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Arae

(260 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Flaviae This item can be found on the following maps: Limes Today Rottweil on the Neckar. Central locality founded by Cn. Pinarius Clemens AD 73/74 (CIL XVII 2,654; [2]) on a road junction (it also became a location for the  ruler cult) to open up the so-called   decumates…

Tegea

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Τεγέα/ Tegéa). [1] Town in the eastern Arcadian plateau [German version] I. Location Important town in the south of the eastern Arcadian plateau (Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; Str. 8,8,2; Paus. 8,44,1-53,11; Ptol. 3,16,19; Plin. HN. 4,20.; [1]), whose vast area lay between the present-day villages of Hagios Sostis, Episkopi and Alea. The rich, fertile, loamy …

Mauretania

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μαυρουσία/ Maurousía). [German version] I. Name In the second century BC, M. comprised approximately the area of Morocco and western Algeria and was probably called by its Greek name of Maurusia (cf. Coelius Antipater, HRR 1,175 fr. 55). The formation of names in M. (Ἑρπεδιτανοί/ Herpeditanoí), which follows the same p…

Macae

(297 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μάκαι; Mákai). [German version] [1] People in eastern Arabia According to Ptol. 6,7,14, a people in eastern Arabia in the hinterland of the bays around modern Rāʾs Musandam on the road from Hormuz. Also mentioned in Str. 13,765f., Plin…

Sabratha

(497 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Neo-Punic Ṣbrt[]n). [German version] I. History One of the three Phoenician cities of African Tripolis, 65 km west of Tripoli, Libya (Ps.-Scyl. 110 and Str. 17,3,18: Ἀβρότονον/ Abrótonon (?); Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἀβρότονον (?); Plin. HN 5,25; 35: Sabrata; 27: Habrotonum; Sil. Pun. 3,256: S.; Ptol. 4,3,12: Σάβραθα/ Sábratha; Stadiasmus maris magni 99 f.: Σαράθρα/ Saráthra or Ἀλάθρα/ Aláthra; It. Ant. 61,3: Sabrata colonia; Solin. 27,8 and Tab. Peut. 7,2: Sabrata). The earliest archaeological traces date back (only) to the 5th cent. BC. The city deity was Šdrp/ Šadrapa (Satrapes [2]; [1. 55; 117; 126], equated with Liber Pater). The vigour of Puni…

Leptis Magna

(813 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Λέπτις μεγάλη, Léptis megálē, Punic Lpqj) ([1. 39-48]). [German version] A. History Originally settled by Phoenicians, the modern Lebda in Libya ([2. 36f., 74]; Sall. Iug. 78,1; 4; Sil. Pun. 3,256; Plin. HN 5,76?). Frequently given the epithet

Cyrene

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Africa | Wine | | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Commerce | Colonization | Crete | Limes | Rome | Rome (Κυρήνη; Kyrḗnē, Lat. Cyrene). [German version] I. History C. was founded by the Dorian island city of Thera in the mod. Cyrenaica, mod. Shahhat. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 4,150-158; SEG IX 3 (with a true core); Str. 17,3,21 [1. 9-67]. Overpopulation and famine ─ not internal political struggles ─ forced the inhabitants of Thera into the foundation of this   apoikía (differently in Menecles of Barca, FGrH 270 F 6). Initially, the emigrants occupied the island of Platea (mod. Bomba) off the Libyan coast, then the beach of Aziris, and finally in

Lix

(385 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] City in Mauretanian Tingitana This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Phoenician Lkš; Líxos). …

Tunes

(381 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Τύνης/ Týnēs). [German version] I. Location, Punic to Roman period Libyan city in Africa proconsularis (Africa 3.; Str. 17,3,16; Tab. Peut. 5,5), 15 km south-west of Carthage, the modern Tunis. First mentioned in conjunction with the uprising of allied troops against Carthage in 396 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,77,3). In 310 BC, the city served Agathocles[2] as a base for his attack on Carthage [1. 190-193], and similarly in 256 BC during the First Punic War the Roman consul Atilius [I 21] Regulus [1. 235-237]. In …

Sala

(425 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Σάλα/ Sála). [German version] [1] River in Mauretania Tingitana River in Mauretania Tingitana, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, modern Oued Bou Regreg (Plin. HN 5,5: S.; 9; 13: Salat; Ptol. 4,1,2; 4: Σάλα/ Sála). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] Phoenician or Punic foundation This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Slt). Phoenician or Punic foundation near the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Chella in Morocco (Mela 3,107: S.; Plin. HN 5,5; 13: S.; Ptol. 4,1,2: Σάλα/ Sála; It. Ant. 6,4: S. colonia; Not. Dign. …

Pontia

(325 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] [1] Uninhabited rocky island in the Gulf of Sidra Uninhabited rocky isle in the Gulf of Sidra (Ποντία/ Pontía). Uninhabited rocky island in the Gulf of Bengazi; together with the Skopelos islands, i.e. Misynos and Gaia, P. formed the Póntiai nêsoi (Ptol. 4,3,46; Stadiasmus maris magni 74 f.; Ps.-Scyl. 109). The Póntiai nêsoi and the Leukaì nêsoi ('White Islands') were apparently identical [1. 1812], the latter likely owing their name to the guano deposited by the sea birds. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 H. Treidler, s. v. Syrtis, RE 4A, 1796-1829. V. J. Bruno, E.…

Cirta

(414 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Limes | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Cirta Regia, Punic Krtn). Numidian foundation on the other side of the Ampsaga river [1. 72 n. 141], modern Constantine. C. came under Punic influence no later than the 3rd cent. BC [2; 3]. It was first the chief city of Gaia, then of  Syphax and finally of  Massinissa and his successors (Liv. 29,32,14; 30,12,3-22; Str. 17,3,7; 13; Mela 1,30; App. Lib. 27,111f.; Oros. 4,18,21; Zon. 9,13). After the fall of  Carthage, C. appa…

Atlas

(511 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Ἄτλας; Átlas). [German version] [1] Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range. From the two Mediterranean coastal mountain ranges of the Rif A. and the Tell A. the Middle A. branches off in Morocco; the High A. rises in the south, which on the east borders the Sahara A. The Anti A., which extends south of the High A., do not belong to the Tertiary mountain range of the A.; Rif A., Middle A. and High A. enclose the Moroccan mese…

Triton

(545 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τρίτων/ Trítōn, Latin Triton). [German version] [1] Sea deity Sea deity with the upper body of a human and the tail of a fish, sometimes also as an ichthyocentaur with the forelegs of a horse (Tzetz. Lycophr. 34; 886), son of Poseidon and Amphitrite (Hes. Theog. 930-933), who stirs up the waters with his conch shell and calms them again (Verg. Aen. 10,209-212; Ov. Met. 1,330-342). Like the related sea gods  Glaucus [1], Halios geron, Nereus, Phorcys [1] and Proteus, T. in particular is a figure of liter…

Africa

(3,957 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheid, John (Paris) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] 1. A. Etymological and conceptual history The term A. as a name for the continent has got a long and ramified history. The term A. (see 3 below) could only be used by the Romans as a description of the continent of A., when the ‘area’ described by the Latin term A. had come to coincide at least in parts with that described by the Greek term Λιβύη ( Libýē) -- but, at the earliest, this happened in the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC, i.e. because of the related concepts of ‘Northern A.’ or ‘Punic A.’. Indirectly, via the ‘partial term’, the ‘full ter…

Castellum

(529 words)

Author(s): Herz, Peter (Regensburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
I. Roman [German version] [I 1] According to Veg. Mil. 3,8 ( Nam a castris diminutivo vocabulo sunt nuncupata castella) the castella are relatively small camps that are probably distinguishable from the permanent auxiliary camps and tended to be established in a rather ad hoc manner to secure supplies or as part of a larger fortification (Veg. Mil. ibid.). Castella are probably comparable in size and number of garrisons with the ‘small citadels’ of the limes or the burgi (Veg. Mil. 4,10: castellum parvulum, quem burgum vocant). Herz, Peter (Regensburg) [German version] [I 2] Rural part o…

Caesarea

(992 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Main town of Cappadocia, modern Kayseri This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Zenobia | | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Limes | Pompeius | Rome | Rome (Καισάρεια; Kaisáreia, Iranian or cuneiform Mazaka). Main town of  Cappadocia (Str. 12,2,7-9), modern Kayseri. [German version] I. Early History to Roman Times C. succeeded the nearby ancient centre of Kaniš (Kültepe;  Asia Minor), although that was still of importance in Hellenistic and Roman time…

Zama

(397 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Z. Regia City in Africa Proconsularis This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Punic Wars City in Africa proconsularis, probably modern Seba Biar [1. 416 f.; 2. 321-326; 3. 325 f.; 4; 5. 251 f.; 6. 42 f.]. It was near Z. - at Naraggara - that the decisive battle between Hannibal [4] and P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio was fought in 202 BC [1. 417-420] (Punic Wars II). In the war with Iugurtha (111-105 BC), Z. was attacked by Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 56 f.). No later tha…
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