Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Huß, Werner (Bamberg)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Huß, Werner (Bamberg)" )' returned 388 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Aigimuros

(102 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Αἰγίμουρος). Insel westl. von Kap Bon ca. 30 Meilen (Liv. 30,24,9) bzw. 230 Stadien von Karthago entfernt (Itin. Anton. 492,13; 515,1), h. Ile Zembra (Liv. 29,27,14; Strab. 2,5,9; 6,2,11; 17,3,16; Ptol. 4,3,44: Αἰγίμιος; Steph. Byz.: Αἰγίμορος). Plin. nat. 5,42 kennt duae Aegimoeroe (Ile Zembra und Ile Zembretta). Verg. Aen. 1,109 und Plin. nat. 5,42 nennen die beiden Inseln arae [1. 250 Anm. 270]. Dazu die Bemerkung des Serv. Aen. 1,108: saxa haec..., in quibus aiunt Poenorum sacerdotes rem divinam facere solitos. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 W. Huß, Ges…

Casae Calbenti

(33 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Straßenstation in der Mauretania Caesariensis, 15 Meilen von Tipasa, 32 Meilen von Icosium entfernt (Itin. Anton. 15,3-5), h. wohl Castiglione. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 4, Nr. 50.

Musti

(206 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Stadt in der Africa Proconsularis südwestl. von Thugga an der großen Straße, die Karthago mit Sicca Veneria verbindet, h. Le Krib. Einheimische Stadt, die unter pun. Herrschaft geriet, um dann an Massinissa zu fallen. Seit dem 1. Jh.v.Chr. (?) [1. 366] bis in spätröm. Zeit hinein war M. municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15582). Ptol. 4,3,42 (Μούστη κώμη); Itin. Anton. 26,2; 41,3; 45,2; 49,3; 51,3 ( M.); Tab. Peut. 5,2 ( Mubsi); z.B. CIL VIII 1, 1577 ( Mustitani). In den Inschr. sind mehrere Tempel gen.: Iuno (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 27438); Liber Pater und Venus…

Mactaris

(305 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae (neupun. Mktrm). Stadt in der röm. Prov. Africa Byzacena (Afrika [3]), etwa 150 km südwestl. von Karthago, h. Maktar. M. war Zentrum des karthagischen Distrikts ( rṣt Tškt (“Territorien von Tuschkat”), dessen sich Massinissa Ende der 50er J. des 2. Jh. v.Chr. bemächtigte [1. 432]. Die Zeugnisse pun. Kultur - beispielsweise über 200 neupun. Inschr. - sind zahlreich [2. 273-292]. Ein bed. Heiligtum der Stadt war Ḥṭr-Mskr ( Hoter Miskar) geweiht. Unter den röm. Namen Saturnus, Apollo deus patri…

Garama

(95 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Afrika | Afrika | Limes | Straßen Hauptort der Garamantes, nordöstl. von Mursuk (Fessan) gelegen, h. Djerma. Belegstellen: Plin. nat. 5,36; Ptol. 1,8,5; 10,2; 4,6,30; 8,16,7; Solin. 29,5. L. Cornelius Balbus, procos. Africae, führte 20 v.Chr. eine Expedition durch, während der er mindestens bis nach G. kam. In der Folgezeit herrschten zw. G. und Rom enge, manchmal allerdings auch stürmische Beziehungen. Von diesen engen Beziehungen zeugen zahlreiche arch. Funde. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Ch.M. Daniels,…

Celtianis

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Das castellum im Norden von Cirta gehörte zum Gebiet von Cirta, h. El Meraba des Beni Ouelbane. Unter Marcus Aurelius (161-180 n.Chr.) hatte die res publica C. ein consilium decurionum. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19689f. Zahlreiche Inschr. informieren über das Leben von C.: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19688-19847; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 2084-3398. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 8, Nr. 91  H.-G. Pflaum, Remarques sur l'onomastique de Castellum Celtianum, in: E. Swoboda (Hrsg.), Carnuntina, 1956, 126-151.

Lamiggiga

(99 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Stadt in Numidia zw. Lambaesis und Diana Veteranorum, h. Sériana. L. lag wahrscheinlich im Territorium von Diana Veteranorum, hatte aber um 200 n.Chr. eigene magistri und erhielt einen ordo decurionum. In der Stadt wohnten Legionäre und Veteranen der legio III Augusta. 411 war L. überwiegend donatistisch (Donatus [1]; Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,133,1-13; 187,98-100; 198,55f.). Einige Ruinen - Kirchen, Thermen und Keltern - sind erh. In byz. Zeit wurde L. zur Festung ausgebaut. Inschr.: CIL VIII 1,4372-4412; Suppl. 2, 18553-18563. Huß, Werner (Bambe…

Gemellae

(96 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Afrika | Limes Lager und Stadt in der Numidia, 25 km südwestl. von Biskra gelegen, h. El-Kasbat. G. gehörte zum Befestigungssystem des Fossatum. Hier lagen zeitweise ein Detachement der legio III Augusta und die ala I Pannoniorum. Im 4. Jh. hatte der praepositus limitis Gemellensis in G. sein Quartier. Belege: Tab. Peut. 5,1; Not. dign. occ. 25,24. Inschr.: CIL VIII 1, 2482; Suppl. 2, 17976-17985; AE 1969-1970, 222 Nr. 741(?); 1989, 287 Nr. 883. Limes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Baradez, G., in: Revue Afr…

Lambafundi

(121 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Ortschaft in Numidia zw. Lambaesis und Thamugadi, h. Henchir Touchine (CIL VIII 1, 2438 = Suppl. 2, 17941 [ saltus? La] m[ b] afundensium; Tab. Peut. 3,3: Lambafudi; Geogr. Rav. 39,40: Lambafudin). Folgende Herkunftsbezeichnungen mögen auf den Bischofssitz L. zurückzuführen sein: Lampuensis ( plebs) (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 411, 1,133,292), Iamfuensis (Not. episcoporum Numidiae 87a), Lamfuensis (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 525; [2. 647]). Eine von Iustinianus neu befestigte Stadt in Numidia trägt in Prok. aed. 6,7,10 den Nam…

Furnus

(102 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] [1] Maius Stadt in der Africa proconsularis, südwestl. von Thuburbo Maius, h. Aïn Fourna. Seit unbestimmter Zeit municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12039). Inschr. Belege: CIL VIII 1, 752f.; Suppl. 1, 12030; 12039; Suppl. 4, 23798-23811; ILTun 617-620. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 100, Bl. 25, Nr. 187. [English version] [2] Minus Stadt in der Africa proconsularis, südwestl. von Karthago, h. Henchir Msaadine. Seit Caracalla (211-217 n.Chr.) municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25808b). Inschr. Belege: CIL VIII 2, 10609f.; Suppl. 1, 14751-14753;…

Nicives

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Νίσιβες). Nach Plin. nat. 5,29f. sind die N. ein Volk der Africa Proconsularis. Ein Grenzstein vespasianischer Zeit [1. 289f.] lokalisiert sie im ager publicus von Cirta. Nach Ptol. 4,3,24 wohnten die N. im Süden von Numidia (Numidae) nahe der Nattabutai und Miaidioi. Später sind sie in der Gegend des 80 km südl. von Sétif liegenden N'Gaous (Nicivibus) anzutreffen. Für das Jahr 411 n.Chr. ist ein episcopus Niciuensis bezeugt (acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,201). Inschr.: AE 1969-1970, 696. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Lancel, Subur…

Gunugu

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Phönizier, Punier (neupun. Gngn). Pun. oder pun. beeinflußter Handelsplatz westl. von Caesarea, h. Sidi Brahim bei Gouraya. Unter Augustus stieg G. zur colonia auf, deren Bürger der tribus Quirina zugeteilt wurden. Belegstellen: Plin. nat. 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5 (Κανουκκίς); Itin. Anton. 15,1 ( Gunugus); Geogr. Rav. p. 40,45 ( Gunubus); 88,10 ( Gunagus); 132,19 ( Cunagus). In der Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Caesariensis (111a) ist für das J. 484 ein episcopus Gunugitanus erwähnt. Inschr.: Répertoi…

Barke

(185 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Christentum | Kolonisation | Kreta (Βάρκη). Griech. Stadt in der Kyrenaika, 97 km nordöstl. von Benghasi, h. Barka, gegr. Mitte 6.Jh. v.Chr. von Kyrenäern. Getreide und Silphion ließen B. rasch aufblühen. (Quellen: Hdt. 3,13; 3,91; 4,160-205; Ain. Takt. 37,6f.; Herakl. Pont. 4,2 (FHG II 212); Ps.-Skyl. 108 (GGM I 83); FGrH 115 Theopompos von Chios F 103; Diod. 1,68,2; 18,20,3; Sil. 2,62; 3,251; Polyain. strat. 7,28,1; FGrH 156 Arrianos von Nik…

Bezereos

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Limes Castellum am limes Tripolitanus, östl. des Chott el-Djerid, h. Sidi Mohammed ben Aïssa (bei Bir Rhezen), spätestens seit Commodus (180-192 n.Chr.) besetzt (Inscr. latines d'Afrique 26), nahm 201 eine vexillatio der legio III Augusta auf (Inscr. latines d' Afrique 27). Inschr. Belege: Inscr. latines d'Afrique 26-32; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 56-59; Itin. Anton. 74,5; Not. dign. occ. 31,5; 31,20. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography P. Trousset, s.v. B., EB, 1487f.

Icosium

(138 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Handel (Ἰκόσιον, pun. j ksm, “Insel der Eulen”?). Phönik. oder pun. Gründung in der späteren Mauretania Caesariensis, h. Algier. Belegstellen: Mela 1,31; Plin. nat. 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,6; Itin. Anton. 15,5; Sol. 25,17 (mit verkehrter Etym.); Amm. 29,5,16 (mit Anspielung auf diese Etym.); Geogr. Rav. 40,44; 88,12. Während der Regierungszeit Iubas II. wurde eine röm. Veteranen-Kolonie nach I. deduziert (Plin. nat. 3,19; 5,20). Unter Vespasianus wurde die Stadt colonia Latina (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20853…

Marmarica

(425 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Μαρμαρική). Gebiet an der Nordküste von Afrika zw. Äg. und der Kyrenaia, dessen Grenzen im Laufe der Zeit verschieden angesetzt wurden. In der Zeit der 30. Dyn. (380-342 v.Chr.) erstreckte sich das Gebiet der Marmaridai von der Grenze des libyschen Gaus (bei Apis) westwärts (Ps.-Skyl. 108 [GGM 1,82-84]). Ptol. 4,5,2-4 dagegen ließ die Ostgrenze des Gaus M. (sic!) erst bei Pétras Mégas Limḗn (westl. von Katabathmós Mégas) beginnen, d.h. am westlichsten Punkt von Äg. Die westl. Grenze der M. setzt Ptol. (4,4,2; 5f.) östl. von Darnis an, der Verf…

Masices

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Μάσικες, Μάζικες). Name mehrerer nordafrikan. Völker (Anon. cosmographia 1,39 = GLM 88). Er entspricht etwa der h. Bezeichnung “Berber”. Lokalisiert werden die M. in der Mauretania Tingitana (südl. des Gebiets der Metagonitai; Ptol. 4,1,10), in der Mauretania Caesariensis (CIL VIII 1, 2786; 2, 9613; Ptol. 4,2,19; Provinciarum omnium laterculus Veronensis 14,3 = GLM 129; Amm. 29,5,17; 21; 25f.; 51; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48) oder südl. der Prov. Africa (Liber generationis, Chron. min. 1,107,197: zw. Afri qui et Barbares [= Bavares] und Garamantes qui …

Mapalia

(111 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Spätestens seit Sall. Iug. 18,8 und Verg. georg. 3,340 war m. auch für die Römer der gängige Ausdruck für die Strohhütten der Numider. Daneben wurden nordafrikan. Landstriche als M. bezeichnet: 1) eine kaiserliche Domäne, die zw. Hippo [6] Regius und Calama lag (Aug. epist. 66); 2) eine wohl ebenfalls kaiserliche Domäne im Bagradas-Tal (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25902); 3) eine dioecesis Mappaliensis als Bezirk eines numidischen Bistums (PL 67,198). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Dessau, s.v. M., RE 14, 1403  M.M. Magalhães, C.A. Sertá, M., lo spazio urbano e i…

Regio Zeugitana

(119 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Bezeichnung des nördl. Teils der vordiocletianischen Prov. Africa Proconsularis (Afrika [3], mit Karte), später der diocletianischen Prov. Africa Proconsularis (Diocletianus, mit Karte); sie ist von einem einheimischen Namen abgeleitet (vgl. mons Ziguensis, pagus Zeugius; Plin. nat. 5,23; Mart. Cap. 6,669; Isid. orig. 14,5,8; vgl. Solin. 26,2; 27,1). Die Grenze verlief von Tacatua (Takouch an der Nordküste von Tunesien) aus südwärts bis in die Gegend südl. von Theveste, von dort aus nordöstl. über Ammaedara, Alt…

Missua

(123 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Stadt in der Prov. Africa Proconsularis (Afrika [3]), im NW der Halbinsel Cap Bon, h. Sidi Daoud. Belegstellen: Plin. nat. 5,24 ( [oppidum] Misua); Ptol. 4,3,7 (Νίσουα); Itin. Anton. 493,1f.; Tab. Peut. 6,2 ( Misua); Prok. BV 2,14,40 (Μισούα); Geogr. Rav. 88,41; Guido p. 132,62. Der Name scheint auf die phöniz.-pun. Wurzel ns (“[Steine] herausbrechen”) zurückzuführen zu sein und auf die benachbarten Steinbrüche von El-Haouaria zu verweisen [1. 295]. Vielleicht war M. colonia Iulia [2. 186]. Erh. sind bed. Ruinen. Inschr.: CIL VIII 1, 988-990. Für da…

Althiburus

(216 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Theater (pun. 'ltbrš). Einheimische Stadt der Africa proconsularis (weitere Namensformen [5. 1697]), 37 km süd-südöstl. von El-Kef, h. Henchir Medeina. A. hatte starken pun. Einschlag [4. 295-297; 2. 19-24; 3; 6. 60; 1. 17 f., Taf. IV 2]. Dies mag z. T. durch die Lage von A. an der Straße Karthago/Theveste zu erklären sein. Kult des Baal Hamon (ohne den der Tinnit), das Opfer des molk und ein Tofet. 3 Sufeten leiteten die Verwaltung. Unter Hadrian wurde A. municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 27769, 27775, 27781), u…

Equizeto

(67 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Stadt in der Mauretania Sitifensis, südwestl. von Sitifis an einem Straßenknotenpunkt, h. Ouled-Agla bzw. Lecourbe; in der Tab. Peut. 2,1 als Equeheto bezeichnet. Die Stadt war spätestens seit Alexander Severus municipium [1. 567 Nr. 29]. Inschr.: CIL VIII 2, 8810-8825; 9045; 10427-10430; Suppl. 3, 20606; Suppl. 4, 22658,5. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Bull. Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques, 1897. AAAlg, Bl. 15, Nr. 91.

Kaputtasaccura

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Ort in der Mauretania Caesariensis, in der Nähe des Limes, etwa 30 km östl. von Altava, h. Chanzy. In severischer Zeit wurde in K. für die eq(uites) alae I Aug(ustae) Parthor(um) ein castrum gebaut (CIL VIII 2, 9827f.). Weitere Inschr.: CIL VIII 2, 9826; 9829f.; Suppl. 3, 21716-21718; vgl. 22616-22618; Libyca 3, 1955, 186. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 32, Nr. 59  X. Loriot, Faltonius Restitutianus, in: AntAfr 6, 1972, 145f.

Gaetuli

(312 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Berberisches Volk, dessen zahlreiche Stämme in dem Gebiet zw. der Kleinen Syrte und dem Atlant. Ozean lebten. Belegstellen: Strab. 2,5,33; 17,3,2; 9; 19; Mela 1,23; 3,104; Plin. nat. 5,9f.; 17; 30; 43; Apul. apol. 24,1; 41,4; Dimensuratio provinciarum 25; Aug. de ordine 2,5,15; Aug. in psalmos 148,10; Divisio orbis terrarum 26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γαιτοῦλοι; Anon. Geographia compendiaria 15 (GGM II 497); Eust. epit. de commentariis in Dionysium Periegeten 215 (GGM II 254). Ein Zweig der G., der sich mit Schwarzafrikanern vermischt hatte, waren die Melanogaitúli (Μελ…

Muthul

(28 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Fluß in Numidia, rechter Nebenfluß des Bagradas, wahrscheinlich der Oued Mellègue. Sall. Iug. 48,3-50,2. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography R. Oehler, s.v. M., RE 16, 937f.

Massyli

(231 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Μασσύλιοι u.ä.). Ostnumidischer Volksstamm, östl. des Caps Bougaroun. Belegstellen: Hesianax FGrH 763 F 1; Pol. 3,33,15; Strab. 17,3,9; Plin. nat. 5,30; Sil. 16,170-172 (mit Verwechslung von M. und Masaesyli); App. Lib. 10,37; 27,110; 46,195. Im 2. Jh. v.Chr. reichte die Herrschaft der M. zeitweise vom Fluß Mulucha bis zur Großen Syrte (mit Ausnahme der Prov. Africa). Massyl. Könige waren - vom “Sufeten” Zilalsan (numid. Zllsn) abgesehen - Gaia (numid. Gjj), dessen Sohn Massinissa (pun. Msnsn), dessen Söhne Micipsa (pun. Mkwsn), Gulussa (pun. Glsn) und Masta…

Ammaedara

(249 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Limes | Straßen (Ἀμμαίδαρα). Stadt in der Africa proconsularis [5. 147 Anm. 756] zw. Althiburus und Theveste (Ptol. 4,3,30), h. Haïdra; weitere Namensformen [4. 1841]. A. war urspr. wohl Siedlung der Musulamii [2. 117-121]. Wegen der strategisch bedeutenden Lage, die es erlaubte, wichtige Verbindungswege zu kontrollieren und die Südflanke der Africa proconsularis zu decken, wurde in den letzten J. des Augustus die legio III Augusta in die Nähe von A. verlegt [1. 273-284]…

Gigthis

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Ort an der Kleinen Syrte, 30 km nordöstl. von Medenine, h. Bou Grara. Belege: Ptol. 4,3,11; Itin. Anton. 60,1; 518,5; Tab. Peut. 6,5. G. war vermutlich eine phöniz. oder pun. Gründung und in späterer Zeit vielleicht der Vorort der Cinithi, der Bundesgenossen des Tacfarinas. Unter Hadrianus oder Antoninus Pius erhielt die Stadt das ius Latium maius, unter Antoninus Pius (138-161 n.Chr.) wurde sie municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 22707). Weitere Inschr.: CIL VIII 1, 25-34; Suppl. 1, 11017-11047; Suppl. 4, 22691-22757. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography S. Lancel, E. L…

Mimakes

(87 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Μίμακες). Libysche Nomaden, die in der Nähe der Machynoi, Machryes und Gepheis (zw. der tunesischen Dorsale und dem Schott el-Djerid) wohnten (Ptol. 4,3,26 und Steph. Byz. s.v. M. = Philistos von Syrakusai). Nach Ptol. 4,6,20f. lebten M. auch im Inneren von Libya, und zwar unweit des Thála óros (Θάλα ὄρος; h. der Tahela Ohat des Ahaggar?) und nahe bei den Núbai (Νοῦβαι). Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines..., 1962, 115, 224  H. Treidler, s.v. Mimaces, RE 15, 1711f.

Altava

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Afrika | Christentum | Limes | Straßen Stadt in der Mauretania Caesariensis, 33 km östl. von Tlemcen beim h. Ouled Mimoun (Lamoricière), in strategisch wichtiger Lage (CIL VIII 9834 f.). Urspr. wohl eine berberische Siedlung [1. 545 f.], geriet A. unter pun. Einfluß. Anf. 3. Jh. n. Chr. wurde A. in das Verteidigungssystem des mauretanischen Limes einbezogen. Die civitas A. wurde von einem ( prior) princeps civitatis (libysch: gld bzw. gldt?) und decemprimi verwaltet [2. 208]. Außerdem fungierte ein rex sacrorum

Bagradas

(138 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Μακάρας Pol. 1,75,5; 1,86,9; 15,2,8 [1.1085f.]; Βαγράδας Strab. 17,3,13; Ptol. 4,3,6; 4,3,18; 4,3,31; 6,10; Bagrada: Mela 1,34; Lucan. 4,587; Plin. nat. 5,24; vgl. 8,37). Heute Ksar Baghai (zum Namen [2. 1311]), längster Fluß im nordöstl. Afrika (365 km; anders Iulius Honorius, cosmographia 47: 318 Meilen). Der B. entspringt bei Thubursicum Numidarum (Iulius Honorius ebd.; anders Ptol. 4,3,18; 6,10) und fließt - meist träge (Sil. 6,140-143) - von Westsüdwest nach Ostsüdost. Rech…

Idicra

(63 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Ort in Numidia südl. der Linie Milev - Cuicul, h. Azziz-ben-Tellis (Itin. Anton. 28,4). Zwei Inschr. informieren über einen Opfertarif für den Kult afrikan. Götter (CIL VIII 1, 8246f.); weitere Inschr.: CIL VIII 1, 8243-8266. Im 4. und 5. Jh. war I. Bischofssitz (Optatus 2,18, p. 53,4; 19, p. 54,14; Notitia episcopatuum Numidiae 16a). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 17, Nr. 214.

Clupea

(111 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Punische Kriege (Ἀσπίς). Evtl. vorpun. Stadt (Prok. BV 2,10,24) der späteren Africa proconsularis im Nordosten der Halbinsel Bon, h. Kélibia (Quellen: Mela 1,34; Plin. nat. 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,7f.; Itin. Anton. 57,6; Tab. Peut. 6,2; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 117 [GGM 1, 470]). Strab. 17,3,16, Sil. 3,243f. und App. Lib. 519 nennen C. Aspis. Trotz Ptol. 4,3,7f. handelt es sich bei C. und Aspis nicht um zwei Städte (vgl. Sol. 27,8). Inschr.: CIL VIII 1, 982-986; X 1, 6104; AE 1991, 1646-1658. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibli…

Ammaedara

(263 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes (Ἀμμαίδαρα; Ammaídara). Town in Africa proconsularis [5. 147, n. 756] between  Althiburus and  Theveste (Ptol. 4,3,30), modern Haïdra; for other forms of the name [4. 1841]. Originally, A. was probably a settlement of the  Musulamii [2. 117-121]. Because of its strategically important location, which allowed it to control important communication roads and to cover the southern flank of Africa proconsularis, the   legio III Augusta was relocated to the vicinity of A. dur…

Bagae

(159 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in  Numidia, located between the Aurès mountains to the south and the salt lake Garaat al-Tarf to the north, called Ksar Baghai today, originally perhaps a local castellum. There is evidence for a council of decuriones in the year AD 162 (CIL VIII 1, 2275). A diocesan town in 256, it became one of the most important centres of  Donatism in late antiquity [1. 284, 304, 719-723]. For example in the year 394, 310 Donatist bishops assembled in B. (Aug. Epist. Parmeniani 3,4,21; c. Cresconium grammaticum 3f.). B. wa…

Iomnium

(144 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Gr. Ἰόμνιον; Iómnion or Ἰόμνυον; Iómnyon). I. probably originated as a Phoenician or Punic trading post (as indicated by the letter I at the beginning of the name: ʾj = Punic ‘island’), located in  Mauretania Caesariensis, near the modern Tigzirt (Algeria). Ptol. 4,2,8; It. Ant. 17,1; Tab. Peut. 2,2. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8995-9001; Suppl. 3, 20710-20728; AE 1994, 1898 f.; Rev. Africaine 58, 1914, 342-353. It became a municipium under Septimius [II 7] Severus. The Punic tradition continued to remain vibrant for a long time. In the Roman peri…

Leptis Minor

(290 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Punic Lpqj; [1]). Founded by the Phoenicians on the east coast of Tunisia, the modern Lamta ( Leptis, Sall. Iug. 19,1; Leptis, Mela 1,34, Plin. HN 5,25; 76; Λέπτις μικρά, Ptol. 4,3,10; Λέπτις ἡ μικρά, Stadiasmus maris magni 113; Lepti minus civitas, Itin. Anton. 58,6; Lepteminus, Tab. Peut. 6,3; Leptis minus, Geogr. Rav. 37,45; Tempu minus, Geogr. Rav. 88,44; Lepti minus, Guido 132,72; Lepti minus, CIL III Suppl. 2, 13582). In the Libyan War (241-238 BC) the rebel Mathus lost a battle at Leptis Minor (LM…

Gunugu

(113 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Phoenicians, Poeni (New Punic Gngn). Punic or Punic-influenced trading post west of Caesarea, modern Sidi Brahim near Gouraya. Under Augustus G. rose to become a colonia whose citizens were allocated to the tribus Quirina. Evidence: Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5 (Κανουκκίς); It. Ant. 15,1 ( Gunugus); Geogr. Rav. p. 40,45 ( Gunubus); 88,10 ( Gunagus); 132,19 ( Cunagus). In the Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Caesariensis (111a) an episcopus Gunugitanus is mentioned for the year 484. Inscriptions: Réperto…

Tigava

(130 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] City in Mauretania Caesariensis City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Africa [3]; Ptol. 4,2,26; Amm. 29,5,20?) on the right bank of the Oued Chéliff, modern El Kherba. Initially a civitas (Plin. HN 5,21), then a municipium (It. Ant. 38,1). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9648; 10946 f.; Suppl. 3, 21497 f.; 22569 f.; 22579; AE 1955, 149. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s. v. T. (2), RE 6 A, 942 f. [German version] [2] Fort in Mauretania Caesariensis This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Fort in Mauretania Caesariensis (Africa …

Pentapolis

(49 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πεντάπολις; Pentápolis). The region of the 'five cities' of western Cyrenaica, i.e. of Euhesperides/Berenice [8], Tauchira/Arsinoe, Barke (later outstripped by Ptolemaïs), Cyrene and Apollonia/Sozusa. With Darnis (modern Derna) the region of eastern Cyrenaica began. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. P. (3), RE 19, 509f.

Tubusuctu (Thubuscum)

(190 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Sitifensis (Plin. HN 5,21; Ptol. 4,2,31; 8,13,12; Amm.  Marc. 29,5,11), about 30 km to the southwest of Saldae in the Oued Soummam valley, modern Tiklat. Although founded as a colonia by the later Augustus for veterans of the legio VII, T. adopted the (neo-)Punic traditions of the surrounding area. In the late Roman period the centre of a military district (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,27; [1. 52]). In T.'s territory there was significant olive cultivation. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8834-8921; Suppl. 3, 20648-20…

Rusguniae

(223 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Name of Cap Matifou, which encloses the Bay of Algiers in the northeast, and the Punic base near the cape, modern Tamentfoust. [1. 379] explains the name with Rš-gnj = 'Cap du Francolin'. Evidence: Ruthisia (?), Mela 1,31; colonia Augusti R., Plin. HN 5,20; Ῥουστόνιον/ Rhoustónion, Ptol. 4,2,6; R. colonia, It. Ant. 16,1; Rusgume, Geogr. Rav. 40,43; Rugunie, Geogr. Rav. 88,13; Rusgimia, Guido, Geographia 132,22. R. became a colonia through deductio of legio IX Gemella before AD 27 [2]. Inscriptions: CIL VIII…

Chullu

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Phoenicians, Poeni (Κούλλου; Koúllou). Coastal town in the province of Numidia, modern Collo. (Sources: Ptol. 4,3,3; It. Ant. 19,1; Tab. Peut. 3,2; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia 44,29; Geogr. Rav. 40,21; Guido 132,32). Mentioned by Solin. (26,1) because of its purple dye works, C. was possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, and in any case, under strong Punic influence [1. 343-368]. Under the governorship of P. Sittius it became a colonia Minervia, and later constituted one of the quattuor coloniae Cirtens…

Vaga

(160 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; cf. Str. 17,3,12; Plin. HN 5,29) 35 km to the north of Thugga, modern Béja, with a number of ancient remains (city wall, basilica). In the second of the Punic Wars. V. apparently supplied troops for the Carthaginian contingent (Sil. Pun. 3,259). No later than after the third Punic War, V. fell to Massinissa. During the War of Iugurtha, V. was conquered by Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 29,4; 47,1; 66-69). It was probably Septimius [II 7] Severus, who elevated V. to a coloni…

Nias

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίας/ Nías). River in western Africa, probably in Senegal (Ptol. 4,6,7). The N. is probably correctly identified with the Chretes of Hanno (Χρέτης/ Chrétēs, Hanno, Periplus 9, GGM 1,8), the Chremetes of Aristotle (Χρεμέτης/ Chremétēs, Aristot. Mete. 1,13 p. 350b) and the Bambotus (Plin. HN 5,10) [1. 776, 8147]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. F. Windberg, s.v. Nias, RE 17, 165-167.

Furnus

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Maius City in Africa proconsularis, southwest of Thuburbo Maius, modern Aïn Fourna. Municipium since an indefinite period (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12039). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 1, 752f.; Suppl. 1, 12030; 12039; Suppl. 4, 23798-23811; ILTun 617-620. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 100, sheet 25, no. 187. [German version] [2] Minus City in Africa proconsularis, southwest of Carthage, modern Henchir Msaadine. Municipium since Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25808b). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 2, 10609f.; Suppl.…

Xilia

(38 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξιλία; Xilía). City in northern Africa (πόλις Λιβύης, 'city in Libya'), not located. Mentioned in Alexander [23] Polyhistor FGrH 273 F 44 (1st cent. BC). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2129.

Muthul

(30 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A river in Numidia, right-hand tributary of the river Bagradas, probably the Oued Mellègue. Sall. Iug. 48,3-50,2. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography R. Oehler, s.v. Muthul, RE 16, 937f.

Agbia

(99 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town within   Africa proconsularis , modern Henchir Hedja near Dougga. For the tradition of the place name: [1. 766]. At the time of  Antoninus [1] Pius A. was a   pagus and   civitas (CIL VIII 1, 1548), at the time of  Diocletian (AD 284-305) a   municipium (CIL VIII 1, 1550; Suppl. 4, 27415). Significant Roman and Byzantine remains, numerous inscriptions (CIL VIII 1, 1545-1570; Suppl. 1, 15549-15561; Suppl. 4, 27381-27390). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Schmidt, s. v. A., RE 1, 766. AATun 050, sheet 33, no. 190 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine a…

Tingis

(213 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Punic Tng). Berber city with a convenient natural harbour (Str. 3,1,8; Mela 1,26; Plin. HN 5,2; Plut. Sertorius 9,5; Ptol. 4,1,5; Cass. Dio 48,45,2; 60,9,5), capital from AD 40 of Mauretania Tingitana, modern Tangiers (in Morocco). The ancient city has been entirely overbuilt by modern buildings. From no later than the 8th cent. BC, Phoenician traders (Ph…

Tipasa

(316 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τίπασα/ Típasa). [German version] [1] City in Mauretania Caesariensis This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5; Amm. Marc. 29,5,17), about 30 km to the east of Caesarea [1], modern T. or, in Arabic, Tefased, with substantial ancient remains (two thermae, a theatre, two temples, a nymphaeum, two basilicae, etc.). Possibly a Phoenician, in any case a Punic trade port (evidence from the 6th cent. BC onwards; possibly a cult of Baal Ham…

Numluli

(121 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis, north-west of Thubursicum Bure on the fertile plateau of the ‘great fields’, modern Henchir el-Matria. Under M. Aurelius (AD 161-180) or slightly later N. was a municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 26129). A bishop Aurelius plebis Numnulitanae ( sic!) was attested for 411 (Acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,126). Some impressive ruins have been preserved, including a capitolium from the period of M. Aurelius, baths, wells, churches and parts of a late Roman wall. Further inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 1…

Oea

(319 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Wjt). City on the coast of Africa Tripolitania between Sabratha and Leptis Magna, modern Tripoli. Evidence: Mela 1,37; Plin. HN 5,27; 38; Sil. Pun. 3,257; Ptol. Geog. 4,3,12 (Ἐῶα; Eôa); It. Ant. 62,2 ( Ocea colonia); Tab. Peut. 7,3 ( Osa colonia); Stadiasmus maris magni 98f. (GGM 1,463f.). Probably a Phoenician foundation [1. 36, 74]. Colonists from Africa and Sicily participated in the later expansion of the city (Sil. Pun.…

Nigritae

(142 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νιγρῖται; Nigrîtai). Following the Periplus of Ophelas (?), Str. 17,3,3 maintains that, together with the Pharusii, the N. lived a 30 days' journey from Lynx (Lix [1], present-day Larache). Str. 2,5,33 places them - like the Pharusii and Garamantes - in the regions which lie between the Gaetuli and the Aethiopes. In warfare the N., the Pharusii and the Aethiopes made use of bows as well as chariots with sickle-shaped blades attached to the axles. References: Str. 17,3,7 (Νίγρητες)…

Curubis

(76 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in the Africa Proconsularis, situated on the east coast of the Bon Peninsula, modern Korba. At the time of Caesar it was a colonia. Literary evidence: Plin. HN. 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,8 (Κουραβίς, Κούροβις); It. Ant. 56,7; 57,5; 493,9. Inscription.: CIL VIII 1, 977-981; Suppl. 1, 12451-12453; Suppl. 4, 24099-24102; [1. 386].  Cap Bon Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Bull. Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques 1930-1931. S. Lancel, E. Lipiński, s.v. Cap Bon, DCPP, 88f.

Uthina

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City (probably of Libyan origin) in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; Plin. HN. 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,34; 8,14,11; Tab. Peut. 5,5 incorrectly Uthica) some 30 km to the south of Carthage, modern Oudna, with many archaeological remains (triumphal arch, temple, theatre, thermal baths, amphitheatre). It remains questionable whether U. is identical to Adys (Pol. 1,30,5; [1. 89]), where in 256 BC Carthaginians and Romans for the first time came into conflict on African soil. Caesar or the later Augustus founded in U. a colonia for the veterans of the Thirteenth Legion.…

Gir

(72 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River that has its source in the high Atlas Mountains, presumably the Oued Guir. C.  Suetonius Paullinus advanced to it with his troops in AD 42. References: Plin. HN 5,15 ( Ger); Ptol. 4,6,13; 16; 31 (Γείρ; Geír); Geogr. Rav. p. 2,69; 3,14; 36,28; 37,11 ( Ger); Claud. Carm. 21,252 ( Gir); Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 31 (GGM II 502; Γίρ; Gír). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Dessau, s.v. G., RE VII 1, 1366.

Apisa Maius

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis; the modern Henchir Tarf ech-Chena. In AD 28 A. was led by two   sufetes with Punic names and surnames; from the 3rd cent. AD a   municipium . Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Inscriptions: CIL V 1, 4921; 8,1, 774-791; Suppl. 1, 12233-12240; Suppl. 4, 23843-23846. AATun 50, folio 34, no. 111 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire 2, 1981, 68-70.

Naraggara

(172 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis, 33 km to the northwest of Sicca Veneria, modern Sidi Youssef. The name, a Libyan inscription [1.570] and a bilingual one in Latin and Neo-Punic  (CIL VIII 1, 4636 = Suppl. 1, 16811 = ILAlg 1,1186) suggest a pre-Roman origin for the city. Evidence: Ptol. 4,3,30 (Ναράγγαρα/ Narángara); Itin. Anton. 41,5; 44,7 ( N.); Tab. Peut. 4,4 ( N.); Geogr. Rav. 39,18 ( Narragara). N. was a city by Roman Law (CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 18085; ILAlg 1,1189). Cultic worship of the Berber god Iocolon (ILAlg 1,1184) and the Punic-Roman goddes…

Lambiridi

(93 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Lamasba, modern Kherbet Ouled Arif. Literary evidence: Tab. Peut. 3,1 ( Lambiridi); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44 ( Lamuiridi oppidum); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,206,32 ( episcopus Lambiriditanus); Not. episcoporum Numidiae 19a ( Iamuiritanus). L. was a municipium in the 3rd cent. AD. Some ruins are preserved - including a grave with a mosaic, opinions vary as to its interpretation [1. 464]. Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 1, 4413-4435; Suppl. 2, 18564-18584. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Le …

Maxula

(185 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Μαξοῦλα/ Maxoûla). City in the province of Africa proconsularis ( Africa [3]), to the east of Tynes, modern Radès. Sources: Ptol. 4,3,7 (Μαξοῦλα/ Maxoûla); 4,3,34 (Μαξοῦλα παλαιά/ Maxoûla palaiá); It. Ant. 57,3 ( M. Prates); 58,1 ( M. Civitas); Tab. Peut. 6,1; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 122f. (GGM 1,471); Geogr. Rav. 88,38. Since it was located by the sea, it is possible that at times the Greeks (also) called it Leukòs Týnes (Λευκὸς Τύνης, Diod. Sic. 20,8,7) [1. 66-68]. Traces of Punic influence have been fo…

Barke

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete (Βάρκη; Bárkē). Greek city in  Cyrenaica, 97 km north-east of Benghasi, today Barka, founded by Cyrenaicans in the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Grain and   silphion allowed B. to reach its peak quickly. (Sources: Hdt. 3,13; 3,91; 4,160-205; Aen. Tact. 37,6f.; Heraclid. Pont. 4,2 (FHG II 212); Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM I 83); FGrH 115 Theopompus of Chios F 103; Diod. Sic. 1,68,2; 18,20,3; Sil. Pun. 2,62; 3,251; Polyaenus, Strat. 7…

Garamantes

(206 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Berber tribe in the Libyan interior centered on  Garama. References: Hdt. 4,174; 183,1-184,1; Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,19; 23; Liv. 29,33,9; Mela 1,23; 45; Plin. HN 5,26; 36; 38; 6,209; 8,142; 178; 13,111; Flor. Epit. 2,31; Ptol. 1,8,5-7; 9,9; 10,2; 4,6,16; Solin. 29,7; 30,2; Arnob. 6,5; Tab. Peut. 7,4; Amm. Marc. 22,15,2; Oros. 1,2,88; 90; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48; B 47; Chronicum Alexandrinum in: Chron. min. 1, p. 107,167; Isid. Orig. 9,2,128; Geogr. Rav. p. 36,22-40. The influence of the G., who perhaps included a sub-Saharan racial element, exten…

Rapidum

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes City in Mauretania (III. B.) Caesariensis, about 24 km to the west of Auzia on the Limes (Limes VIII.C., with map), modern Sour Djouab (It. Ant. 30,7: Rapidi; 38,9: Rapido castra). In AD 122 Hadrianus founded a castrum at R. (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20833). In 167 the veterani et pagani consistentes aput R. ('veterans and farmers at R.') built the walls of the city adjacent to the castrum  (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20834 f.). After being destroyed more than once, R., then a municipium , was rebuilt by Diocletianus…

Bezereos

(91 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes Castellum at the limes Tripolitanus, east of the Chott el-Djerid, modern Sidi Mohammed ben Aïssa (near Bir Rhezen; it was occupied at the latest since Commodus (AD 180-192) (Inscr. latines d'Afrique 26), and, in AD 201, accommodated a vexillatio of the legio III Augusta (Inscr. latines d' Afrique 27). Epigraphical evidence: Inscr. latines d'Afrique 26-32; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 56-59; It. Ant. 74,5; Not. Dign. occ. 31,5; 31,20. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography P. Trousset, s.v. B., EB, 1487f.

Thelepte

(129 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa Byzacena (Africa [3]); important road hub, 77 km to the north-northwest of Capsa, modern Medinet el-Kdima, with significant ancient remains. A municipium possibly from the time of Vespasianus, from the time of Traianus [1] a colonia. In 354 AD the dux of Africa Byzacena was resident there (Cod. Iust. 1,27,2,1; cf. It. Ant. 77,4; Tab. Peut. 4,5; Procop. Aed. 6,6,18). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 176-183; 211; 216; 2094; 2565 b; CIL VIII 2, 10032-10037; Suppl. 1, 11263-11273; 4, 23181-23186; [1. 56]. Huß, We…

Nasamones

(182 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νασαμῶνες; Nasamônes). Libyan tribe, which for a long time was resident in the Great Syrtis. Evidence: Hdt. 2,32,1f.; 4,172-174; Ps.-Scyl. 109 (GGM 1,84); Diod. 3,49,1, who, however, in  17,50 erroneously transplants it to the area north of the oasis of Siwa; Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,20; Plin. HN. 5,33; Ptol. 4,5,21; 30; Tab. Peut. 8,2f. ( Nesamones). In summer the N. grazed their herds near the coast and migrated to the Augila (modern Auǧila) oasis to harvest dates. They buried their dead in a sitting position. They prophesied from dreams …

Madaurus

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Punic Wars Numidian city of the later province of Africa proconsularis ( Africa [3]), situated c. 25 km south of Tagaste near modern Mdaourouch: Ptol. 4,3,30 (Μάδουρος; Mádouros); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia B 44 ( Madauros). According to Apul. Apol. 24, M. initially belonged to the kingdom of Syphax, then to that of Massinissa. In the Flavian period (AD 69-96), M. was the place of residence ( colonia) of veterans [1. 2152]. The little town developed into a centre of Roman life…

Numerus Syrorum

(88 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Military base on the Limes (Limes VIII, with map) of Mauretania Caesariensis between Oujda and Tlemcen, modern Marnia, named after the numerus Severianus Alexandrinus Syrorum stationed there in the 3rd cent. AD. CIL VIII 2, 9961-9987; 10467-10470; Suppl. 3, 21798-21808. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAA, Bl. 41, Nr. 1  H.T. Rowell, s.v. Numerus, RE 17, 2537-2554, hier 2553f.  P. Salama, La voie romaine de la vallée de la Tafna, in: Bull. d'archéologie Algérienne 2, 1966/7, 183-217.

Galata

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Small island off the north African coast between Karalis and Thabraca (modern Tabarka), formed from volcanic rocks, modern Galita. Source references: Mela 2,120; Plin. HN 3,92; 5,42; 35,202; Ptol. 4,3,44 (Καλάθη; Kaláthē); It. Ant. 494,7-495,1; 514,4-8 (providing some wrong distances); Tab. Peut. 3,4; Liber generationis, Chron. min. 1, p. 103,134; 109,212; Liber genealogus, Chron. min. 1, p. 168,165; Mart. Cap. 6,645; Geogr. Rav. p. 102,1. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Toutain, Note sur l'île de la Galite, in: MEFRA 11, 1891, 454-456.

Quinquegentiani

(93 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribal group, settled in the Great Kabylia (modern Algeria) between Rusuccuru and Saldae (?), which was finally subjugated by Maximianus [1]. References: Pan. Lat. 7,8,6; Eutr. 9,22 f.; Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,22; Oros. 7,25,4; 7,25,8; Iord. Historia Romana 297; 300; Get. 110; Zon. 12,31. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2615; 2, 8836; 8924; 9010(?); AE 1985, 902(?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 67  L. Galand, Les Quinquegentanei, in: Bulletin d'archéologie algérienne 4, 1970, 297-299  H. Treidler, s. v.…

Ampelusia

(89 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ἀμπελουσία; Ampelousía). Greek name of Cape Spartel (north-west Africa) -- ‘Cape of the vineyards’ (Mela 1,25; 2,96; 3,107; Plin. HN 5,2). Was its aboriginal (Berber?) name αἱ Κώτεις ( hai Kṓteis; Str. 17,3,2) or rather Κώτης ἄκρον ( Kṓtēs ákron; Ptol. 4,1,2,) (in the same sense)? According to Ps.-Scyl. 112, Κώτης is the gulf between the ‘Pillars of Heracles’ and the ‘Foothills of Hermes’, according to Plin. HN 5,2; 32,15, Cottae lay beyond the ‘Pillars of Heracles’ Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography E. Bernus, s. v. A., EB 4, 605 f.

Bavares

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A seemingly bipartite Berber tribe; one group settled in the extreme west, the other in the extreme east of Mauretania Caesariensis. Sources: Amm. Marc. 29,5,33; Liber generationis 1,197,67 Mommsen; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 47; Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis 14,4. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography G. Camps, s.v. B., EB, 1394-1399 J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 47 fn. 2.

Cinyps

(172 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River, discharging into the sea 18 km south-east of  Leptis Magna, modern Oued Caam. Source references: Hdt. 4,175; 198; Verg. G. 3,311-313; Mela 1,37; Plin. HN 5,27; Ptol. 4,3,13; 20 (probably not 4,6,11); Tab. Peut. 7,3f.; Vibius Sequester, Geographica 147 Riese; Geogr. Rav. 38, 39; Thgn. 2,98 Cramer; Suda s.v. Κινύφειος. Probably towards the end of the 6th cent.,  Dorieus [1], son of the Spartan king Anaxandridas, founded an   apoikía at the mouth of the C. However, its citizens could only hold on to their position for two ye…

Hadrumetum

(320 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Rome (Ἀδρύμης; Hadrýmēs). Phoenician trading centre on the east coast of Tunisia, modern Sousse. Evidence: Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM I 88); Sall. Iug. 19,1; Solin. 27,9. From the Punic or Neo-Punic period come the Tofet (with prominent steles), a necropolis (with various tomb offerings) and over 60 inscriptions. In 310 BC H. went over to the side of  Agathocles [2] (Diod. Sic. 20,17,3-5)…

Xylicces

(45 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξυλικκεῖς; Xylikkeîs). A - possibly negroid - people which probably lived to the north of the Ahaggar Massif (in the Sahara)  (Ptol. 4,6,23: Ξ. Αἰθίοπες). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241  H. Treidler, s. v. Ξ., RE 9 A, 2161-2163.

Igilgili

(112 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Punic ʾj glgl[ t]?, ‘Skull Island’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation located in the later  Mauretania Sitifensis - west of the mouth of the Ampsaga - modern Djidjelli. Attested to Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,11; It. Ant. 39,7; 40,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Amm. Marc. 29,5,5; Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 4a; Anon. Geographia 40 (GGM II 505); Geogr. Rav. 40,22; 88,20; Guido p. 132,29. Augustus (?) elevated I. to a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8367-8373, 10330-10333; Suppl. 3, 20211-20213. Huß, W…

Fussala

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Fort on the border of the region of Hippo Regius. The precise location is unknown. Augustine appointed a bishop in F. who had mastered the Punic language (Aug. Epist. 209,2). F. remained a bishop's see (Not. Episc. Num. 21a). Inscription: AE 1983, 283 no. 980. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 9, no. 59 J. Desanges, S. Lancel, L'apport des nouvelles lettres à la géographie historique de l'Afrique antique et de l'Église d'Afrique, in: C. Lepelley (ed.), Les lettres de saint Augustin découvertes par Johannes Divjak, 1983, 87-98 and 99, here 92-98.

Mactaris

(339 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Neo-Punic Mktrm). City in the Roman province of Africa Byzacena ( Africa [3]), about 150 km south-west of Carthage, modern Maktar. M. was the centre of the Carthaginian district ( rṣt Tškt (‘territories of Tuschkat’)) seized by Massinissa at the end of the 50s of the 2nd cent. BC [1. 432]. Testimonials to Punic culture - for example over 200 neo-Punic inscriptions - are numerous [2. 273-292]. An important sanctuary of the city was dedicated to Ḥṭr-Mskr ( Hoter Miskar). The Roman names Saturnus, Apollo deus pat…

Musti

(210 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis to the southwest of Thugga on the great road connecting Carthage with Sicca Veneria, modern Le Krib. Native city, which came under Punic rule and then fell to Massinissa. From the 1st century BC (?) [1. 366] until the late Roman period M. was a municipium (CIL VIII suppl. 1, 15582). Ptol. 4,3,42 (Μούστη κώμη/ Moústē kṓmē); Itin. Anton. 26,2; 41,3; 45,2; 49,3; 51,3 ( M.); Tab. Peut. 5,2 ( Mubsi); e.g. CIL VIII 1, 1577 ( Mustitani). In inscriptions several temples are mentioned: Juno (CIL VIII suppl. 4, 27438); Liber Pater and Venu…

Musulamii

(226 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Distinguished union of Berber tribes, which is widely attested in literature and inscriptions. The M. lived - partly transmigrating? - in the south of  Numidia and in parts of Africa Proconsularis. Evidence: Plin. HN 5,30 ( Musulami or Misulani); Flor. Epit. 4,12,40 ( Musulami); Tac. Ann. 2,52,1; 4,24,2 ( Musulamii); Ptol. Geog. 4,3,24 (Μισουλάμοι/ Misoulámoi or Μισουλάνοι/ Misoulánoi); Tab. Peut. 2,5; 3,1 ( Musulamii); Liber generationis (Chron. min. 1) p. 109 §213 ( Musulani); Oros. 6,21,18 ( Musolani); Chronicum Alexandrinum (Chron. min. 1) p. 109 §184 ( Mosulami…

Catabathmus

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Καταβαθμός; Katabathmós). In the Ptolemaic period, the fort of C. with its harbour -- modern Sollum -- was the border town from Egypt to the  Cyrenaea. C. retained is border town character throughout subsequent cents. Its strategic location was important. Source references: Sall. Iug. 19,3; Str. 17,1,5; 13; 3,1; 22; Mela 1,40; Plin. HN 5,38f.; It. Ant. 71,7; Stadiasmus maris magni 29f. (GGM I 437f.). The surroundings of the settlement are also occasionally referred to as Katabathmós -- C. (‘descent’) mégas; cf. Pol. 31,18,9; Ptol. 4,5,4; Sol. 27,3; Oros. 1,2,88. Huß, …

Byzacium

(185 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βυζάκις or Βυσσᾶτις; Byzákis, Byssâtis). Originally probably the region between Neapolis (Zeugitana) and Thapsus, including the hinterland, and the Sahel of Sousse with the plains of Kairouan. B. is probably derived from the Βύζαντες ( Býzantes) (Steph. Byz. s.v.). From Punic times onwards, B. was renowned for its rich yields of wheat and olives (Ps.-Scyl. 110 [GGM 1, 88f.]; Pol. 3,23,2; Varro, Rust. 1,44,2; Bell. Afr. 97,3; Plin. HN 5,24; 17,41; 18,94; Sil. Pun. 9,204f.; Plut. Caesar 55,1; App. Lib. 33,139). The …

Gaetuli

(324 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe, whose numerous clans lived in the area between the Syrtis Minor and the Atlantic Ocean. Source references: Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,2; 9; 19; Mela 1,23; 3,104; Plin. HN 5,9f.; 17; 30; 43; Apul. Apol. 24,1; 41,4; Dimensuratio provinciarum 25; Aug. De ordine 2,5,15; Aug. In psalmos 148,10; Divisio orbis terrarum 26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γαιτοῦλοι; Anon. Geographia compendiaria 15 (GGM II 497); Eust. epit. de commentariis in Dionysium Periegeten 215 (GGM II 254). A branch of the G., who had intermarried with black Africans, was called the Melanogaitoûloi (Μελανογαιτο…

Cyrenaica

(630 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κυρηναία; Kyrēnaía, Lat. Cyrenae). North-east African coastal region of the Cyrenaea (mod. Cyrenaica) with western border at  Arae [2] Philaenorum/Φιλαίνων Βωμοί (mod. Ras el-Aáli) [1. 73f., 469] and its eastern one near  Catabathmus megas (mod. Solum); cf. Str. 17,3,22 [2. 509f.]. The region took its name from the Theraean   apoikía Cyrene.  Cyrene was part of the Libyan  pentapolis, together with Barca (mod. Barka), later outstripped by Ptolemaïs (mod. Tolemaide), also Euhesperides, later Berenice (mod. Be…

Lambdia

(66 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Caesariensis, c. 100 km south-south-west of Icosium, modern Médéa. Literary evidence: Ptol. 4,2,27 (Λαβδία; Labdía); CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22567 ( Lambdienses); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,201,8 ( Lambiensis); Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Caesariensis 46a ( Ambiensis). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 2, 9239-9246; 10443. Sparse ruins are preserved. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 14, no. 48 H. Dessau, s.v. L., RE 12, 542.

Banasa

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Probably indigenous name of a city of Mauritania Tingitana on the left bank of the Oued Sebou on the fertile Ġharb plain, today Sidi Ali bou Djenoun. The oldest archaeological signs lead to the 6th/5th cents. BC; ceramics found show Phoenician and Iberian influences. After the death of  Bocchus [2] II, the young Caesar raised B. to the status of a colonia (33-27 BC); Marcus Aurelius granted it the honorary name colonia Aurelia Banasa. Inscriptions: Inscr. antiques du Maroc 2, 84-246 (i.a. the Tabula Banasitana and an e…

Equizeto

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Sitifensis, at a road junction south-west of Sitifis: the modern Ouled-Agla or Lecourbe; in Tab. Peut. 2,1 referred to as Equeheto. The town was a municipium by the time of Alexander Severus at the latest [1. 567 no. 29]. Inscr.: CIL VIII 2, 8810-8825; 9045; 10427-10430; Suppl. 3, 20606; Suppl. 4, 22658,5. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Bull. Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques, 1897. AAAlg, folio 15, no. 91.

Masaesylii

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μασαισύλιοι; Masaisýlioi). West Numidian tribe in Mauretania Caesariensis (between the River Mulucha and Cape Bougaroun): Pol. 3,33,15; Liv. 28,17,5; Str. 17,3,9; Plin. HN 5,19; 52; 21,77. For its localization in Mauretania Tingitana: Plin. HN 5,17; Ptol. 4,2,17. Among the kings of the M. were Syphax (Punic Spq), Vermina (Punic Wrmnd) and Arcobarzanes. Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ... , 1962, 62.

Sasura

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Africa proconsularis, from the time of Diocletianus in the province of Byzacena (Diocletianus, with map), some 18 km to the north of Thysdrus, modern Henchir el-Ksour (Bell. Afr. 75,3; 76,1: oppidum Sarsura; Ptol. 4,3,36: Σασοῦρα/ Sasoûra; Tab. Peut. 6,3: Sassura vicus). Caesar attacked the Pompeians under Caecilius [I 32] and Iuba [1] there in 46 BC and conquered S. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, p. 73, no. 12  J.-B. Chabot (ed.), Recueil des inscriptions libyques, 1940/1, Nr. 43-45.

Nababes

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe in Mauretania Caesariensis. According to Plin HN 5,21, the river ( flumen) Usar (modern Oued Isser?) separated the gens of the N. from the gens of the Macurebi. In Tab. Peut. 2,2-4, the N. are placed to the south of the Mons Ferratus, the Djurdjura mountain range (Kabylei). They probably belonged to the confederacy of the Quinquegentiani. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 65f.  F. Windberg, s.v. Nabades, RE 16, 1449f.

Garama

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Africa | Limes Main town of the  Garamantes, northeast of Mursuk (Fezzan), modern Djerma. References: Plin. HN 5,36; Ptol. 1,8,5; 10,2; 4,6,30; 8,16,7; Solin. 29,5. L. Cornelius Balbus, procos. Africae, led an expedition in 20 BC that certainly reached Garama. Subsequently, there was a close but sometimes stormy relationship between Garama and Rome. Many archaeological finds attest to this close relationship. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Ch. M. Daniels, Garamantian Excavations..., in: Libya Anti…

Carpis

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κάρπις; Kárpis). Punic settlement on the western base of the Bon peninsula (probably near Mraïssa). Sources: Plin. HN 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,7; Geogr. Rav. 37,49; 88,39; Guido 132,60). C. rose to become a colonia in around AD 1 (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25417). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 993-998; Suppl. 1, 12454f.; Suppl. 4, 24106f. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 281f. P. Trousset, s.v. C., EB, 1779f.

Numidae, Numidia

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] In the narrower sense, the region that stretches west of the Carthaginian territory between the Tusca and Ampsaga rivers, today part of eastern Algeria. The Greeks interpreted the name of the Libyan people of N. living in this area in the sense of nomádes (νομάδες, ‘people who roam’) and so called this region Nomadía (Νομαδία; [1; 2. 95f.]; Pol. 36,16,7). However, most of the N. had already been settled for a long time. The plateau of N. is bordered in the north by the foothills of the Tell Atlas and in the south by the Sahara Atlas…

Zita

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Tripolitana on the Zarris peninsula, modern Ziane (Ptol. 4,3,12: Ζεῖθα ἄκρα/ Zeîtha ákra; It. Ant. 60,2: Ponte Zita; Tab. Peut. 6,5: Ziza; Geogr. Rav. 37,41: Z.; CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 11002-11016; 4, 22690 = [1. 12]). The name of the city is sometimes derived from the Phoenician word zt ('olive'). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin et al. (eds.), Inscriptions latines d'Afrique, 1923. M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 460 f.

Sitifis

(241 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Rome City in Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Sétif in Algeria (Σίτιφα/ Sítipha, Ptol. 4,2,34; Sitifi, It. Ant. 24,7), from the time of Nerva colonia Nerviana Augusta Martialis veteranorum Sitifensium (cf. CIL VIII 2, 8473 et passim). Before AD 288 S. was a centre of the newly created province of Mauretania Sitifensis. A population of a Punic character also lived in S.. In AD 372 S. was the headquarters of the imperial troops in the campaig…

Barbaria

(144 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βαρβαρία; Barbaría). Somalian north coast, according to Peripl. M. Erythraei 3; 7 (GGM 1, 261; 263). There were no ports, but good landing places, like Aualites, Malao, Mundu, Mosylon and Aromata. Also cf. Cosmas Indikopleustes (2,26; 29; 45; 48; 49; 50; 64) for the location. The name B. appears to have been preserved in the name of the city Berbera, the old emporium Malao (Ptol. 4,7,10). Behind Opone, today Ras Hafun, the coastal area called Azania started, which ended at  Rhapto…

Pharusii

(90 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαρούσιοι; Pharoúsioi). A nomadic North African people whom Strabo (2,5,33; 17,3,3; 7) always mentions together with the Nigritae (cf. Sall. Iug. 18: Persae; Mela 1,22; 3,103; Plin. HN 5,43: Gymnetes Pharusi; 46: Pharusi, quondam Persae; 6,194: Perusii; Ptol. 4,6,17; Geogr. Rav. 43,10: Paurisi). The P. appear to have partly lived to the west and partly to the south-east of the High Atlas. With their caravans they occasionally reached as far as Cirta (Str. 17,3,7). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Cat. des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 230-232.

Gilda

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Tingitana, north-west of Volubilis, perhaps identifiable with Souk el-Arba of Sidi Slimane. Evidence: Mela 3,107; Ptol. 4,1,13 (Σίλδα; Sílda); It. Ant. 23,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γίλδα; Geogr. Rav. p. 43,3 (?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography M. Euzennat, Les voies romaines du Maroc ..., in: M. Renard (ed.), Hommages à A. Grenier II (Coll. Latomus 58), 1962, 599f.

Althiburus

(209 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Punic 'ltbrš). Native city of Africa proconsularis (other forms of the name [5. 1697]), 37 km south-southeast of El-Kef, today Henchir Medeina. A. had strong Punic elements [4. 295-297; 2. 19-24; 3; 6. 60; 1. 17 f., pl. IV 2]. This could be due partially to the location of A. on the  Carthage   to Theveste road. Cult of  Baal Hamon (without that of  Tinnit), the sacrifice of molk and a tofet. Three   sufetes led the administration. Under Hadrian, A. became municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4. 27769, 27775, 27781), un…
▲   Back to top   ▲