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Diana Veteranorum

(118 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia, north-northwest of Lambaesis, mod. Aïn Zana. Documentary evidence: It. Ant. 34,3 ( Diana); 35,4 ( Diana Veteranorum); Tab. Peut. 3,1 ( ad Dianam). The town, which was probably only founded in Roman times, started out as a very simple settlement with a community council (CIL VIII 1, 4587, AD 141) and was only elevated to a municipium in AD 162 (CIL VIII 1, 4589; 4599). From the mid 3rd cent., a bishop resided in Diana Veteranorum (Cypr. epist. 34,1). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 4575-4625; Suppl. 2, 18646-18653; AE 1956, 40-42 no. 124; [1]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) B…

Masices

(191 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μάσικες; Másikes, Μάζικες; Mázikes). Name of several North African peoples (Anon. Cosmographia 1,39 = GLM 88). It corresponds roughly to the modern term ‘Berber’. The M. have been localized in Mauretania Tingitana (south of the territory of the Metagonitae: Ptol. 4,1,10), in Mauretania Caesariensis (CIL VIII 1, 2786; 2, 9613; Ptol. 4,2,19; Provinciarum omnium laterculus Veronensis 14,3 = GLM 129; Amm. Marc. 29,5,17; 21; 25f.; 51; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48) and south of the province of Africa (Liber generationis, Chron. min. 1,107,197: between Afri qui e…

Thapsa

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Θάψα). North African harbour town (Ps.-Scyl. 111; the place name is Punic), probably identical to Rusicade. In the 4th cent. BC, a distinction may possibly have been made between Cape Rusicade and the settlement Th. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 8, Nr. 196  H. Treidler, s. v. Th., RE 5 A, 1271 f.

Saldae

(163 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars City and harbour of Mauretania Caesariensis, later of Sitifensis, near the mouth of the Oued Soummam, present-day Bejaïa in Algeria (Ps.-Scyl. 111: Σίδα πόλις/ Sída pólis (?); Ptol. 4,2,9: Σάλδαι κολωνία/ Sáldai kolōnía; It. Ant. 5,2: Saldis; 17,3: Saldis colonia; 31,6: Saldas; 32,3: Saldis; 39,2: Saldis; 39,6: Saldis colonia; 39,7: Saldis; Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 41: Saldae). S. was on the boundary between the kingdom of Juba [2] and the Roman…

Massylii

(251 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μασσύλιοι/ Massýlioi, etc.). An Eastern Numidian tribe, from the east of Cape Bougaroun. References: Hesianax FGrH 763 F 1; Pol. 3,33,15; Strab. 17,3,9; Plin. HN 5,30; Sil. 16,170-172 (who confuses the M. with the Masaesyli); App. Lib. 10,37; 27,110; 46,195. In the second century BC, the territory of the M. sometimes reached from the Mulucha river as far as the Gulf of Sidra (except for the province of Africa). Apart from the ‘suffete’ Zilalsan (Numidian Zllsn), the Massylian kings included Gaia (Numidian Gjj), his son Massinissa (Punic Msnsn), his sons Micipsa (Punic M…

Bulla Regia

(278 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic Bbl?). Town in Africa proconsularis in the valley of the Bagradas, today Hammam Daradji, originally a Libyan settlement, came into Carthaginian possession and towards the end of the 150s BC had to be surrendered to  Massinissa, who probably made the regia into a royal capital (App. Lib. 309). In 46 BC it was integrated into the province of Africa nova, in the 1st cent. BC/AD it became an oppidum liberum (Plin. HN 5,22), probably in the time of Vespasian a municipium (Inscr. latines d'Afrique 458; AE 1964, 67 no. 177) and in Hadrian's time a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 4…

Sicca Veneria

(340 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Indigenous city of Africa proconsularis on the road from Carthage to Cirta (Plin. HN 5,22; Ptol. 4,3,30; 8,14,9;  It. Ant. 45,1; Tab. Peut. 4,5; Solin. 27,8), modern El-Kef in Tunisia. In 241 BC, SV had to take in the Carthaginian mercenaries who had returned from Sicily (Pol. 1,66 f.; [1. 253 f., 471]). On the basis of the peace treaty of 201 (Punic Wars), SV may have become Numidian. In the war with Iugurtha (111-105 BC), SV was the t…

Volubilis

(585 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Limes City in Mauretania Tingitana in a strategically favourable location 20 km to the north of Meknès (in Morocco); modern Walı̄la. V. was originally probably a Berber settlement, but as an inland city was Punicised relatively early. From the 4th/3rd cents. BC onwards, V. was one of the residences of the Moorish rulers. From no later than the 3rd cent. BC, V. was under the administration of sufetes. Neo-Punic inscription…

Mulucha

(107 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River in Mauretania, rising in the High Atlas and flowing into the Mediterranean to the east of the western Cape Metagonion [1], modern Moulouya. Initially it divided Mauretania and Numidia (Numidae), from 46 BC the Western Mauretanian kingdom of Bogudes [2] II and the Eastern Mauretanian kingdom of Bocchus [2] II, from AD 42 Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis and from the time of Diocletian (Diocletianus, with map) the dioceses of Hispaniae and Africa. Plin. HN 5,19…

Tisidium

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]; Tab. Peut. 5,4; the oppidum Thisiduense in CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 13188?), modern Krich el-Oued (in Tunisia). In the Jugurthine War (Iugurtha) Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus set out from T.   to punish the city of Vaga for its treachery (Sall. Iug. 62,8; 68,2 f.). In the 2nd cent AD a municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1267-1271; Suppl. 1, 14763-14765. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet. 27, No. 28  F. Windberg, s.v. T. (1), RE 6 A, 1478 f.

Siga

(151 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars | Punic Wars (neo-Punic Šjgn). City and river port of Mauretania Caesariensis on the Oued Tafna, 4 km to the south of Portus Sigensis, modern Takembrit in Algeria (Ps.-Scylax 111; Pol. 12,1,3; Liv. 28,17,15 f.; Str.  17,3,9; Mela 1,29; Plin. HN 5,19; Ptol. 4,2,2;  It. Ant. 12,8; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σίγαθα/ Sígatha). At first a Punic trading post, later the royal city of Syphax, king of the Masaesyli. In the city (only partially excavated) the cult of Saturnus appears to have supplante…

Nicives

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίσιβες/ Nísibes). According to Plin. HN 5,29f., the N. were a people in Africa Proconsularis. A boundary stone from the time of Vespasian [1. 289f.] locates them in the ager publicus of Cirta. According to Ptol. 4,3,24 the N. lived in the south of Numidia (Numidae) near the Nattabutae and Miaedioe. Later they were to be found in the region of N'Gaous (Nicivibus), 80 km south of Sétif. For the year AD 411 an episcopus Niciuensis is attested (acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,201). Inscriptions: AE 1969-1970, 696. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. La…

Mimaces

(87 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μίμακες; Mímakes). Libyan nomads living near the Machyni, Machryes and Gephes (between the Tunisian Dorsale and the Chott el-Jerid) (Ptol. 4,3,26 and Steph. Byz. s.v. M. = Philistus of Syracuse). According to Ptol. 4,6,20f., M. also lived in the Libyan interior, not far from the Thála óros (Θάλα ὄρος; the modern Tahela Ohat in the Ahaggar mountains?) and near the Noubai (Νοῦβαι). Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines..., 1962, 115, 224 H. Treidler, s.v. Mimakes, RE 15, 1711f.

Gemellae

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Limes Camp and city in Numidia, situated 25 km south-west of Biskra, modern El-Kasbat. G. was part of the fortification system of the fossatum. A detachment of the legio III Augusta and the ala I Pannoniorum were here at various times. In the 4th cent. the praepositus limitis Gemellensis had its quarters in G. Evidence: Tab. Peut. 5,1; Not. Dign. Occ. 25,24. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2482; Suppl. 2, 17976-17985; AE 1969-1970, 222 no. 741(?); 1989, 287 no. 883.  Limes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Baradez, G., …

Thamugadi

(211 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Africa | | Coloniae | Limes City in the province of Numidia (Numidae), about 20 km to the east of Lambaesis (It. Ant. 34,1; 35,2; 40,7; Tab. Peut. 3,4), modern Timgad in Algeria. Founded in AD 100 by Munatius [II 4] Gallus as Colonia Marciana Traiana T. (CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 17842f.), probably the last pre-titular colonia [E] in Africa [3]. As the considerable remains show, the city swiftly flourished. Numidae influenced by the Poeni may have taken the cults of Caelestis, Saturn, …

Thuburbo

(292 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] T. Maius This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; Plin. HN 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,35; It. Ant. 48,9; Tab. Peut. 5,4), 65 km to the southwest of Carthage in the fertile valley of the Oued Miliane, modern Henchir Kasbat. The original Berber town was considerably Punicized [1. 300-302]; inscriptions [2. 885; 3; 4] and several buildings from the Roman period used by Punic cults are evidence of this process. From the time of Hadrianus a municipium [5. 244, 278], from the time of Commodus a colonia (CIL VIII 1, 848; [5. 26…

Mapalia

(123 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] At the latest since Sall. Iug. 18,8 and Verg. G. 3,340, mapalia was the common expression, for the Romans as well, for the straw huts of the Numidians. Some North African areas were also called mapalia: 1) an imperial domain between Hippo [6] Regius and Calama (Aug. Epist. 66); 2) a domain that was probably also imperial in the Bagradas Valley (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25902; 3) a dioecesis Mappaliensis as a district within a Numidian diocese (PL 67,198). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Dessau, s.v. M., RE 14, 1403 M. M. Magalhães, C. A. Sertá, M., Lo spazio urbano e il nom…

Kaputtasaccura

(76 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Caesariensis, in the vicinity of the limes, c. 30 km east of Altava, modern Chanzy. In the Severan period, a castrum was built in K. for the eq(uites) alae I Aug(ustae) Parthor(um) (CIL VIII 2, 9827f.). Additional inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9826; 9829f.; Suppl. 3, 21716-21718; cf. 22616-22618; Libyca 3, 1955, 186. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 32, no. 59 X. Loriot, Faltonius Restitutianus, in: AntAfr 6, 1972, 145f.

Gens Bacchuiana

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Africa proconsularis, in the valley of Oued Siliana near Tichilla and  Thubursicum Bure, modern Bou Djelida. Chief place of the gens Bacchuiana, under Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161), its administration lay in the hands of undecimprimi. Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12331-12340a; Suppl. 4, 23922-23930. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 34, no. 74.

Cercina

(186 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κέρκιν(ν)α; Kérkin(n)a). Island, or rather twin islands (Gharbi and Chergui), in the Gulf of Gabès, 20 km from Sfax, modern Kerkenna. Sources: Hdt. 4,195 (Κύραυις); Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM 1, 87); Str. 17,3,16; Mela 2,105; Plin. HN 5,41; Ptol. 4,3,35; Agathemerus 21f. (GGM 2, 483); It. Ant. 518,3f.; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 112 (GGM 1, 468). C. was part of the Carthaginian empire and boasted excellent harbours (Diod. Sic. 5,12,4). In historical sources, C. is mentioned in the context of …

Psylli

(213 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ψύλλοι/ Psýlloi, Lat. Psylli). [German version] [1] Libyan people, settled on the Great Syrte Libyan tribe, settled on the Great Syrte (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 332). Their neighbours to the east were the Nasamones; to the south, the Garamantes. At the beginning of the 5th cent. BC the P. were forced to abandon their homes as the result of a catastrophic drought. During their search for a new homeland they were continually worn down by battles with other tribes. Their former territory was occupied by the Nasamones (H…

Utica

(582 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Ἰτύκη/ Itýkē). Town in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]) at the mouth of the Bagradas, 33 km north-west of Carthage, the modern Henchir Bou Chateur, with important archaeological remains (including mosaics in private dwellings); the oldest Phoenician colony on African soil (Ps.-Aristot. Mir. 134, = 844 a; Vell. Pat. 1,2,3; Mela 1,3,4; Plin. HN 5,76; 16,216; Sil. Pun. 3,241 f.; Just. Epit. 18,4,2; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἰτύκη/ Itýkē; [1. 35]). The Phoenici…

Aggar

(167 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
There were two towns in   Africa Byzacena of that name. [German version] [1] Town near Ksour es-Saf The first is mentioned in Bell. Afr. 67,1; 76,2; 79,1 (Plin. HN 5,30: oppidum liberum), its location to be found most likely near Ksour es-Saf close to the modern Maklouba. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] Modern Henchir Sidi Amara The second town, the modern Henchir Sidi Amara, was located in the plains of Kairouan, near Ousseltia. In AD 232, this peregrine town became a   municipium (CIL VIII 1, 714) and later a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12145). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AA…

Rusuccuru

(212 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Promontory and Punic city near the mouth of the Oued Sebaou (in the later Mauretania Caesariensis), modern Dellys (Bell. Afr. 23,1: Ascurum (?); Plin. HN 5,20: Rusucurium; Ptol. 4,2,8: Ῥουσουκκόραι/ Rhousoukkórai or Ῥουσοκκόρου/ Rhousokkórou; It. Ant. 16,4 and 39,2: R.; 36,3 and 39,1: Rusuccurru; Tab. Peut. 2,2: R.; Mart. Cap. 6,668: R.; Geogr. Rav. 40,43: Rusicuron; 88,13: Rusucurus; 88,15: Rusucurum; Guido, Geographia 132,22: Rusicorus). [1. 380] explains the name with Rš-hqr = 'Cap de la Perdrix…

Mopth...

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Sitifensis, near Cuicul in Numidia (Tab. Peut. 2,4: Mopti Municipium), modern Mons. Ruins: Capitolium with inscriptions to Septimius Severus and his sons [1. 49-58, table III-V], temple of Saturn [2. 252f.], curia, tombs. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8655-8688; suppl. 3, 20417-20428. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 L. Galand, Mons, M. et Mopti, in: MEFRA 61, 1949, 35-91, pls. I-VI 2 M. Leglay, Saturne africain. Monuments, vol. 2, 1966. AAA, Bl. 16, Nr. 196  W. Kroll, s.v. Mopta, RE 16, 251.

Simitthus

(248 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre City in Africa Proconsularis (Plin. HN 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,29; It. Ant. 43,3; Tab. Peut. 4,5) in the valley of the Bagradas to the southwest of Bulla Regia, modern Chemtou in Tunisia; famous for its marble quarries (Plin. HN 5,22; 35,3; 36,49; Isid. Orig. 16,5,16). After 148 BC Micipsa built at S. a hilltop sanctuary for his father Massinissa, which in the Roman Period was converted to a temple of Saturnus. Archaeology: many finds from the N…

Baquates

(103 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Mauritanian tribe ( gens Baquatium) [1. 2851] that probably lived in the east and south of Mauretania Tingitana. Ptol. 4,1, 10, the It. Ant. 2,2f. and the Liber generationis (1,197,65 Mommsen) link it with the tribe of the Macenites or Μακανῖται ( Makanîtai) and Massennae, Iulius Honorius (cosmographia B 47) and the Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis (14,4f.) with the Barbares, i.e. the  Bavares. The Romans allowed the freedom-loving B. their independence and treated them as allies; Inscr. latines d'Afrique 609. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 H. D…

Machlyes

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Libyan nomads who according to Herodotus (4,178; 180) lived west of the Lotophagoi and east of the Ausees (on the Little Syrte?) and according to Pliny (HN 5,28; 7,15) in the neighbouring area of the Nasamones on the Great Syrte. Pliny and his source Calliphanes - both incidentally see in the M. androgynoi (i.e. people of dual sexuality) - were probably wrong. Sources: Hdt. 4,178; 180 (Μάχλυες; Máchlyes); Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 103q (Ἰαλχλευεῖς/ Ialchleueîs the MSS tradition SMA; Μαχλυεῖς/ Machlyeîs corr. J. Vossius); Plin. HN 5,28 ( Machroae); 7,15 ( Machlyae); P…

Lambaesis

(399 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Legio | Limes | Limes | Rome Camp and town in Numidia on the northern slope of Mons Aurasius (modern Aurès), modern Tazoult-Lambèse (on Lam- place-names of the immediate vicinity and beyond cf. [1. 539]). Documentary evidence: Ptol. 4,3,29 (Λάμβαισα; Lámbaisa); It. Ant. 32,4; 33,2f.; 34,2; 40,6 ( Lambese); Tab. Peut. 3,2 ( Lambese); in inscriptions more frequently Lambaesis than Lambaese. L. was close to the beginning of the road leading through the gorge of Calceus Herculis (to…

Theveste

(173 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Legio | Limes (Θεουέστη/ Theouéstē). City of Africa proconsularis (Africa [3] Ptol. 4,3,30; Procop. Vand. 2,21,19), one of the most important communications nodes in northern Africa, 38 km to the southwest of Ammaedara, modern Tébessa with significant ancient remains (e.g. Arch of Caracalla). T. was conquered in 247 BC by Hanno [6] the Great ([1. 71; 246 note 232]; Pol. 1,73,1; Diod. Sic. 4,18,1; 24,10,2; Amm. Marc. 17,4,2 f.). From the time of Traianus, T. was a colonia. The city, destroyed by V…

Clupea

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Punic Wars (Ἀσπίς; Aspís). Possibly pre-Phoenician town (Procop. Vand. 2,10,24) of the later Africa proconsularis, north-east of the peninsula Bon, today's Kélibia (Sources: Mela 1,34; Plin. HN 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,7f.; It. Ant. 57,6; Tab. Peut. 6,2; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 117 [GGM 1, 470]). Str. 17,3,16, Sil. Pun. 3,243f. and App. Lib. 519 call C. Aspis. Notwithstanding Ptol. 4,3,7f., C. and Aspis were not two different towns (cf. Sol. 27,8). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 982-986; X 1, 6104; AE 1991, 1646-1658. Huß, Wern…

Cediae

(70 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in the province of  Numidia, south-east of Mascula, modern Henchir Ounkif. From the time of Diocletian (AD 284-305) at the latest, the administration of the res publica Cediensium lay in the hands of duumviri. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 17655. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 10727-10732; Suppl. 2, 17655-17667, 17759. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 39, no. 43 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 401.

Abthugni

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (pun. p[t]bgn?). Town in Africa Byzacena, the modern Henchir es-Souar; for the tradition of the place name [1]. The   fossa regia ran close to A. (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 23084). Under  Hadrian, Abthugni became a   municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 11206; Suppl. 4, 23085). Further inscriptions: AE 1991, 461 f., no. 1641-1644. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Schmidt, s. v. Aptugni, RE 2, 288. AATun 050, sheet 42, no. 52 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire, 2, 1981, 265-277.

Aunobaris

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, south-south-west of Thugga, modern Kern el-Kebch, a municipium since the end of the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15563). Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15562-15568; Suppl. 4, 27395-27405; Inscr. latines d' Afrique 591f. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 19, no. 160 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 76.

Lamasba

(156 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Significant Numidian road junction, c. 50 km north-west of Lambaesis, modern Henchir Merouana ( Lamasba, It. Ant. 35,2; 5; 6; Lamasbua, Tab. Peut. 2,5; Lamasba oppidum, Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48). L. was probably a municipium from the time of Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22511; cf. 22467). It was an episcopal see from as early as 256 (Cypr. sententiae episcoporum 75). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22427-22466. The text of an inscription of the Elagabalan period (AD 218-222) regulates the distribution of the waters of the aqua Claudian…

Gigthis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town on the Lesser Syrte, 30 km north-east of Medenine, modern Bou Grara. Evidence: Ptol. 4,3,11; It. Ant. 60,1; 518,5; Tab. Peut. 6,5. G. was presumably a Phoenician or Punic settlement and in later times perhaps the outlying area of the Cinithi, the allies of  Tacfarinas. Under Hadrian or Antoninus Pius the town was accorded ius Latii maius, and under Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161) it became a municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 22707). Further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 25-34; Suppl. 1, 11017-11047; Suppl. 4, 22691-22757. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography S. Lancel, E. Lip…

Lamiggiga

(113 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia between Lambaesis and Diana Veteranorum, modern Sériana. L. was probably in the territory of Diana Veteranorum, but around AD 200 it had its own magistri and received an ordo decurionum. Legionaries and veterans of the legio III Augusta lived in the town. In 411, L. was predominantly on the side of the Donatists ( Donatus [1]; Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,133,1-13; 187,98-100; 198,55f.). Some ruins - churches, baths and wine-presses - are preserved. L. was consolidated into a fortress in the Byza…

Meninx

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μῆνιγξ; Mêninx). Island (modern Djerba) and city (modern al-Kantara) in the province of Africa Tripolitana ( Africa [3]). Eratosthenes (fr. p. 308 Berger, in Plin. HN 5,41) describes the island as ‘lotus-eating’ (λωτοφαγῖτις; lōtophagîtis). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM 1,85-89); Pol. 1,39,2; 34,3,12; Str. 3,4,3; Mela 2,105; Ptol. 4,3,35; 8,14,13; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 103; 104; 112; 124 (GGM 1,465f.; 468; 471). In 253 BC the Roman fleet ran into diffilculties off M. ((Pol. 1,39,2). In 217 BC the island was laid …

Augila

(100 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (τὰ Αὔγιλα; tà Aúgila). Westernmost and largest of the Ǧālū-Oases, modern Auǧila, according to Hdt. 4,172,1; 182, from the oasis of Sīwa about ten days' journey to the west (200 km south-east of Aǧabı̄ya). Belonging to the  Nasamones, A. was famous for its great number of mighty date palms (Str. 17,3,23; Mela 1,46; Plin. HN 5,26f.; Ptol. 4,5,30; Steph. Byz. s.v. A. (= Apollod.); Procop. Aed. 6,2,14f.). Nowadays, it is the last retreat of the Berber language in Libya. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography W. Vycichl, s.v. A., EB,…

Rusazus

(135 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Name of Cape Corbelin and a Punic base to the south, modern Azeffoun (in Algeria). Evidence: R. Colonia Augusti, Plin. HN 5,20; Ῥουσαζοῦς/ Rhousazoûs, Ptol. 4,2,9; Rusazu municipium, Tab. Peut. 2,3; Rusazis municipium, It. Ant. 17,2; Ruseius mune, Geogr. Rav. 40,42. According to [1. 379] the name can be explained as follows: Rš-( h)z( z) = 'Cap (du) Fort'. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8985-8991. A bishop is mentioned for the year AD 484 ( Rusaditanus, Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Caesariensis 69). Remains of embankments, temples, thermae and a necropolis survive. H…

Syrtis

(138 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Σύρτις/ Sýrtis, 'bay'). Ancient term for two bays on the coast of northern Africa: S. maior (modern Gulf of Benghazi) and S. minor (modern Gulf of Gabès). The name, which is probably - in contrast to the opinion of ancient philologists - not Greek but Phoenician in origin, emerges for the first time in Herodotus (e.g. 2,32,2). Ps.-Scylax (109 f.; GGM 1,84-89) and Strabo (2,5,20; 25; 33; 3,4,3; 17,3,1; 17,3,17-20) describe the S. from a geographical point of view. Both bays were fea…

Missua

(140 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in the province of Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), in the northwest of the peninsula of Cape Bon, modern Sidi Daoud. Sources: Plin. HN 5,24 ( [oppidum] Misua); Ptol. 4,3,7 (Νίσουα); It. Ant. 493,1f.; Tab. Peut. 6,2 ( Misua); Procop. Vand. 2,14,40 (Μισούα); Geogr. Rav. 88,41; Guido p. 132,62. The name seems to derive from the Phoenician-Punic root ns (‘hewing [rock]’) and refers to the nearby quarries of El-Haouaria [1. 295]. M. may have been a colonia Iulia [2. 186]. Significant ruins survive. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 988-990. A bishop is first m…

Sufetula

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Africa City in Africa Byzacena, modern Sbeitla in Tunisia (cf. It. Ant. 46,6), founded in the second half of the 1st cent. AD, soon afterwards a municipium and a colonia (CIL VIII suppl. 1, 11340), significant road junction; in 256 a bishop's see (Cypr. Sententiae episcopales 19). Remains survive of two honorary arches, a forum (temple), baths, a theatre, churches. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1,228-252a; 2567; 2586; suppl. 1,11221(?); 11318-11415 and 11417; 4, …

Ruspina

(135 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Name of foothills on the southern shores of the bay of Hammamet (in eastern Tunisia) and of a Phoenician or Punic settlement founded near these, modern Monastir (Bell. Afr. passim: R.; Str. 17,3,12: Ῥουσπῖνον/ Rhouspînon; Plin. HN 5,25: R.; Sil. Pun. 3,260: R.; Ptol. 4,3,9: Ῥουσπίνα/ Rhouspína; Cass. Dio 42,58,4: Ῥούσπινα/ Rhoúspina; Tab. Peut. 6,2: R.); explanation in [1. 380] of the name as Rš-pn(t) = 'Cap d'Angle'. In 46 BC, R. was the first city in Africa to ally itself with Caesar (Bell. Afr. 6,7; 9,1). From the time of Diocletianus on,…

Mileu(m)

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement, 50 km northwest of Cirta, today's Mila. M. came under strong Punic influence, was given to the mercenary leader P. Sittius by Caesar and as colonia Sarnia Milevitana it was one of the four coloniae of the res publica Cirtensium. Sources: App. B Civ. 4,54; Ptol. 4,3,28; It. Ant. 28,3; Tab. Peut. 3,3; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44; Anon. Cosmographia 1,44; Geogr. Rav 39,26. In the Roman period the village-like settlement attained metropolitan character. In the Byzantine period it was expanded into…

Tauchira

(158 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete | Limes (Ταύχειρα; Taúcheira). City in Cyrenaea, modern Tokra in Libya (Hdt. 4,171); founded by Cyrene (schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,26). T. was conquered in 322 BC by Ptolemaeus [1] and renamed by Ptolemaeus [3] to Arsinoe after his step-mother, by M. Antonius [I 9] to Cleopatris. Towards the end of the 4th cent. AD, T. was under pressure from Berber tribes; later it was again fortified under Iustinianus [1] I (Procop. Aed.…

Sigus

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Numidia, 35 km to the southeast of Cirta (It. Ant. 28,1; 34,8; 42,2), modern Sigus in Algeria. S. was under Punic influence in the 3rd and 2nd cents. BC. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19121 ( castellum); CIL VIII 1, 5693 et passim ( respublica Siguitanorum); Suppl. 2, 19135 ( magistri pagi and decuriones). In AD 411 S. was a see (Acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,197; 209). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 5683; 5693-5879; 2, 10148-51; 10856-10861; Suppl. 2, 19112-19196 and 19197; RIL 813. Boundary stones: Rev. Africaine 83, 1939, 161-181. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliogr…

Thabraca

(127 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Θάβρακα; Thábraka). City probably of Punic origin (cf. CIL VIII 1, 5206: Imilcho Mytthum[balis]) on the northern coast of Tunisia, 10 km from the modern Algerian border (Ptol. 4,3,5; Pol. 12,1,4: Τάβρακα; Plin.  HN 5,22;  Juv. 10,194: Tabraca); of significance as a place of transshipment for marble from Simitthus; modern Tabarka. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1,5198-5208; 2,10837; Suppl. 1, 17329-17391. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, Bl. Tabarca; Bl. 7, Nr. 10  C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique…

Zattara

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis between Calama and Thubursicum [2] Numidarum, modern Kef Bezioun. Neo-Punic inscriptions provide evidence of the city's pre-Roman past [1]. In the time of Hadrian Z. had an ordo decurionum (ILAlg I 533). In a 4th cent. inscription Z. is described as a municipium (ILAlg I 534; cf. also CIL VIII 1, 5177-5193; 2, 10833-10836; Suppl. 1, 17266-17276; ILAlg I 533-559. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Journ. Asiatique, Ser. 11, 7, 1916, 443-445 (444 = KAI 171). AAAlg, sheet 18, Nr. 233 M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2331 C.…

Thapsus

(352 words)

Author(s): Falco | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Θάψος/ Thápsos). [German version] [1] Tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily Flat, sandy (Serv. Aen. 3,688) tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily, northwest of Syracusae, connected with the mainland via an isthmus of c. 100 m (Thuc. 6,97,1), modern Penisola di Magnisi. Around 730 BC Lamis from Megara [2] settled on T. after he had abandoned Trotilum and been driven out of Leontini; after his death, his companions left T. in order to make a new home in Megara [3] Hyblaia 7 km to the north (Thuc. 6,4,1). There was an empórion ('trade port') on T. from the 15t…

Caldis

(35 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Auxiliary fort, north-west of  Cirta, west of the modern Mechta Nahar. Many steles, dedicated to Saturnus. Inscriptions: Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 3442-3569. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 8, no. 173.

Mazyes

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μάζυες/ Mázyes, Μάξυες/ Máxyes). The M. are first mentioned in Hecataeus [3] of Miletus (FGrH 1 F 334) as ‘those roaming about Libya’ (Λιβύης νομάδες). Stephanus s.v. M., who records this comment, continues: εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἕτεροι Μάξυες καὶ ἕτεροι Μάχλυες (‘the M. and the Machlyes are different tribes’). According to Hdt. 4,191,1, the Máxyes (Μάξυες, sic!), who are described as ‘the Lybians ... who plough’ (ἀροτῆρες ... Λίβυες), lived to the west of the Triton river. The root maz or max is of Libyan origin (‘noble’). Cf. the word amazigh (Tuareg), which is still in use. …

Apisa Minus

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, the modern Bou Arada. In the time of  Antoninus [1] Pius A. was still administered by two   sufetes (Macer -- Libyan personal name, Baliato[n] -- Punic personal name). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography A. Beschaouch, Une cité de constitution punique, in: Africa 7/8, 1982, 169-177.

Zangenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Tropical eastern Africa to the south of Cape Guardafui (Plin. HN 6,176), also Ἀζανία/ Azanía (Peripl. m.r. 15f.; 18; 31; 61; Ptol. 1,7,6; 1,17,6; 4,7,28; 4,7,35) and Ζίγγιον/ Zíngion (Cosmas [2] Indicopleustes 2,29; 2,30; 2,50); the Arabs formed their word zanǧ ('black man') on the basis of this name (cf. 'Zanzibar' and 'Tanzania'). Z. extended from the trade town of Opone (modern Ras Hafun) to Rhapton (probably modern Dar-es-Salaam) and from the time of Trajan as far as Cape Prason (probably the modern Cape…

Nepheris

(112 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νέφερις/ Népheris). City in Africa Proconsularis, c. 30 km southeast of Tynes on the steep plateau of Henchir Bou Baker (Str. 17,3,16; Liv. Per. 51). N. played an important role during the third Punic war ([1. 444-447, 451-454]; App. Lib. 102,479; 108,507; 111,523; 126,596f.; 126,602; Liv. Per. 51). In the Roman period, a temple of Saturnus Sobare(n)sis, perhaps of Bl ṣbr (‘[grain] hoarding Saturn’), of Frugifer [2. 313], was located outside the city. Epigraphy: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12388-12411; 4, 24031-24041. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß 2 E. Lipiń…

Casae Calbenti

(31 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Statio in Mauretania Caesariensis, 15 miles from Tipasa, 32 miles from Icosium (It. Ant. 15,3-5), probably modern Castiglione. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 4, no. 50.

Thabena

(73 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]; Bell. Afr. 77,1 f.) on or near the coast on the border with the kingdom of Juba [1], probably not identifiable with Thenae. In the Roman Civil War in 47/46 BC the Thabenenses were on the side of Caesar; in 46 they strangled the soldiers that Juba had established in the city (Bell. Afr. loc.cit.). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 1178.

Rusaddir

(159 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Punic Rš dr). Originally the name of the 'Great Cape' ( rš dr) of Tres Forcas, then of the city of R., modern Melilla (Spanish enclave within Morocco). Sources: Mela 1,29: wrongly Rusigada; Rhysaddir: Plin. HN 5,18; Ῥυσσάδειρον/ Rhyssádeiron, Ptol. 4,1,7; Rusadder colonia: It. Ant. 11,3 f. The oldest evidence of Carthaginian settlement (3rd cent. BC) has been found in the necropolis of Cerro de San Lorenzo. R. has also yielded a neo-P…

Cuicul

(179 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae Small Berber town in Numidia between Cirta and Sitifis, now Djemila. Attested forms of the name: Κοúλκουα, Ptol. 4,3,29; Cuiculi, It. Ant. 29,1; Culchul, Tab. Peut. 2,4; Chulchul, Geogr. Rav. 39,25. A veteran colony was established under Nerva (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20713) which contributed substantially to C.'s upswing. In the 5th cent., C.'s importance declined. Significant ruins have survived: temples (Venus Genetrix, Liber, Saturnus, Frugifer, Gens Septi…

Metagonium

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μεταγώνιον; Metagṓnion). [German version] [1] Promontory in Mauretania Tingitana Promontory in Mauretania Tingitana, east of Rusaddir and west of the mouth of the Mulucha (Str. 17,3,6.9; Ptol. 4,1,7), modern Cabo de Agua. The name Metagōnîtai (Μεταγωνῖται, in Pol. 3,33,13 and Ptol. 4,1,10) does not appear to be derived from this promontory. The Metagonitae probably inhabited Libyan towns and localities lying between Cape Spartel and Ceuta ([1. 36], otherwise [2. 97]), but not Libyo-Phoenician cities; cf. also Pol. 3,33,12 (τὰ Μεταγώνια τῆς Λιβύης; tà Metag?nia tês Liby?s) and S…

Zulil

(140 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic šlyt). City in Mauretania Tingitana to the southwest of  Tingis (modern Tangiers), modern Asilah or Dchar Djedid. Z. was a Phoenician or Punic foundation. In the time of the Moorish kings, Z. minted coins with Punic legends [1. 188 f.] and was in active contact with the Iberian Peninsula. Augustus resettled the inhabitants of Z. to Spain in order to make space for his veterans (Mela 2,96). According to Plin. HN 5,2, Z. was under the control of the proconsul Baeticae (Strab. 3,1,8; 17,3,6: Ζῆλις/ Zêlis; Ptol. 4,…

Calceus Herculis

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Oasis west of the Aurès mountains, nowadays probably El-Kantara (north of Biskra). The road from Lambaesis to the Numidian limes went through C. (Tab. Peut. 3,5). This strategically important location was, in the 2nd and 3rd cent., garrison to archers and camel-riders from Emesa and Palmyra, who introduced their native gods to C.H.: CIL VIII 1, 2502, 2505, 2515; Suppl. 2, 18007f. Further inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2496-2515; Suppl. 2, 18004-18012; AE 1992, 522f. no. 1848-1854. Huß, Werner (Bamberg)

Marmarica

(468 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μαρμαρική; Marmarikḗ). Region on the north coast of Africa between Egypt and the Cyrenaica. The borders of M. varied over time: during the time of the 30th dynasty (380-342 BC), the region of the Marmaridae stretched from the border of the Libyan district (near Apis) to the west (Ps.-Scyl. 108 [GGM 1,82-84]). According to Ptol. 4,5,2-4, however, the eastern border of the district of M. ( sic!) only began near Pétras Mégas Limḗn (west of Catabathmus Mégas), i.e. at the westernmost point of Egypt. Ptol. (4,4,2; 5f.) puts the western border of M. to the eas…

Thena

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic Tynt?; Θένα/ Théna, Latin Thena, Thenae). Originally probably a Punic city (cf. CIS I 3, 4911 and archaeological finds) in Byzacena (Africa [3];  Str. 17,3,12; 17,3,16; Plin.  HN 5,25), 12 km to the south of Taparura (modern Sfax); end of the Fossa [7] Regia built in 146 BC by Cornelius [I 70] Scipio on the Gulf of Gabes (Syrtis;  cf. [1. 435 note 80]); modern Thyna. The port, probably a colonia from the time of Hadrianus, acquired a certain amount of significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards. From 255 recorded as a bishopric. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Hus…

Xuchis

(77 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξοῦχις; Xoûchis). Northern African city (πόλις Λιβύης), recorded by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus (fr. 16 = GGM 1,576; 1st cent. BC). If X. can be identified with Ζοῦχις/ Zoûchis (Str. 17,3,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ζοῦχις) and Χουζίς/ Chouzís (Ptol. 4,3,41), the town is between the two Syrtes (Syrtis), somewhat inland on a lake which also bore the name X. (probably modern Bahiret el-Biban). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography M. Leglay, s. v. Zuchis, RE 10 A, 856 f.  H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2155 f.

Zagazaena

(65 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town on Syrtis Major (modern Gulf of Sidra in Libya); Tab. Peut. 8,1; Ptol. 4,3,14: Σακάμαζα/ Sakámaza or Σακάζαμα κώμη/ Sakázama kṓmē; Geogr. Rav. 37,33: Zacassama; 89,33: Zacasama; Guido, Geographica 133,25: Zacasama. It may be that Z. can be located on the ruins of Ras Bergavad to the west of Ad Turrem (modern Lubrik). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2219 f.

Zamazii

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζαμάζιοι/ Zamázioi). Ethnic group which, together with the Salathi and Daphnitae as well as the Aroccae, Cetiani and Nigritae, lived between the Mandron and Sagapola mountains in the interior of Libya (Ptol. 4,6,18), perhaps in the valleys of the central Atlas mountains. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 241 H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2309.

Thugga

(250 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Punic Tbgg). Punicized [1. 258-261] Numidian city in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3.]; Ptol. 4,3,29;  Procop. Aed. 6,5,15), about 100 km west-southwest of Carthage, modern Dougga, with significant ancient remains from the Punic, Numidian and Roman periods (e.g. the Hellenistic-Numidian mausoleum of ṭbn; [3. 157 f.]). In 307 BC, T. was apparently conquered by one of Agathocles' [2] officers (Diod. Sic. 20,57,4: Τῶκαι/ Tôkai). Between 146 and 46 BC, T. was part of the Numidian kingdom (Numid…

Tagaste

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), whose Punic past is to date attested only by a Neo-Punic inscription [1], modern Souk-Ahras in Algeria (It. Ant. 44,6; oppidum Tagesense: Plin.  HN 5,30?). T. was a municipium ( ordo, decuriones: ILAlg 1, 875; 880), and a bishopric as early as the 3rd cent. AD; birthplace of Augustinus. Inscriptions: ILAlg 1, 866-927; Bull. archéologique du Comité des trauvaux historiques 1932-1933, 476 f.; 1934-1935, 227-229; 351 f.; 362; RIL 524-529. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Jour…

Gillium

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, situated west of  Thubursicum Bure, modern Henchir Frass. Inscriptions: Revue Tunisienne 6, 1899, 447 (new Punic); CIL VIII suppl. 4, 26222-26236 ( decuriones Gillitani, 3rd cent. AD). Victor Tonnennensis mentions an abbot of the monasterium Gillense or Gillitanum (Chron. min. II p. 203, 553,1; 204, 557,2) for the years 553 and 557. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun (1:50 000), sheet 32, no. 11.

Altava

(189 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Africa | Limes City in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 33 km east of Tlemcen by what is today Ouled Mimoun (Lamoricière), in a strategically important location (CIL VIII 9834 f.). Likely a Berber settlement originally [1. 545 f.], A. came under Punic influence. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, A. was included in the defence system of the Mauretanian   limes . The   civitas A. was administered from a ( prior) princepscivitatis (Libyan: gld or gldt?) and   decemprimi [2. 208]. Furthermore, a   rex sacrorum (Punic dr…

Vallis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3];  It. Ant. 25,4; 48,9; 49,1; 51,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3 f.) some 60 km to the southwest of Carthage, modern Sidi-Mediene, with significant ancient remains (city wall, temple); an indigenous community, in which evidently a Roman pagus was established, then a municipium , in the 3rd cent. a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1272-1294; 2, 10612; Suppl. 1, 14770-14790; 3, 22004; 4, 25827-25833; [1. 1279- 1282]; AE 1934, 31. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, s…

Auzia

(180 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Africa | Coloniae | Limes (Αὐζία; Auzía). Town in  Mauretania Caesariensis, 124 km south-east of Algiers, modern Aumale or Sour el-Ghozlane. Ptol. 4,2,7; It. Ant. 30,6 (Auza); Amm. Marc. 29,5,44; 49 ( Audiense castellum). It is unlikely to be identical with the Αὖζα (Aûza) in Menander of Ephesus FGrH 783 F 3 [1. 52], but probably with the castellum ... cui nomen Auzea (Tac. Ann. 4,25,1). A. was an important road junction near the Mauretanian limes (Not. Dign. occ. 30,17 mentions a praepositus limitis Audiensis).…

Acholla

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Town in Africa Byzacena, modern Ras Bou Tria [4. 86-89]. For the tradition of the place name [5. 250]; AE 1969/70, 183 no. 633. A. was apparently founded by Phoenician or Phoenician-influenced Maltese [1. 312, 380]. It was 12 miles [2. 5] south of Sullectum and 27 miles south of Thapsus (Tab. Peut. 6,3). In the Third Punic War, A. surrendered to the Romans and from then became part of the populi liberi [3. 374-376]. Archaeological evidence for prosperous   villae (2nd cent. AD; inscriptions and mosaics). Huß…

Niger

(212 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Following a statement by Juba [2] II (FGrH 275 F 38), Plin. HN 5,30 calls the Nigris the boundary between ‘Africa’ and ‘Aethiopia’. But the Nigris is probably not identical with the N., but with the Oued Djedi [1. 248]. Yet we must assume that the great African river N. was known to the Libyans, the Phoenicians and the Greeks. Indeed, noble Nasamones seem to have travelled as far as Timbuktu and hence as far as the Niger (Hdt. 2,32f.; [2. 7]). And a Carthaginian called Mago, who h…

Bagradas

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μακάρας; Makáras, Pol. 1,75,5; 1,86,9; 15,2,8 [1.1085f.]; Βαγράδας; Bagrádas, Str. 17,3,13; Ptol. 4,3,6; 4,3,18; 4,3,31; 6,10; Bagrada: Mela 1,34; Lucan. 4,587; Plin. HN 5,24; cf. 8,37). Today called Ksar Baghai (concerning the name [2. 1311]), the longest river in north-eastern Africa (365 km; Iulius Honorius differs, Cosmographia 47: 318 miles). The B. rises near Thubursicum Numidarum (Iulius Honorius ibid.; Ptol. differs 4,3,18; 6,10) and flows sluggishly (Sil. Pun. 6,140-143) from west-south-west to east-south-east. The…

Tacape

(193 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Τακάπη/ Takápē, Latin Tacape). City on the Syrtis Minor, possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, modern Gabes in Tunisia. Punic remains are scanty [1. 1261]. T., a 'very large trading centre' (Str. 17,3,17), was 'in the middle of the desert' (Plin. HN 18,188). At the time of Augustus T. was a civitas (Plin. HN 5,25; 18,188), later a colonia (Tab. Peut. 6,5; It. Ant. 59,6). Further evidence: Plin. HN 16,115 (?); Ptol. 4,3,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 106 f.; It. Ant. 48,9 f.; 50,4; 73,5; 74,…

Mascula

(94 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia on the road from Thamugadi to Theveste in the middle of the fertile land of the Musulamii, modern Khenchela (It. Ant. 33,6). M. was under Punic influence [1. 163-177]. In the Severian period (AD 193-235) M. was a municipium CIL VIII 1, 2248. Bishops are attested from 256: Cypr. Sententiae episcoporum 79. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2228-2274; 2, 10184-10188; Suppl. 2, 17668-17719; 3, 22281; 22282; AE 1989, 882. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Leglay, Saturne africain. Monuments 2, 1966. H. Dessau, s.v. M. (1), RE 14, 2064.

Gurza

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa Byzacena, 12 km north-west of  Hadrumetum, modern Kalaa Kebira (for the location cf. Tab. Peut. 6,2: Gurra). G. was under Punic influence. Patronage deeds are extant from the years 12 BC (CIL VIII 1,68) and AD 65 (CIL VIII 1,69). Inscriptions: CIL VI 4,2, 32757; 36277; VIII 1, 68-72; Suppl. 4, 23021. The town attested in Pol. 1,74,13, Γόρζα/Gorza, was not very far from Utica [1. 258].  Patronage Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. E. Lipiński, s.v. G./Gorza, DCPP, 202.

Cidame

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa ( Cidamus or Cydamus). Chief settlement of the Phazanii at the intersection of the borders of Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, modern Gadames. According to Plin. HN 5,35f., the Phazanii have to be differentiated from the  Garamantes. Between the territories of both of these tribes was Mons Ater, modern Hamada el-Homra. C. -- like  Garama -- was captured in 20 BC by L. Cornelius [I 7] Balbus, proconsul Africae. A vexillatio of the legio III Augusta was stationed in the town [1]. C. played an important role in the S…

Ausum

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Castrum of the Numidian   limes , which was 75 km west-south-west of Biskra; probably the place today known as Sadouri. The military camp protected the area south of the Chott el-Hodna. A. was where the road from Lambaesis met the road that led from Auzia via Doucen to Gemellae. Inscription in honour of  Gordianus (AD 247 [1. 31-33]); it is, however, possible that A. was already in existence before this time. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Carcopino, Le Limes de Numidie et sa garde syrienne, in: Syria 6, 1925 2 AAAlg, folio 48, no. 1 3 J. Baradez, Fossatum Afric…

Tisiduo

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Τισιδουω: in inscriptions). City to the southeast of Carthage, destroyed by Caesar in 46 BC in the Roman civil war (Str. 17,3,12), not locatable; identification with Tisidium is unlikely [1. 1436]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 I. Schmidt, Komm. zu CIL VIII Suppl. 1. F. Windberg, s. v. Tisidium (2), RE 6 A, 1479 f.

Mosyli

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μόσυλοι; Mόsyloi). People on the south coast of the Gulf of Aden who have given their name to a port and a headland. References: Plin.HN. 6,174, promunturium et portus Mossylites; Ptol. 4,7,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μόσυλον. The port was situated two to three days' journey to the east of the ancient island of Mundu, Peripl. m. r. 10 (GGM I 265; τὸ Μόσυλλον). Export items were cinnamon and incense. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s.v. M., RE 16, 380f.

Thala

(139 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in the interior of Tunisia, 53 km to the south of Sicca Veneria, 20 km to the east of Ammaedara (also modern T.). The Numidian town was considerably Punicised; the original Punic cults of Caelestis, Pluto and Saturn continued until late Antiquity. In AD 20 followers of Tacfarinas unsuccessfully attacked a Roman unit in T. (Tac. Ann. 3,21,2). In the 3rd cent. T. presumably acquired the status of municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 501-576; 2, 10519 f.; Suppl. 1, 11668-11730; Suppl. 4, 23280-23352; AE 1905, 35. Another town called T. was 20 km to the ea…

Icosium

(141 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce (Ἰκόσιον; Ikósion, Punic ʾj ksm, ‘island of the owls’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Algiers. References: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,6; It. Ant. 15,5; Sol. 25,17 (with incorrect etymology); Amm. Marc. 29,5,16 (with allusion to this etymology); Geogr. Rav. 40,44; 88,12. A roman veterans' colony was founded at I. during the reign of  Juba II (Plin. HN 3,19; 5,20). Under Vespasian, the city became a colonia Latina (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20853). A h…

Celtianis

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The castellum to the north of Cirta belonged to the region of Cirta, the modern El Meraba or Beni Ouelbane. Under Marcus Aurelius (AD 161-180) the res publica of C. had a consilium decurionum. CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19689f. Numerous inscriptions inform us about everyday life in C.: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 19688-19847; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 2,1, 2084-3398. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, folio 8, no. 91 H.-G. Pflaum, Remarques sur l'onomastique de Castellum Celtianum, in: E. Swoboda (ed.), Carnuntina, 1956, 126-151.

Aulodes

(40 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis, modern Sidi Reiss. A. became a municipium under Septimius Severus. CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 14355. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 19, no. 9 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 75f.

Capsa

(168 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Africa | Limes Oasis town in southern Tunisia, modern Gafsa. C. was probably never Phoenician (despite Oros. 5,15,8; cf. Sall. Iug. 89,4). It is questionable whether it was ever Carthaginian. It was an important road junction from at the latest the Numidian period -- i. a. it lay on the road from Theveste to Takape (Sall. Iug. 89,4f.). In the course of the Jugurthine War, Marius conquered and destroyed C. in 106 BC (Sall. Iug. 91,3; Str. 17,3,12). In the Imperial Age, C. was rebuilt and given a constitution with sufetes: C…

Zoscales

(63 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ζωσκάλης /Zōskálēs). Hellenistically influenced king who reigned in Axum and ruled from the territory of the Moschophagi (to the west of Ptolemaïs [6] Theron) to the area of Barbaria: Peripl. m. r. 5; the author of this 1st cent. AD work [1. 6 f.] describes Z. as a contemporary. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1989. F. Gisinger, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 844-848.

Mididi

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic M(j)ddm). An ancient Berber locality southwest of Mactaris, the modern Henchir Meded. M. came under strong Punic influence. Some 25 Neo-Punic inscriptions dating from around the 1st cent. BC have been found to date, including votive inscriptions for Baal Hamon, who was replaced by Saturnus from about the 2nd cent. AD. Cf. also CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 23356 ( Mars patrius). Other inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 608-618; 2, 11772-11778; Suppl. 4, 23357-23394 a; AE 1985, 902 (?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Some E. Lipiński, s.v. M., DCPP, 292 F. Vattioni, M. e le sue …

Succhabar

(107 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Plin. HN 5,21: Succhabar; Ptol. 4,2,25: Ζουχάββαρι/ Zouchábbari; Amm. Marc. 29,5,20: ' municipium Sugabarritanum'; cf. CIL VIII 2, 9607-9641; suppl. 3, 21481-21493) in the valley of Wadi Chéliff, modern Miliana (in Algeria). Punic names in inscriptions (CIL VIII 2, 9618; VIII suppl. 3, 21484) suggest Punic influence. Augustus founded the ' Colonia Iulia Augusta Zucchabar' there (AE 1940, 20). S. protected the route between Caesarea [1] and the interior of Mauretania. Roman Catholic bishops are recorded from AD 411 (PL 11, 1312: ' Epi…

Thubursicum

(246 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] T. Bure (Punic Tbrbš[ j]?). Punicized Berber town in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3.]; Aug. contra Cresconium 3,43,47; cf. Ptol. 4,3,29; Geogr. Rav 39,31), 8 km to the northwest of Thugga, modern Teboursouk. Evidence of a cult of Baal Hamon ( Interpretatio II. Romana: Frugifer; [1. 506]). A municipium from the time of Septimius [II 7] Severus, from Gallienus a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1424-1469; 2, 10618; Suppl. 1, 15254-15360; 4, 25994-26092; [1. 504-508; 2. 1329-1354; 3. 12]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 R. Cagnat et al. (ed.), Ins…

Chidibbia

(90 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis in the valley of Medjerda, modern Slouguia. Initially C. was a simple civitas, but at the latest at the end of the 2nd cent. AD, it was under the administration of undecimprimi (CIL VIII 1, 1327; Suppl. I, 14875) and in the 3rd cent., rose to the status of   municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1326-1352; VIII 2, 10614; Suppl. I, 14870-14879; BCTH 1932/33, 198f.; AE 1992, 513f. no. 1819. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 105.

Zabi

(98 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in Mauretania Sitifensis between Sitifis and Auzia, modern Henchir Bechilga (in Algeria). In the 3rd cent. AD the Mauretanian Limes (VIII C) ran near the city . In Not. Dign. Occ. 25,26 a praepositus limitis Zabensis is mentioned. Destroyed by the Vandals, Z. was rebuilt by Iustinianus [1] I (It. Ant. 30,3; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8805 f.; Suppl. 3, 20565). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 25, Nr. 85 C. Courtois, Les Vandales et l'Afrique, 1955 M. Leglay, s. v. Z. …

Rusicade

(192 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae Name of a promontory and the Punic base built nearby (in the later Roman province Numidia), modern Skikda in Algeria (Mela 1,33: Rusiccade; Plin. HN 5,22: R.; Ptol. 4,3,3: Ῥουσικάδα/ Rhousikáda; Tab. Peut. 3,3: R. colonia; Vibius Sequester, Geographia p. 151: Rusiccade; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44: Rusiccade oppidum; Geogr. Rav. 39,12: Russicade; 88,22: R.; Guido, Geographia 132,32: Rusicada). [1. 379] explains the name with R( ) š-( h) kd = 'Cap de la Cruche'. Numerous stelae indicate …

Aradi

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis; the modern Bou Arada west of El-Fahs; important ruins (inscription CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12444; 12445; Suppl. 4, 23861-23869 [1. 677-679]; BCTH 1930-1931, 126-128), among them a boundary stone of the   fossa regia (Bulletin Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques 1934/1935, 391). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin, Inscr. lat. de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, Bl. 34, no. 99 H. Dessau, s. v. Aradus no. 4, RE 2, 372 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire 2, 1981, 71 f.

Avedda

(70 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa proconsularis, situated to the north of Medjez el-Bab, today Henchir Bedd. A. was a municipium from the time of Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 14369; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 1206). Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 14369-14376; Inscr. latines d' Afrique 435-439; Inscr. latines de la Tunisie 1206-1213; AE 1973, 193 no. 602. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, folio 19, no. 8.

Calama

(117 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Pilgrimage Probably a Libyan settlement of the later Africa proconsularis, 74 km south-west of Hippo Regius, modern Guelma, strongly influenced by Punic traditions (documentary evidence: KAI 165-169; Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 1, 233; 290). Under Trajan (AD 98-117), it became a   municipium (Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 1, 285), and a   colonia before 283 (Inscr. latines de l'Algérie 1, 247). Imperial domains were located within the territory of C. (CIL VIII 1…

Uchi maius

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Township in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]) 12 km to the west of Thugga, modern Henchir Douemis. Marius [I 1] settled Gaetulian veterans there [1. 10]; they did not form a colonia but only a conventus of Carthage (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 26250; 26252; 26276). Under Septimius [II 7] Severus UM was a res publica (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 26255), in 230 AD a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15447; 15450; Suppl. 4, 26270;  cf. CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 15446-15467; Suppl. 4, 26239-26415; [2. 1370-1372]). U. Minus (Plin. HN 5,29), like UM one of the 15 oppida civium Romanorum in the interior of t…

Siagu

(105 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis to the southwest of Neapolis [9] (Σιαγούλ/ Siagoúl: Ptol. 4,3,9; Tab. Peut. 6,1; civitas Siagitana: [1. 793]), modern Ksar el-Zit in eastern Tunisia. In 28 AD sufetes held the leading positions in the city (CIL V 1, 4922) - a sign of a strong Punic tradition. There are records of decuriones for the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD (CIL VIII 1, 964). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 964-967; suppl. 1, 12446-48; 4, 24090; [1. 792, 795]; AE 1933, 66. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, Bl. 37,…
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