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Tingis

(213 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Wine | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Punic Tng). Berber city with a convenient natural harbour (Str. 3,1,8; Mela 1,26; Plin. HN 5,2; Plut. Sertorius 9,5; Ptol. 4,1,5; Cass. Dio 48,45,2; 60,9,5), capital from AD 40 of Mauretania Tingitana, modern Tangiers (in Morocco). The ancient city has been entirely overbuilt by modern buildings. From no later than the 8th cent. BC, Phoenician traders (Ph…

Tipasa

(316 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τίπασα/ Típasa). [German version] [1] City in Mauretania Caesariensis This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5; Amm. Marc. 29,5,17), about 30 km to the east of Caesarea [1], modern T. or, in Arabic, Tefased, with substantial ancient remains (two thermae, a theatre, two temples, a nymphaeum, two basilicae, etc.). Possibly a Phoenician, in any case a Punic trade port (evidence from the 6th cent. BC onwards; possibly a cult of Baal Ham…

Numluli

(121 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis, north-west of Thubursicum Bure on the fertile plateau of the ‘great fields’, modern Henchir el-Matria. Under M. Aurelius (AD 161-180) or slightly later N. was a municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 26129). A bishop Aurelius plebis Numnulitanae ( sic!) was attested for 411 (Acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,126). Some impressive ruins have been preserved, including a capitolium from the period of M. Aurelius, baths, wells, churches and parts of a late Roman wall. Further inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 1…

Igilgili

(112 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Punic ʾj glgl[ t]?, ‘Skull Island’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation located in the later  Mauretania Sitifensis - west of the mouth of the Ampsaga - modern Djidjelli. Attested to Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,11; It. Ant. 39,7; 40,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Amm. Marc. 29,5,5; Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 4a; Anon. Geographia 40 (GGM II 505); Geogr. Rav. 40,22; 88,20; Guido p. 132,29. Augustus (?) elevated I. to a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8367-8373, 10330-10333; Suppl. 3, 20211-20213. Huß, W…

Fussala

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Fort on the border of the region of Hippo Regius. The precise location is unknown. Augustine appointed a bishop in F. who had mastered the Punic language (Aug. Epist. 209,2). F. remained a bishop's see (Not. Episc. Num. 21a). Inscription: AE 1983, 283 no. 980. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 9, no. 59 J. Desanges, S. Lancel, L'apport des nouvelles lettres à la géographie historique de l'Afrique antique et de l'Église d'Afrique, in: C. Lepelley (ed.), Les lettres de saint Augustin découvertes par Johannes Divjak, 1983, 87-98 and 99, here 92-98.

Mactaris

(339 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Neo-Punic Mktrm). City in the Roman province of Africa Byzacena ( Africa [3]), about 150 km south-west of Carthage, modern Maktar. M. was the centre of the Carthaginian district ( rṣt Tškt (‘territories of Tuschkat’)) seized by Massinissa at the end of the 50s of the 2nd cent. BC [1. 432]. Testimonials to Punic culture - for example over 200 neo-Punic inscriptions - are numerous [2. 273-292]. An important sanctuary of the city was dedicated to Ḥṭr-Mskr ( Hoter Miskar). The Roman names Saturnus, Apollo deus pat…

Musti

(210 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis to the southwest of Thugga on the great road connecting Carthage with Sicca Veneria, modern Le Krib. Native city, which came under Punic rule and then fell to Massinissa. From the 1st century BC (?) [1. 366] until the late Roman period M. was a municipium (CIL VIII suppl. 1, 15582). Ptol. 4,3,42 (Μούστη κώμη/ Moústē kṓmē); Itin. Anton. 26,2; 41,3; 45,2; 49,3; 51,3 ( M.); Tab. Peut. 5,2 ( Mubsi); e.g. CIL VIII 1, 1577 ( Mustitani). In inscriptions several temples are mentioned: Juno (CIL VIII suppl. 4, 27438); Liber Pater and Venu…

Musulamii

(226 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Distinguished union of Berber tribes, which is widely attested in literature and inscriptions. The M. lived - partly transmigrating? - in the south of  Numidia and in parts of Africa Proconsularis. Evidence: Plin. HN 5,30 ( Musulami or Misulani); Flor. Epit. 4,12,40 ( Musulami); Tac. Ann. 2,52,1; 4,24,2 ( Musulamii); Ptol. Geog. 4,3,24 (Μισουλάμοι/ Misoulámoi or Μισουλάνοι/ Misoulánoi); Tab. Peut. 2,5; 3,1 ( Musulamii); Liber generationis (Chron. min. 1) p. 109 §213 ( Musulani); Oros. 6,21,18 ( Musolani); Chronicum Alexandrinum (Chron. min. 1) p. 109 §184 ( Mosulami…

Catabathmus

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Καταβαθμός; Katabathmós). In the Ptolemaic period, the fort of C. with its harbour -- modern Sollum -- was the border town from Egypt to the  Cyrenaea. C. retained is border town character throughout subsequent cents. Its strategic location was important. Source references: Sall. Iug. 19,3; Str. 17,1,5; 13; 3,1; 22; Mela 1,40; Plin. HN 5,38f.; It. Ant. 71,7; Stadiasmus maris magni 29f. (GGM I 437f.). The surroundings of the settlement are also occasionally referred to as Katabathmós -- C. (‘descent’) mégas; cf. Pol. 31,18,9; Ptol. 4,5,4; Sol. 27,3; Oros. 1,2,88. Huß, …

Byzacium

(185 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βυζάκις or Βυσσᾶτις; Byzákis, Byssâtis). Originally probably the region between Neapolis (Zeugitana) and Thapsus, including the hinterland, and the Sahel of Sousse with the plains of Kairouan. B. is probably derived from the Βύζαντες ( Býzantes) (Steph. Byz. s.v.). From Punic times onwards, B. was renowned for its rich yields of wheat and olives (Ps.-Scyl. 110 [GGM 1, 88f.]; Pol. 3,23,2; Varro, Rust. 1,44,2; Bell. Afr. 97,3; Plin. HN 5,24; 17,41; 18,94; Sil. Pun. 9,204f.; Plut. Caesar 55,1; App. Lib. 33,139). The …

Gaetuli

(324 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe, whose numerous clans lived in the area between the Syrtis Minor and the Atlantic Ocean. Source references: Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,2; 9; 19; Mela 1,23; 3,104; Plin. HN 5,9f.; 17; 30; 43; Apul. Apol. 24,1; 41,4; Dimensuratio provinciarum 25; Aug. De ordine 2,5,15; Aug. In psalmos 148,10; Divisio orbis terrarum 26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γαιτοῦλοι; Anon. Geographia compendiaria 15 (GGM II 497); Eust. epit. de commentariis in Dionysium Periegeten 215 (GGM II 254). A branch of the G., who had intermarried with black Africans, was called the Melanogaitoûloi (Μελανογαιτο…

Cyrenaica

(630 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κυρηναία; Kyrēnaía, Lat. Cyrenae). North-east African coastal region of the Cyrenaea (mod. Cyrenaica) with western border at  Arae [2] Philaenorum/Φιλαίνων Βωμοί (mod. Ras el-Aáli) [1. 73f., 469] and its eastern one near  Catabathmus megas (mod. Solum); cf. Str. 17,3,22 [2. 509f.]. The region took its name from the Theraean   apoikía Cyrene.  Cyrene was part of the Libyan  pentapolis, together with Barca (mod. Barka), later outstripped by Ptolemaïs (mod. Tolemaide), also Euhesperides, later Berenice (mod. Be…

Lambdia

(66 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Caesariensis, c. 100 km south-south-west of Icosium, modern Médéa. Literary evidence: Ptol. 4,2,27 (Λαβδία; Labdía); CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22567 ( Lambdienses); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,201,8 ( Lambiensis); Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Caesariensis 46a ( Ambiensis). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 2, 9239-9246; 10443. Sparse ruins are preserved. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 14, no. 48 H. Dessau, s.v. L., RE 12, 542.

Banasa

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Probably indigenous name of a city of Mauritania Tingitana on the left bank of the Oued Sebou on the fertile Ġharb plain, today Sidi Ali bou Djenoun. The oldest archaeological signs lead to the 6th/5th cents. BC; ceramics found show Phoenician and Iberian influences. After the death of  Bocchus [2] II, the young Caesar raised B. to the status of a colonia (33-27 BC); Marcus Aurelius granted it the honorary name colonia Aurelia Banasa. Inscriptions: Inscr. antiques du Maroc 2, 84-246 (i.a. the Tabula Banasitana and an e…

Equizeto

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Sitifensis, at a road junction south-west of Sitifis: the modern Ouled-Agla or Lecourbe; in Tab. Peut. 2,1 referred to as Equeheto. The town was a municipium by the time of Alexander Severus at the latest [1. 567 no. 29]. Inscr.: CIL VIII 2, 8810-8825; 9045; 10427-10430; Suppl. 3, 20606; Suppl. 4, 22658,5. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Bull. Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques, 1897. AAAlg, folio 15, no. 91.

Masaesylii

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μασαισύλιοι; Masaisýlioi). West Numidian tribe in Mauretania Caesariensis (between the River Mulucha and Cape Bougaroun): Pol. 3,33,15; Liv. 28,17,5; Str. 17,3,9; Plin. HN 5,19; 52; 21,77. For its localization in Mauretania Tingitana: Plin. HN 5,17; Ptol. 4,2,17. Among the kings of the M. were Syphax (Punic Spq), Vermina (Punic Wrmnd) and Arcobarzanes. Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ... , 1962, 62.

Sasura

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Africa proconsularis, from the time of Diocletianus in the province of Byzacena (Diocletianus, with map), some 18 km to the north of Thysdrus, modern Henchir el-Ksour (Bell. Afr. 75,3; 76,1: oppidum Sarsura; Ptol. 4,3,36: Σασοῦρα/ Sasoûra; Tab. Peut. 6,3: Sassura vicus). Caesar attacked the Pompeians under Caecilius [I 32] and Iuba [1] there in 46 BC and conquered S. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, p. 73, no. 12  J.-B. Chabot (ed.), Recueil des inscriptions libyques, 1940/1, Nr. 43-45.

Nababes

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe in Mauretania Caesariensis. According to Plin HN 5,21, the river ( flumen) Usar (modern Oued Isser?) separated the gens of the N. from the gens of the Macurebi. In Tab. Peut. 2,2-4, the N. are placed to the south of the Mons Ferratus, the Djurdjura mountain range (Kabylei). They probably belonged to the confederacy of the Quinquegentiani. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 65f.  F. Windberg, s.v. Nabades, RE 16, 1449f.

Garama

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Africa | Limes Main town of the  Garamantes, northeast of Mursuk (Fezzan), modern Djerma. References: Plin. HN 5,36; Ptol. 1,8,5; 10,2; 4,6,30; 8,16,7; Solin. 29,5. L. Cornelius Balbus, procos. Africae, led an expedition in 20 BC that certainly reached Garama. Subsequently, there was a close but sometimes stormy relationship between Garama and Rome. Many archaeological finds attest to this close relationship. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Ch. M. Daniels, Garamantian Excavations..., in: Libya Anti…

Carpis

(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κάρπις; Kárpis). Punic settlement on the western base of the Bon peninsula (probably near Mraïssa). Sources: Plin. HN 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,7; Geogr. Rav. 37,49; 88,39; Guido 132,60). C. rose to become a colonia in around AD 1 (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25417). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 993-998; Suppl. 1, 12454f.; Suppl. 4, 24106f. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 281f. P. Trousset, s.v. C., EB, 1779f.

Numidae, Numidia

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] In the narrower sense, the region that stretches west of the Carthaginian territory between the Tusca and Ampsaga rivers, today part of eastern Algeria. The Greeks interpreted the name of the Libyan people of N. living in this area in the sense of nomádes (νομάδες, ‘people who roam’) and so called this region Nomadía (Νομαδία; [1; 2. 95f.]; Pol. 36,16,7). However, most of the N. had already been settled for a long time. The plateau of N. is bordered in the north by the foothills of the Tell Atlas and in the south by the Sahara Atlas…

Zita

(71 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Tripolitana on the Zarris peninsula, modern Ziane (Ptol. 4,3,12: Ζεῖθα ἄκρα/ Zeîtha ákra; It. Ant. 60,2: Ponte Zita; Tab. Peut. 6,5: Ziza; Geogr. Rav. 37,41: Z.; CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 11002-11016; 4, 22690 = [1. 12]). The name of the city is sometimes derived from the Phoenician word zt ('olive'). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin et al. (eds.), Inscriptions latines d'Afrique, 1923. M. Leglay, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 460 f.

Sitifis

(241 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Rome City in Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Sétif in Algeria (Σίτιφα/ Sítipha, Ptol. 4,2,34; Sitifi, It. Ant. 24,7), from the time of Nerva colonia Nerviana Augusta Martialis veteranorum Sitifensium (cf. CIL VIII 2, 8473 et passim). Before AD 288 S. was a centre of the newly created province of Mauretania Sitifensis. A population of a Punic character also lived in S.. In AD 372 S. was the headquarters of the imperial troops in the campaig…

Barbaria

(144 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βαρβαρία; Barbaría). Somalian north coast, according to Peripl. M. Erythraei 3; 7 (GGM 1, 261; 263). There were no ports, but good landing places, like Aualites, Malao, Mundu, Mosylon and Aromata. Also cf. Cosmas Indikopleustes (2,26; 29; 45; 48; 49; 50; 64) for the location. The name B. appears to have been preserved in the name of the city Berbera, the old emporium Malao (Ptol. 4,7,10). Behind Opone, today Ras Hafun, the coastal area called Azania started, which ended at  Rhapto…

Pharusii

(90 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Φαρούσιοι; Pharoúsioi). A nomadic North African people whom Strabo (2,5,33; 17,3,3; 7) always mentions together with the Nigritae (cf. Sall. Iug. 18: Persae; Mela 1,22; 3,103; Plin. HN 5,43: Gymnetes Pharusi; 46: Pharusi, quondam Persae; 6,194: Perusii; Ptol. 4,6,17; Geogr. Rav. 43,10: Paurisi). The P. appear to have partly lived to the west and partly to the south-east of the High Atlas. With their caravans they occasionally reached as far as Cirta (Str. 17,3,7). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Cat. des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 230-232.

Gilda

(61 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Tingitana, north-west of Volubilis, perhaps identifiable with Souk el-Arba of Sidi Slimane. Evidence: Mela 3,107; Ptol. 4,1,13 (Σίλδα; Sílda); It. Ant. 23,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γίλδα; Geogr. Rav. p. 43,3 (?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography M. Euzennat, Les voies romaines du Maroc ..., in: M. Renard (ed.), Hommages à A. Grenier II (Coll. Latomus 58), 1962, 599f.

Althiburus

(209 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Punic 'ltbrš). Native city of Africa proconsularis (other forms of the name [5. 1697]), 37 km south-southeast of El-Kef, today Henchir Medeina. A. had strong Punic elements [4. 295-297; 2. 19-24; 3; 6. 60; 1. 17 f., pl. IV 2]. This could be due partially to the location of A. on the  Carthage   to Theveste road. Cult of  Baal Hamon (without that of  Tinnit), the sacrifice of molk and a tofet. Three   sufetes led the administration. Under Hadrian, A. became municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 4. 27769, 27775, 27781), un…

Diana Veteranorum

(118 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia, north-northwest of Lambaesis, mod. Aïn Zana. Documentary evidence: It. Ant. 34,3 ( Diana); 35,4 ( Diana Veteranorum); Tab. Peut. 3,1 ( ad Dianam). The town, which was probably only founded in Roman times, started out as a very simple settlement with a community council (CIL VIII 1, 4587, AD 141) and was only elevated to a municipium in AD 162 (CIL VIII 1, 4589; 4599). From the mid 3rd cent., a bishop resided in Diana Veteranorum (Cypr. epist. 34,1). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 4575-4625; Suppl. 2, 18646-18653; AE 1956, 40-42 no. 124; [1]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) B…

Masices

(191 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μάσικες; Másikes, Μάζικες; Mázikes). Name of several North African peoples (Anon. Cosmographia 1,39 = GLM 88). It corresponds roughly to the modern term ‘Berber’. The M. have been localized in Mauretania Tingitana (south of the territory of the Metagonitae: Ptol. 4,1,10), in Mauretania Caesariensis (CIL VIII 1, 2786; 2, 9613; Ptol. 4,2,19; Provinciarum omnium laterculus Veronensis 14,3 = GLM 129; Amm. Marc. 29,5,17; 21; 25f.; 51; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48) and south of the province of Africa (Liber generationis, Chron. min. 1,107,197: between Afri qui e…

Thapsa

(51 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Θάψα). North African harbour town (Ps.-Scyl. 111; the place name is Punic), probably identical to Rusicade. In the 4th cent. BC, a distinction may possibly have been made between Cape Rusicade and the settlement Th. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, Bl. 8, Nr. 196  H. Treidler, s. v. Th., RE 5 A, 1271 f.

Saldae

(163 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars City and harbour of Mauretania Caesariensis, later of Sitifensis, near the mouth of the Oued Soummam, present-day Bejaïa in Algeria (Ps.-Scyl. 111: Σίδα πόλις/ Sída pólis (?); Ptol. 4,2,9: Σάλδαι κολωνία/ Sáldai kolōnía; It. Ant. 5,2: Saldis; 17,3: Saldis colonia; 31,6: Saldas; 32,3: Saldis; 39,2: Saldis; 39,6: Saldis colonia; 39,7: Saldis; Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 41: Saldae). S. was on the boundary between the kingdom of Juba [2] and the Roman…

Massylii

(251 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μασσύλιοι/ Massýlioi, etc.). An Eastern Numidian tribe, from the east of Cape Bougaroun. References: Hesianax FGrH 763 F 1; Pol. 3,33,15; Strab. 17,3,9; Plin. HN 5,30; Sil. 16,170-172 (who confuses the M. with the Masaesyli); App. Lib. 10,37; 27,110; 46,195. In the second century BC, the territory of the M. sometimes reached from the Mulucha river as far as the Gulf of Sidra (except for the province of Africa). Apart from the ‘suffete’ Zilalsan (Numidian Zllsn), the Massylian kings included Gaia (Numidian Gjj), his son Massinissa (Punic Msnsn), his sons Micipsa (Punic M…

Bulla Regia

(278 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic Bbl?). Town in Africa proconsularis in the valley of the Bagradas, today Hammam Daradji, originally a Libyan settlement, came into Carthaginian possession and towards the end of the 150s BC had to be surrendered to  Massinissa, who probably made the regia into a royal capital (App. Lib. 309). In 46 BC it was integrated into the province of Africa nova, in the 1st cent. BC/AD it became an oppidum liberum (Plin. HN 5,22), probably in the time of Vespasian a municipium (Inscr. latines d'Afrique 458; AE 1964, 67 no. 177) and in Hadrian's time a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 4…

Sicca Veneria

(340 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Indigenous city of Africa proconsularis on the road from Carthage to Cirta (Plin. HN 5,22; Ptol. 4,3,30; 8,14,9;  It. Ant. 45,1; Tab. Peut. 4,5; Solin. 27,8), modern El-Kef in Tunisia. In 241 BC, SV had to take in the Carthaginian mercenaries who had returned from Sicily (Pol. 1,66 f.; [1. 253 f., 471]). On the basis of the peace treaty of 201 (Punic Wars), SV may have become Numidian. In the war with Iugurtha (111-105 BC), SV was the t…

Volubilis

(585 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Limes City in Mauretania Tingitana in a strategically favourable location 20 km to the north of Meknès (in Morocco); modern Walı̄la. V. was originally probably a Berber settlement, but as an inland city was Punicised relatively early. From the 4th/3rd cents. BC onwards, V. was one of the residences of the Moorish rulers. From no later than the 3rd cent. BC, V. was under the administration of sufetes. Neo-Punic inscription…

Mulucha

(107 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River in Mauretania, rising in the High Atlas and flowing into the Mediterranean to the east of the western Cape Metagonion [1], modern Moulouya. Initially it divided Mauretania and Numidia (Numidae), from 46 BC the Western Mauretanian kingdom of Bogudes [2] II and the Eastern Mauretanian kingdom of Bocchus [2] II, from AD 42 Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis and from the time of Diocletian (Diocletianus, with map) the dioceses of Hispaniae and Africa. Plin. HN 5,19…

Tisidium

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]; Tab. Peut. 5,4; the oppidum Thisiduense in CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 13188?), modern Krich el-Oued (in Tunisia). In the Jugurthine War (Iugurtha) Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus set out from T.   to punish the city of Vaga for its treachery (Sall. Iug. 62,8; 68,2 f.). In the 2nd cent AD a municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1267-1271; Suppl. 1, 14763-14765. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet. 27, No. 28  F. Windberg, s.v. T. (1), RE 6 A, 1478 f.

Siga

(151 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars | Punic Wars (neo-Punic Šjgn). City and river port of Mauretania Caesariensis on the Oued Tafna, 4 km to the south of Portus Sigensis, modern Takembrit in Algeria (Ps.-Scylax 111; Pol. 12,1,3; Liv. 28,17,15 f.; Str.  17,3,9; Mela 1,29; Plin. HN 5,19; Ptol. 4,2,2;  It. Ant. 12,8; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σίγαθα/ Sígatha). At first a Punic trading post, later the royal city of Syphax, king of the Masaesyli. In the city (only partially excavated) the cult of Saturnus appears to have supplante…

Nicives

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίσιβες/ Nísibes). According to Plin. HN 5,29f., the N. were a people in Africa Proconsularis. A boundary stone from the time of Vespasian [1. 289f.] locates them in the ager publicus of Cirta. According to Ptol. 4,3,24 the N. lived in the south of Numidia (Numidae) near the Nattabutae and Miaedioe. Later they were to be found in the region of N'Gaous (Nicivibus), 80 km south of Sétif. For the year AD 411 an episcopus Niciuensis is attested (acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,201). Inscriptions: AE 1969-1970, 696. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. La…

Mimaces

(87 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μίμακες; Mímakes). Libyan nomads living near the Machyni, Machryes and Gephes (between the Tunisian Dorsale and the Chott el-Jerid) (Ptol. 4,3,26 and Steph. Byz. s.v. M. = Philistus of Syracuse). According to Ptol. 4,6,20f., M. also lived in the Libyan interior, not far from the Thála óros (Θάλα ὄρος; the modern Tahela Ohat in the Ahaggar mountains?) and near the Noubai (Νοῦβαι). Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines..., 1962, 115, 224 H. Treidler, s.v. Mimakes, RE 15, 1711f.

Gemellae

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Limes Camp and city in Numidia, situated 25 km south-west of Biskra, modern El-Kasbat. G. was part of the fortification system of the fossatum. A detachment of the legio III Augusta and the ala I Pannoniorum were here at various times. In the 4th cent. the praepositus limitis Gemellensis had its quarters in G. Evidence: Tab. Peut. 5,1; Not. Dign. Occ. 25,24. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2482; Suppl. 2, 17976-17985; AE 1969-1970, 222 no. 741(?); 1989, 287 no. 883.  Limes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Baradez, G., …

Thamugadi

(211 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Africa | | Coloniae | Limes City in the province of Numidia (Numidae), about 20 km to the east of Lambaesis (It. Ant. 34,1; 35,2; 40,7; Tab. Peut. 3,4), modern Timgad in Algeria. Founded in AD 100 by Munatius [II 4] Gallus as Colonia Marciana Traiana T. (CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 17842f.), probably the last pre-titular colonia [E] in Africa [3]. As the considerable remains show, the city swiftly flourished. Numidae influenced by the Poeni may have taken the cults of Caelestis, Saturn, …

Thuburbo

(292 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] T. Maius This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; Plin. HN 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,35; It. Ant. 48,9; Tab. Peut. 5,4), 65 km to the southwest of Carthage in the fertile valley of the Oued Miliane, modern Henchir Kasbat. The original Berber town was considerably Punicized [1. 300-302]; inscriptions [2. 885; 3; 4] and several buildings from the Roman period used by Punic cults are evidence of this process. From the time of Hadrianus a municipium [5. 244, 278], from the time of Commodus a colonia (CIL VIII 1, 848; [5. 26…

Mapalia

(123 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] At the latest since Sall. Iug. 18,8 and Verg. G. 3,340, mapalia was the common expression, for the Romans as well, for the straw huts of the Numidians. Some North African areas were also called mapalia: 1) an imperial domain between Hippo [6] Regius and Calama (Aug. Epist. 66); 2) a domain that was probably also imperial in the Bagradas Valley (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25902; 3) a dioecesis Mappaliensis as a district within a Numidian diocese (PL 67,198). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Dessau, s.v. M., RE 14, 1403 M. M. Magalhães, C. A. Sertá, M., Lo spazio urbano e il nom…

Kaputtasaccura

(76 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Caesariensis, in the vicinity of the limes, c. 30 km east of Altava, modern Chanzy. In the Severan period, a castrum was built in K. for the eq(uites) alae I Aug(ustae) Parthor(um) (CIL VIII 2, 9827f.). Additional inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9826; 9829f.; Suppl. 3, 21716-21718; cf. 22616-22618; Libyca 3, 1955, 186. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 32, no. 59 X. Loriot, Faltonius Restitutianus, in: AntAfr 6, 1972, 145f.

Gens Bacchuiana

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Africa proconsularis, in the valley of Oued Siliana near Tichilla and  Thubursicum Bure, modern Bou Djelida. Chief place of the gens Bacchuiana, under Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161), its administration lay in the hands of undecimprimi. Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12331-12340a; Suppl. 4, 23922-23930. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 34, no. 74.

Cercina

(186 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κέρκιν(ν)α; Kérkin(n)a). Island, or rather twin islands (Gharbi and Chergui), in the Gulf of Gabès, 20 km from Sfax, modern Kerkenna. Sources: Hdt. 4,195 (Κύραυις); Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM 1, 87); Str. 17,3,16; Mela 2,105; Plin. HN 5,41; Ptol. 4,3,35; Agathemerus 21f. (GGM 2, 483); It. Ant. 518,3f.; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 112 (GGM 1, 468). C. was part of the Carthaginian empire and boasted excellent harbours (Diod. Sic. 5,12,4). In historical sources, C. is mentioned in the context of …

Psylli

(213 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Ψύλλοι/ Psýlloi, Lat. Psylli). [German version] [1] Libyan people, settled on the Great Syrte Libyan tribe, settled on the Great Syrte (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 332). Their neighbours to the east were the Nasamones; to the south, the Garamantes. At the beginning of the 5th cent. BC the P. were forced to abandon their homes as the result of a catastrophic drought. During their search for a new homeland they were continually worn down by battles with other tribes. Their former territory was occupied by the Nasamones (H…

Utica

(582 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Ἰτύκη/ Itýkē). Town in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]) at the mouth of the Bagradas, 33 km north-west of Carthage, the modern Henchir Bou Chateur, with important archaeological remains (including mosaics in private dwellings); the oldest Phoenician colony on African soil (Ps.-Aristot. Mir. 134, = 844 a; Vell. Pat. 1,2,3; Mela 1,3,4; Plin. HN 5,76; 16,216; Sil. Pun. 3,241 f.; Just. Epit. 18,4,2; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἰτύκη/ Itýkē; [1. 35]). The Phoenici…

Aggar

(167 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
There were two towns in   Africa Byzacena of that name. [German version] [1] Town near Ksour es-Saf The first is mentioned in Bell. Afr. 67,1; 76,2; 79,1 (Plin. HN 5,30: oppidum liberum), its location to be found most likely near Ksour es-Saf close to the modern Maklouba. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] Modern Henchir Sidi Amara The second town, the modern Henchir Sidi Amara, was located in the plains of Kairouan, near Ousseltia. In AD 232, this peregrine town became a   municipium (CIL VIII 1, 714) and later a colonia (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12145). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AA…
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