129-69.

Furfo

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Vicus of the Vestini ( regio IV) on the upper reaches of the Aternus (Pescara), in the territorium of Peltuinum (CIL IX 3524), and near the church of Santa Maria di Furfona, 15 km south-east of L'Aquila; administered by two aediles. Cult of Jupiter Liber (58 BC; CIL I2, 756). Located on the road between Prifernum and Peltuinum, later named via Claudia Nova. Inscriptions: CIL IX p. 333, 3513-3568. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 442 Ruggiero 3, 1922, 353, s.v. F.

Lorium

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the via Aurelia, 12 miles outside Rome (It. Ant. 290; Tab. Peut. 5,5), modern La Bottaccia near Castel di Guido. Antoninus Pius died here in his villa (SHA Antoninus Pius 1,8; 12,6). Marcus [2] Aurelius also stayed here (Fronto, Ad Marcum 2,15; 3,20; 5,7). An episcopal see in the 5th cent. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Castagnoli (ed.), La via Aurelia, 1968.

Rufrae, Rufrium

(129 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement in Samnium (cf. Rufrani vicani, ILS 80; 5759), conquered by the Romans early in the 2nd Samnite War in 326 BC (Liv. 8,25,4: Rufrium; Sil. Pun. 8,568), subsequently named castellum Campaniae (Serv. Aen. 7,739) and tribus Teretina (CIL X 4836), on the Via Latina. R. is situated on the middle reaches of the Volturnus in the region of San Felice a Ruvo, west of Presenzano (province of Caserta); remains of a small Roman theatre and statues of Augustus and Agrippa have been found there. Cato praises oil presses from R. (Cato Agr. 22,4; 135,2: ad Rufri Maceriam). …

Minio

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in southern Etruria, modern Mignone, the border between Tarquinia and Caere (Serv. Aen. 10,183; Munio, Rut. Namat. 1,279). Crossed by the Via Aurelia at the confluence of the Graviscae and the Centumcellae. Etruscan fortifications at a Bronze Age settlement above Stazione di Monte Romano, Luni sul Mignone. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 308; 2, 332 L. Banti, Il mondo degli Etruschi, 1969, 61f. BTCGI 9, 287-291.

Aternus

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium (CIL IX 3337-8), flanked by the via Claudia Nova from Amiternum to its confluence with the Tirinus, and by the via Claudia Valeria (CIL IX 5973) to Ostia Aternus (port of the Vestini, vicus and mansio at the junction with the coastal road along the Adriatic, modern Pescara). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Bibl. Top. 13, 1994, 477-488.

Flavinium

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in the regio VII (Etruria) at the southern foot of the  Soracte (Verg. Aen. 7,696; Serv. Aen. ad 1; Sil. 8,490) where according to Sil. 13,85 the Capenas (modern Gramiccia?) caused floods. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Caieta

(191 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, located in the foothills of the same name which form the western end of the sinus Caietanus or Formianus; modern Gaeta (province of Latina). It was reputedly named after either  Aeetes, the father of Medea (Lycoph. 1274), or the wet-nurse of  Aeneas [1], who was supposedly buried there (Verg. Aen. 7,1-7), or after the shoals in its bay (Laconian καιέτας, Str. 5,3,6); temple of Apollo (Liv. 40,2,4). In Roman times, it was a health resort, same as Formiae (four miles away), with villae and attached mausolea. C. was also the location of the villae of S…

Tarus

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), modern Taro (126 km long). It rises in the Ligurian Appenninus and flows through Forum Novum; it was crossed by the Via Aemilia  (where the Ad Tarum road station was: It. Burd. 616,14) and into the Padus at Parma [1]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Frigidus

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the river Sontius in East Venetia, modern Vipacco/Wippach, also a station on the via Gemina, 36 miles east of Aquileia (It. Ant. 18), modern Aidussina/Haidenschaft. Here, Theodosius defeated the usurper Eugenius in AD 394 (Claud. De III consulatu Honorii 99). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Gallunianum

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praedium (estate) in Etruria, then a centre of settlement with ecclesia, modern Galognano near Siena, mentioned in inscriptions on liturgical silver objects (6th cent. AD, now in the Pinacoteca of Siena). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography O. von Hessen, W. Kurze, C. A. Mastrelli, Il tesoro ecclesiastico di Galognano, 1977 M. M. Mango, Silver from Early Byzantium, 1986, 250-254 S. A. Boyd, M. M. Mango, Ecclesiastical Silver Plate, 1992, 134.

Sabinum

(239 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Country estate of the poet Horace (Horatius [7], cf. Hor. Carm. 2,18,14; Hor. Epist. 1,16), probably a gift from Maecenas [2] (Hor. Sat. 2,3,305 ff.). It was located in the territory of the Sabini on the stream Digentia (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104; present-day Licenza), a right tributary of the Anio, north of Varia (present-day Vicovaro) from where the estate obtained agrarian products (Hor. Carm. 1,20,1; 22,9; 2,18,14; 3,1,47; 4,22; Hor. Sat. 2,7,118), above the village of Mandela (Hor…

Buxentum

(133 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae Town in Lucania, modern Policastro Bussentino (Salerno province) at the Gulf of Policastro. It succeeded the Greek settlement of Pyxus (coins minted in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC: HN 83), was newly founded under Micythus of Messene in 471 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,59,4; Str. 6,1,1), and subsequently left to the Lucani. Roman colonia in 194 BC, renewed in 186 BC (Liv. 32,29,4; 34,45,2; 39,22,4), in 89 BC municipium of the tribus Pomptina. Bishop's seat in AD 592. Both the river, which d…

Rapinium

(29 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small site fit for landing ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 498,6 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Centumcellae and Graviscae, modern Bagni Sant'Agostino. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Minturnae

(434 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae Chief town of the Aurunci (Ausones), 97 miles from Rome, on both banks, connected by a ford, of the lower Liris, which formed the border between Latium and Campania, in a broad coastal plain on the Gulf of Formiae (modern Gulf of Gaeta) to the east of where the via Appia emerges from the narrow strip of land between the Aurunci mountains and the sea. M. and its port facilities were the trading centre of the region. M. is first menti…

Nomentum

(155 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Latini, Latium (or Numentum). Latin town founded by Alba Longa (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,53; Verg. Aen. 6,773; 7,706) in Sabine territory on the left bank of the Tiber on the Via Nomentana (Tab. Peut. 5,5), 14 miles north east of Rome, modern Mentana. Member of the Latin League (Latini, with map). N. received the civitas Romana, under a dictator, in 338 BC (Liv. 8,14,3). Martial praised N., especially the merits of its vineyards (Mart. 2,38; 10,48; 13,119; Columella 3,2f.; Plin. HN 14,23; 48) and …

Tarracina

(210 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae Originally Anxur (Liv. 4,59,4), a city of the Ausoni and the Volsci on a rocky promontory on the coast of Latium Adiectum, modern Terracina (Latina). Conquered in 406 BC by the Romans who established a colonia maritima ( Coloniae C.) there in 329 BC. T. was linked to Rome in 312 BC by a stretch of the via Appia ( decumanus maximus). Municipium of the tribus Oufentina. The city wall survives, as does the 'Forum Aemilianum' (paved by Aulus Aemilius, modern P…

Mandela

(70 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Pagus (‘district) in the land of the Sabini (Hor. Epist. 1,18,105) at the confluence of Digentia and Anio, later Massa Mandelana (CIL XIV 3482), modern Mandela near Vicovaro. Near M. Chalcolithic tomb chambers and a Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Lugli, La villa sabina di Orazio, in: Monumenti antichi, pubblicati dall' Accademia dei Lincei 31, 1926, 457-598 C. F. Giuliani, in: Tibur 2, 1966, 67-77.

Aventia

(23 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in the  Apuani region in Etruria (Tabula Peutingeriana), possibly that known today as the Avenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Suessa Pometia

(139 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Latium, not located. Colony of Alba Longa, occupied by the Volsci, destroyed by Tarquinius Superbus (Liv. 1,53,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,50; Tac. Hist. 3,72); conquered again by the Romans in 495 BC (Liv. 2,17,1; 2,25,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,29). According to [1; 2], SP refers to the pre-Volscan phase of Satricum (10th-6th cent. BC), according to [3; 4], it is identical to Apiolae or can be located in a pre-Roman city discovered at Cisterna di Latina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 C. M. Stibbe, …

Aesis

(78 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River, forming the border between  Picenum and the  Senones (Liv. 5,35), later taken as Umbrian ( Umbria), modern Esino. From its source on the territory of Sentinum, it runs to the Adriatic, where its mouth is bridged by the   via Flaminia at the   statio ad Aesim (modern Falconara Marittima) (large cistern: three parallel water chambers). The A. valley was known for its excellent cheeses (Plin. 3,112; 11,241). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Q. Maule, SE 59, 1993, 87-102.

Bovillae

(146 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium, colony of Alba Longa, ancestral seat of the gens Iulia, 11 miles south-east of Rome in Frattocchie near the via Appia, which had been extended to B. in 294 BC. B. became a municipium under Sulla. In 52 BC, it was the location of the dispute between Clodius and Milo. In memory of the obsequies of Augustus, Tiberius erected a memorial to the gens Iulia in B. (Tac. Ann. 2,41). Monuments: remains of quadratic town walls made from tufa ( lapis peperinus) near Due Santi, and also of the arcades of a circus and a theatre. Villa of Domitianus. Aqueducts and three cister…

Iulium Carnicum

(105 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Coloniae Venetic, later Celtic ( Carni) settlement centre, probably constituted as a Roman vicus after the attack of the  Iapodes in 52 BC. Municipium since Augustus, colonia since Claudius. Location: on the road from Aquileia to Aguntum. Local Belenus cult. After its destruction, most likely by  Alaricus [2], the inhabitants moved to the hill of San Pietro, modern Zuglio. Archaeology: forum with porticus, capitolium, in the south a basilica; thermae; aqueduct; early Christian cemetery basilica. Uggeri, Giova…

Clitumnus

(167 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small river in Umbria, tributary of the Tiberis, modern Timia. The sources of the C. (between Spoletium and Fulginiae below Trebiae) were made famous by Plin. Ep. 8,8; Caligula and Honorius visited them; they were surrounded by chapels for the god of the same name and other oracle deities, taken care of by the citizens of Hispellum; sacraria of a statio of the via Flaminia (It. Burd. 613); villae in the surrounding area. In S. Salvatore de Piscina (6th cent. AD) reused stones and inscriptions have been used in buildings (CIL II 4963). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography…

Falesia

(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour on the Etruscan coast opposite Ilva (modern Elba), 12 miles south of Populonia (It. Ant. 501; Faleria, Rut. Namat. 1,371, should be corrected to Falesia [2]). In the Middle Ages Porto di Felesa [1], modern Piombino (Livorno). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 G. Targioni Tozzetti, Relazione d'alcuni viaggi fatti in diverse parti della Toscana 4, 1751, 250 2 R. Gelsomino, Nota a Rut. Nam. 1,371, in: Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale 15, 1973, 35-47.

Martis, ad

(117 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Various stations derived their names from a cult site of Mars ad ( fanum) Martis. [German version] [1] Station on the road through the Alpes Cottiae Station on the road through the Alpes Cottiae above Segusio at the confluence of the Bardonecchia and the Dora Riparia, modern Oulx. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Station in Etruria Station in Etruria near Pescia on the Via Cassia between Pistoriae and Luca. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [3] Station in Umbria Station in Umbria on the Via Flaminia, 74 miles from Rome, between Narnia and Mevania ( Vicus Martis …

Mons Circeius

(149 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Cape on the Tyrrhenian Sea, said by the sources to have been an island connected to the mainland by silting (Theophr. C. plant. 5,8,3; Plin. HN 2,201), modern Circeo (513 m high). The MC has been identified with the island of Circe (Hom. Od. 12,9; Hes. Theog. 1011f.). In the Roman period, Circe and Athena were venerated here (CIL X 6422; Strab. 5,3,6). The grave mound of Elpenor was displayed (Ps.-Scyl. 8). Nearby: villa of Domitian. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography T. Ashby, Monte Circeo, in: MEFRA 25, 1905, 147-209  G. Lugli, Circeii, 1928  R. Righi, La villa di…

Soracte

(178 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Limestone ridge (691m), present-day Soratte to the northwest of Sant’Oreste, cut off from the Appennines in South Etruria in the territory of the Falisci to the right of the Tiber between the via Flaminia in the west and the via Tiberina in the east. It dominates the Campagna Romana and is visible from Rome (Hor. Carm. 1,9). Apollo (Verg. Aen. 11,785; Sil. Pun. 5,175; 7,662; 8,492; sanctus Soranus Apollo: ILS 3034). The Manes and Dis Pater Soranus were worshipped as a cult. At its base lies Feronia with a sanctuary to the Sabine goddess of the sam…

Salpinates

(31 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Community in Etruria, probably near modern Orvieto; allies of the Volsinii against Rome in 392/1, but without success (Liv. 5,31,5; 32,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 339.

Auser

(59 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in the Apennine Mountains (Plin. HN 3,50) in the territory of the Apuani; rising near Luca, it used to discharge into the Arnus near Pisa; nowadays, it has its own mouth into the Tyrrhenian Sea; modern Serchio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Castagnoli, SE 20, 1948-49, 285-90 G. Ciampoltrini, SE 58, 1992, 53-74; SE 59, 1993, 59-86.

Xiphonia

(78 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ξιφωνία; Xiphōnía). Port (Scyl. 13) and headland (Str. 6,2,2) on the eastern coast of Sicily on an elongated  sword-like (cf. ξίφος/ xíphos, 'sword') peninsula in the east of Megara [3], on which the king Frederick II  founded the city of Augusta in the 13th cent. X. played an important part in connection with Hannibal's [2] sea manoeuvres in 263 BC (Diod. 23,4,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 62, 241 f.

Amiternum

(166 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre Town of the  Sabini (Str. 5,3,1; Liv. 38,45,19) in a fertile region, situated on a terrace, the source of the river Aternus, which gives its name to the town (Varro, Ling. 5,28); modern Vittorino near L'Aquila on the via Caecilia between Rome and Hadria. A Roman   praefectura from 293 BC, it then became a   municipium of the tribus Quirina with   octoviri . Birthplace of  Sallustius (86 BC). Augustan theatre ( opus reticulatum), leaning against the hillside; an amphitheatre (90 x 68 m…

Tifernus

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium (Samnites; Plin. HN 3,103; 3,106; Ptol. 3,1,18: Φιτέρνος/ Phitérnos), modern Biferno. It rises on T. Mons (modern Matese), forms the border with Campania, flows through the territory of the Pentri of Bovianum and Fagifulae, separates the Frentani from the Larinates (Larinum) and flows into the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos) to the south of Buca (modern Termoli). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Barker, A Mediterranean Valley, 1995  S. P. Oakley, The Hill-Forts of the Samnites, 1995, 107-120.

Ager Caecubus

(65 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Swamp in  Latium (on the Lago di Fondi with a floating island) close to the ancient Amyclae, famous for its wines, especially the sorts Falernus and Setinus (CIL VI 9797). Verified in Rome by numerous amphoras with the inscription Caec(ubum vinum); at the time of Pliny, however, this wine had already become a rarity (Plin. HN 14,61). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Iguvium

(320 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Italy, languages | Oracles Town in Umbria on a hill in the upper valley of the Tiber, controlled an important traffic route linking the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coasts via the Pass of Scheggia (63 m), modern Gubbio. Minted its own coins ( IKVVINI, IKVVINS [1. 140-152]). After 268 BC it was civitas foederata (Cic. Balb. 47). In 167 BC the Illyrian king Genthius was interned here (Liv. 45,43,9). After the Social War it was municipium, tribus Clustumina. Pompey's base in the Civil War; occupied by Ca…

Scultenna

(64 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-hand tributary of the Padus (Po) in Aemilia, which flows down from the Apennines from the territory of the Ligures Friniates (Liv. 41,12,18) into the region of Mutina. In the valley of the S. sheep were bred (particularly soft wool, cf. Str. 5,1,12: Σκουλτάννα). Today the river is called Scoltenna in the mountains, Panaro on the plain. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Mugilla

(35 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Liv. 2,39; Ethnikon Μογιλλανοί, Dion. Hal. ant. 8,36,2). Oppidum in Latium at Corioli. The gens of the Papirii Mugillani (Papirius) presumably originated there. Its precise location is unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Herculaneus rivus

(96 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Branch of the aqua Marcia in Rome behind the horti Pallantiani (Frontin. Aq. 19,8) south of the porta Tiburtina, which supplied the regiones I, XI and XII via the Caelius mons and the Porta Capena. The association of a Herculaneus rivus (HR) with the aqua Virgo in Plin. HN 31,42 is probably due to a mistake. Another HR was the permanent spring that supplied the Anio novus 38 miles east of Rome at the via Sublacensis (Frontin. Aq. 15,4f.). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Richardson, 17f. D. Cattolini, s.v. H.r., LTUR 1, 1993, 69.

Cluviae

(95 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Main centre of the  Carricini in Samnium, mentioned for events in 311 BC (Liv. 9,31,2f.); municipium since the 1st cent. BC, tribus Arnensis; birthplace of Helvidius Priscus (Tac. Hist. 4,5). Archaeological monuments: remains on the Piano Laroma at Aventino near Cásoli (Chieti); opus incertum and reticulatum; theatre in opus reticulatum with audience seating adjoining the city walls; thermal springs; domus suburbana with mosaics. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. La Regina, C. e il territorio Carecino, in: RAL 22, 1967, 87-99 A. Pellegrino, Il Sann…

Triturrita

(26 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Late Roman villa (Rut. Nam. 1,531; Portus [7] Pisanus) on the coast of the Mare Tyrrhenum at modern Livorno. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Gorgone

(84 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Rut. Namat. 1,515; Γοργόνη/ Gorgónē, Ptol. 3,1,78; Ὀργών/ Orgṓn, Steph. Byz. s.v.; Lat. Urgo, Plin. HN 3,81; Gorgona from the time of Gregory the Great). Small island in the mare Ligusticum between Pisa and Corsica; modern Gorgona. Eneolithic (early 2nd millennium BC) finds in the Grotta di San Gorgonio. A bronze crater from Vulci was found on the coast (late 6th cent. BC, today in the Vatican Museum). In the north, ruins of a Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 8, 1990, 161-163.

Frusino

(126 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (modern Frosinone). City in Latium adiectum on the via Latina, seven miles from Ferentinum on a hill (291 m) left of Cosa (modern Acquosa). In 306 BC it instigated a rebellion of the Hernici (Diod. Sic. 20,80), whose leaders were executed in 303; a third of F.'s territory was confiscated (Liv. 10,1,3) and F. was reduced to a praefectura. After the Social War municipium, tribus oufentina; in the Imperial period colonia (CIL X 5662f.; [1. 233]). Early historical finds, remains of city wall and amphitheatre; aqueduct (Ponte della Fontana). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibl…

Hadria

(247 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Regio, regiones (modern Atri). At first Hatria, later H., town 7 km west of the Adriatic coast in the south of Picenum ( regio V) between the Vomanus (modern Vomano; Sil. Pun. 8,438) and the Matrinus (modern Piomba). Founded by the Siculi and Liburni, captured by the Piceni. After its subjugation a colonia Latina was founded (289 BC; Liv. per. 11) that minted coins bearing the legend HAT(ria) (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἁτρία). Municipium, tribus Maecia [1. 64], recolonized by Sulla or Augustus. T…

Fregenae

(97 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae City on the Tyrrhenian coast in South Etruria ( regio VII) at the mouth of the Aro, which drains the lacus Sabatinus. Half-way (9 miles from  Ostia and  Alsium) between the via Portuensis and the via Aurelia (It. Ant. 300), modern Maccarese. In 245 BC, a colonia of Roman citizens (Liv. per. 19; Vell. Pat. 1,14,8). Inscriptions: CIL XI p. 549. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Branchini, F. e dintorni, 1991 Nissen 2, 350 Ruggiero 3, 216.

Lucretilis

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Mons amoenus (‘a delightful mountain’) in the territory of the Sabines, mentioned by Hor. Carm. 1,17 as close to his villa near Digentia (Licenza), possibly Monte Gennaro, which is visible from Rome. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. De Angelis, P. Lanzara, Monti Lucretili, 1980 E. A. Schmidt, Sabinum, 1997.

Lucus Feroniae

(279 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Southern sanctuary in the region of Capena This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Southern Etruscan sanctuary in the region of Capena (Liv. 1,30) on the Tiber below Soracte in a forest sacred to Feronia. The cult is said to have been founded at the initiative of Propertius, the king of Veii (Cato fr. 48 P). According to Liv. 1,30,5, a sheep and wool market was held here every year from the time of Tullus Hostilius onwards. Hannibal plundered the treasure of the sanctuary in 21…

Aufidus

(108 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Largest river in Apulia (134 km in length), modern Ofanto. It forms the border between Daunia and Peucetia (Pol. 3,110,9; Liv. 22,44; Str. 6,3,9; Plin. HN 3,102; Ptol. 3,1,15; Plut. Fab. 15). It rises near Compsa, flows around Monte Voltur, is crossed by the via Appia at the statio of Pons A., and passes through Canusium, where it is still crossed by an extant bridge of the via Traiana, and through Cannae. The port (ad Aufidum/Aufidena) at its mouth into the Adriatic served as a statio of the coastal road. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Civiltà antiche del medio…

Barpana

(20 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island between the Etruscan coast and Corsica, possibly Scoglio d'Affrica (Formica di Montecristo). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Astura

(153 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Latium (Fest. 418,20f.: Stura; Str. 5,3,6), modern Torre Astura, running from   mons Albanus through the Pomptine marshes to the coast between Antium and the Circeius mons, its mouth opposite the island of the same name (Plin. HN 3,57; 81). In 338 BC, this was the site of the battle of the consul Maenius against the Latini and Volsci (Liv. 8,13,5; 12). Cicero owned a villa there, his retreat after the death of his daughter; also, a villa of Augustus and Tiberius (remains of a large-scale fish pond and a pergola on the island -- then linked by a brid…

Parma

(234 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] A City on the later via Aemelia This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Regio, regiones Established in 183 BC as a colonia, together with Mutina in the region neighbouring the Boii (formerly Tusci) (Liv. 39,55,6-8) on the P., a right-hand tributary of the Padus, with 2,000 Roman citizens each with eight iugera of land; tribus Pollia, in the r egio VIII Augustea (Aemilia) from the time of Augustus, still called P. today. The city was situated on what was to become later  the via Aemilia betw…

Faesulae

(281 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Natural catastrophes Town in northern Etruria ( regio VII) on a rise above Florence north of the Arno, modern Fiesole. Etruscan name Vipsl [1. 675ff.]. Mentioned by Pol. 2,25,6 in relation to the Celtic invasion of 225 BC. In 217 Hannibal marched from F. to Lake Trasimena (Pol. 3,80; 82). In the Social War, F. was destroyed by L. Porcius Cato (Flor. 2,6,1…

Horta

(115 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria ( Hortanum, Plin. HN 3,52). Etruscan town on a volcanic mountain to the right of the Tiber, modern Orte; a place of commercial importance where several roads meet. Settled since the 6th cent. BC (necropolis of Le Piane), municipium after the  Social War [3], tribus Stellatina [1. 85]. Connected by a bridge with the vicus of the river port on the left bank of the river; recorded as Castellum Amerinum in the Tab. Peut. Remains of quays, warehouses, baths. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 W. Kubitschek, Im…

Lacus Albanus

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Lake in the largest of the volcanic craters of the mons Albanus , where Alba Longa and various villas were located, e.g. those of Pompey and Domitian, as well as the Castra Albana of Septimius Severus. In 398 BC the water level was regulated through a drainage channel (Liv. 5,15; Cic. Div. 1,100). Famous wines grew on the slopes (Plin. HN 14,64; 23,33). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography P. Chiarucci, Albano Laziale, 1988.

Collatia

(146 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Colonia Latina of Alba Longa on the left bank of the Anio between Rome and Tibur. Occupied by the Sabini, conquered by Rome under Tarquinius Priscus. Well known on account of the rape of Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius. A gateway in Rome is named after C. (cf. Paul Fest. 33,18ff.), as is the via Collatina (Frontin. Aq. 5). After the decline of the city (Plin. HN. 3,68), many grand villae were built in the area (archaeological discoveries). C. is identified with the fortress of Lunghezza on a hill to the left of the Anio, where finds have been made of…

Sulmo

(160 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Italy, languages (Σουλμῶν; Soulmôn). City of the Paeligni (Str. 5,4,2; Ptol. 3,1,64), regio IV, present-day Sulmona (L'Aquila). The city became a Roman ally in 304 BC (Liv. 9,45; Diod. Sic. 20,101), municipium, tribus Sergia from 89 BC. The design of the city is orthogonal (400 × 400 m), centres of the Paeligni were located on the hills to the south around the basin of S. (cf. Colle Mitra, Piano della Civitella, Colle Tassito). Remnants of a sanctuary of Hercules Curinus were f…

Allifae

(138 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae City in southern  Samnium in a loop of the Volturnus at the foot of mons   Tifernus , modern Alife. Minting in the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC. Entangled in the Samnite Wars (building of walls at the foot of Monte Cila). Founding of a   colonia with triumviri (CIL IX p. 264). Preserved structures are the intact, right-angled surrounding wall in opus incertum with four gates, square and round towers as well as the right-angled complex; the theatre with an extension from the Antonine period; a…

Vatrenus

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River which rises in the Appenninus, passes Forum Cornelii (modern Imola) and flows into the Adriatic to the north of Ravenna (Plin. HN. 3,119 f.; Mart. 3,67,2: Vaternus), modern Santerno. In the Roman period it flowed from the right into the Spineticus, a branch of the Padus (modern Po); the port at its mouth was therefore called Portus Vatreni. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, La romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 37.

Lacus Velinus

(231 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A lake formed by the rivers Avens, Himella and Tolenus in the territory of the Sabini in the plains below Reate. It was partially drained in 272 BC by the consul Curius [4], through the drainage system of the Cascata delle Marmore, which gave the waters of the Avens an artificial outlet. The lake drained into the Nar above Interamna [1]. Q. Axius (Varro, Rust. 2,1,8) and Cicero (Att. 4,15) [1] had villas here. The drainage of Lacus Velinus caused quarrels between Reate and Interamna (Varro, Rust. 3,2,3; Cic. Att. 4,15,5; Cic. Scaur. 12,27; Tac. Ann. 1,79; palus Reatina, Plin. …

Tuficum

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria City in Umbria (Umbri) on the upper Aesis, municipium of the tribus Oufentina [1] (Plin. HN 3,114; Ptol. 3,1,53; CIL XI 5711; 5718), modern Borgo Tufico (formerly Ficano) near Albacina (Macerata). T. was on a side road to the Via Flaminia , branching off at Helvillum (modern Fossato di Vico?) and leading to Aesis (modern Iesi) on the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 L. R. Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, 1960, 273. Nissen 2, 386.

Tifernum Tiberinum

(107 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City in Umbria (Umbri; Plin. HN 3,114) in the valley of the upper Tiber, modern Città di Castello; no remains survive; municipium of the tribus Clustumina (CIL XI 5939; 5942). T. was connected by road to Perusia and Arretium. Nearby there is a sanctuary in the oriental style; thermae at Rignaldello. A villa of Plinius [2] the Younger was to the north of T. (Plin. Ep. 4,1; 5,6; modern Colle Plinio near Lama, Selci). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography R. Margherini Graziani, Storia di Città di Castello, 1890 D. Diringer, Edizione Archeologica della Carta d'It…

Medullia

(58 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the prisci Latini, founded by Alba Longa north of the Anio (Liv. 1,33,4; 38,4; Medullum, Plin. HN 3,68). The town was captured by the Romans in the war against the Latini (340-338 BC). Deserted by the end of the Roman Republic; its exact location is unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 563.

Incitaria

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Ships' mooring (It. Maritimum 499) on the promonturium Argentarium in Etruria, modern Porto Santo Stefano. The place name is to be interpreted as ‘ in cetaria’ and therefore denotes a fishing-port for tuna fish. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography R. Bronson, G. Uggeri, Isola del Giglio, in: SE 38, 1970, 208f.

Utens

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River which rises in the Appenninus, forms the northern border of the territory of the Senones [1] ( Ager Gallicus )  (Liv. 5,35,3) and discharges into the  Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos) to the north of Ariminum (modern Rimini) between the Rivers  Ariminus and Rubico; modern Uso. Scarcely identifiable with the Vitis in Plin. HN 3,115 (modern Montone?). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 250; 257  G. Radke, s. v. Viae Publicae Romanae, RE Suppl. 13, 1417-1686, here 1577 f.

Ampsanctus

(139 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake within the territory of the  Hirpini (accordingly: Valle d'Ansanto) with sulphuric vapours, colloquially called ‘Mufite’. Access to the underworld (Verg. Aen. 7,563 ff.). Nearby (near Valli), a sanctuary of the goddess  Mefitis (verified from 6th cent. BC to 1st cent. AD: Cic. Div. 1,79; Verg. Aen. 7,563-571; Plin. HN 2,208; for the 4th cent. AD: Claud. Rapt. Pros. 2,350). Finds of votive gifts: coins, bronze and terracotta objects, wooden statuettes; an Oscan dedication to Mefitis Aravina. Inscriptions: CIL IX 1023-34. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bib…

Ocriculum

(162 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria Umbrian town (Umbrian ocre = Latin arx, 'citadel') in a dominant position on the left bank of the Tiber, allied to Rome from 308 BC. The Roman town developed during the Augustan period on the via Flaminia, 44 km from Rome and 12 from Narnia. In 90 BC, O. became the municipium of the tribus Arnensis (CIL XI 4081ff.), later in regio VI; modern Otricoli on the slopes of the Umbrian town, while the Roman settlement was lower in a westerly direction towards the Tiber at San Vittore. Remains…

Trebia

(93 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), into which it flows at Placentia  (Plin. HN 3,118), modern Trebbia; it rises in the Ligurian Appenninus. It was on the T. that in 218 BC the first fighting between the Romans and Hannibal [4] took place (Pol. 3,66-74; Liv. 21,52-56). In its valley are the sacrarium Minervae Medicae Cabardiacensis and the Bobbio monastery founded in 612 by Saint Columbanus. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Marchetti, P. Dall'Aglio, La battaglia del Trebbia, in: Atti dell' istituto de geologia dell' università di…

Ariminum

(249 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Caesar | Umbri, Umbria | Christianity | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt Town of the  Umbri in Emilia on the southern bank of the Ariminus mouth (canal port), modern Rimini. Archaeological remains of the  Villanova culture and of the  Celts, Attic ceramics. From 268 BC colonia Latina (6,000 colonists; Vell. Pat. 1,14,6; Eutr.2,16); strategically important outpost in  Gallia Cisalpina (Pol. 3,61,11;…

Faventia

(288 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) A town of eastern Aemilia located on the via Aemilia (Itin. Gaditanum 90; It. Ant. 100; 126; 287; It. Burd. 616; Tab. Peut. 4,5) at the crossing of the Anemo (Lamone), modern Faenza. Late Republican foundation (augural name), municipium, tribus Pollia [5. 93]. In 82 affected by the Civil War (Liv. Epit. 88; Vell. Pat.2,28; App. B Civ. 1,91). Famous for wine (Varro Rust. 1,2,7) and linen production (Plin. HN 19,9). Early Christian diocese. Prehistoric settleme…

Fossae Papirianae

(59 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Navigable  canal on the Etruscan coast ( regio VII) between Pisae and Luna with a road station on the via Aemilia Scauri (Ptol. 3,1,43; It. Ant. 293; Tab. Peut. 4,1) near Massarosa (Lucca). The builder, a Republican official, is not identified. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Neppi Modona, Carta archeologica d'Italia 104, 1956, 16 Nissen 2, 287.

Gabii

(480 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus City of the Latini east of Rome on the south-eastern banks of the Lago di Castiglione (a volcanic crater) left of the Anio, 12 miles from Rome, modern Gabi (Roma). According to legend, it was of Siculan origin or a foundation by Alba Longa. It was here that Romulus and Remus allegedly were instructed in literature, music, and the use of Greek weapons (links with Greece, culturally dominating position amongst the Latin cities). The text of a foedus with Rome, concluded under Tarquinius Priscus, was preserved on a l…

Umbro

(95 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Navigable river in Etruria (Etrusci; Plin. HN 3,51), modern Ombrone. It rises near Saena/modern Siena, was crossed by the v ia Aurelia and formed a sea harbour at its mouth to the south of Lacus Prelius (Rut. Nam. 1,337-340; It. Ant. 500,4 f.). The place name is connected with the Tractus Umbriae, the stretch of land between Saena and Telamo originally settled by the Umbri (Plin. HN 3,51). Another U. (modern Ambra), a left-bank tributary of the Arnus, was crossed between Clusium and Florentia [1] by the v ia Cassia Hadriana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Hostilia

(117 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Batavian Revolt Vicus in south-east Venetia on the Padus in the territory of Verona (Tac. Hist. 3,9), river port on the Ticinum - Ravenna route ( ab H. per Padum, Tab. Peut. 4,5), modern Ostiglia. Beginning of the southern branch of the via Claudia Augusta (ILS 208, Padana). Mentioned in connection with the battles of AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 2,100). A special honey production was practised here (Plin. HN 21,73). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Paviani Buganza, Storia e topografia di Ostiglia, in: Atti e Memor…
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